Footnotes on the Lisa - Luttig Expedition, 1812

By James R. Kyle

{NOTE to the reader of these footnotes -- Let it be said that the observations of Mr. Luttig, as compared to that of Henry Breakenridge, are not as concise and are at best termed 'skimpy'; especially in the first of this narrative. --JK}

1. Bellefotaine -
About mile marker 7 on the Missouri river, on the south bank; just down from the mouth of Coldwater creek.

2. Mr. Immel- Perhaps Michael Immel, at one time an Officer in the U.S.A. a 'free hunter' on the Upper Missouri in the year 1810. {see Amer. Fur Trade in Far West, Vol 1, p. 153.

3. Charbonnier-
Pronounced Char-bow-neer, location at the down stream side of "Car of Commerce Chute"; mile marker 10.5 on the U.S.C.G. charts of 1990.

4. Located at mile marker 28
Now part of Earth City, industrial, and offices.

5. St. Charles.
This historic river town founded in 1767, was the last point of stopping for the early expeditions bound for a trip up the Missouri. Lewis and Clark stopped here, and left on the 21th of May, 1804.

6. Chouteau-
A 'founding' family of St. Louis, 1763-4

7. Mr. Majet-

8. Patroon-
A name of the man that was in charge of the helm, and chief commander of the same, when the owner was not present.

9. Mr. Richardson-

10. Burgois Creek-

11. Cote sans Dessin-
Translation from the French "Hill stands alone".

12. Mr. LaChapel-

13. Widow Cole-
About mile marker 157. The reader will take note that this is in "COLE COUNTY".

14. Blacksnake Creek-
Mile marker 165, at Sandy Hook?

15. Osage Island-
It is difficult to say just where this island was in the past, being that the Missouri river is a river of continual change. However, this Osage Island could have been at mile marker 167 and 173.

16. Osage Prairie-
This area possibly be that from mile marker 239 to 275. Along this part of the Missouri the Little Osage Nation lived near the one time Missouri Natives. The name "Missouri" translated into English would mean "People of The Wooden Canoes", as from their river craft -- the 'dug-out'.

17. Prairie du Fur-
Translated from French into English= "Prairie of Fire". The Osage people would burn off large areas to keep the heavy growth of timber from growing to extremes. Knowing that the deer and other game in the area liked a mix of vegetation and places to bed down. This firing of the land was also common to the Natives of the east, in the Carolinas.

18. Fire Prairie Creek-
This creek is located by mile marker 330.5, and is very much like it was in the early 1800's; being on the south bank of the Missouri.

19. Fort Osage-
The Federal fort was built in 1808 by William Clark. It was first called Fort William, and also known as Fort Clark. However, as we see here in 1812 the Fort was named for the Natives who populated the area. see article "The Fort That Clark Built", 'Backwoodsman Magazine', 1992, JK]

20. Capt. Climson-
At Fort Osage {also called Fort Clark, and William} he was in charge of the military post, while George C. Sibley was the "Factor" and "Indian Sub-Agent" of the Missouri river.

21. Robideau-
Joseph Robidoux, a trader and trapper of the lower Missouri river, and leading citizen of St. Louis. He had a "trading post" where now is the City of St. Joseph, Missouri. Town is named after him, though he was never 'canonized' as a "saint".

22. La Jeuness-

23. Louis Bijou-

24. Greenwood-

25. Laurison-

26. Santa Fe-
Here, at this place, Fort Osage, now a historic land mark, and Jackson County Park, is the beginning of the Santa Fe Trail.

27. Cansas River-
Kansas river, or Kaw river. Now area of "Downtown" Kansas City, Missouri Airport. Across the river and to the south bank of the Kansas river at its mouth, Pierre Chouteau had a post for trading with the Kansas Nation.

28. Little Platte river-
Now called the Platte, in the State of Missouri. Near the small town of Farley, Missouri.

29. Old Cansas Village-
This area would be around the small town of Winthrop, Missouri.

30. - Being the area of now City of St. Joseph, Missouri.

31. Nabowa River-
Sense the names of rivers and places change in the course of time, this could be the "Nodaway" river of today.

32. Sawyer-
A hazard of river navigation, a tree or part of one, and has is root stubs just under the surface of the water. At times these hazards would roll in the current and "saw" a boat partly into.

33. Nimohar River-

34. Wolf River-
A small river, on the Kansas State side of the Missouri river, in the area south of Forest City, Missouri.

35. Ichinipokins River-
This could be the Nishnabotna river??

36. Mahonir River-
Nemaha river of today.

37. Island Beaux Soleil-
Area along the Missouri river, north of Peru, Nebraska.

38. Le Cote Grand Brule-
Meaning= "The hill of the Grand, Burnt". A prominent landmark along the Missouri river on the Iowa side.

39. St. John-

40. Baptiste Latouipe-

41. River Platte-
The historic "mark" between the "Upper Missouri" and the "Lower Missouri" river. {see H.M. Breakenridge Journal, JK}

42. River Papillion-
In the area north of Belleview Neb., just to the west on State Highway 370 is a town by that name.

43. Mosquito River-
Could be the Boyer river of Iowa.

44. River Boje- ???JK

45. Point Jacques-
"James Point"?? JK

46. Council Bluffs-
{see the Breakenridge Journal, L & Clark Journals Vol. 1 P.96 - 99 }

47. Soldier River-
Somewhere north of DeSoto Bend. Mentioned in L & C Journals Vol.1 P. 101

48. Little Sioux River-
Mentioned in L & C Journals Vol.1 P.104

49. Coup Loysele-

50. Black Bird's Hill-
East of Winnebago, Neb. west of Sloan, Iowa. Chief Black Bird of the Mahas, died of in the smallpox scourge in 1799, 400 others of that tribe died also.

51. XXX

52. Mohaw River-
North of "Brown's Lake", Iowa. Here is where Sgt. Charles Floyd becomes very "ill" with erupted appendix, which will burst in another two days. Also Lewis shows air rifle to Chief Blue eyes.

53. Floyds River-
Named after Sgt. Charles Floyd. The only man to die on the "Corps of Discovery's Expedition, Aug. 20, 1804, first U.S. soldier to die west of the Mississippi river. {see L & C Journals, Vol.1 P.114}

54. Sun River-

55. Big Sioux River-
Just to the north of Sioux City, Iowa.

56. - Area of Ponca State Park, Neb.
Between here and the James river is the area where the Natives of all the nations in the West 'mined' the pipestone Catlinite or "pipestone", a form of red talc.

57. "small river named Iowa"-
Near Elk Point, North Dakota.

58. Vermillion River-
South of Clay County State Park, N.D.

59. River Arck-
The could be the Willow Creek {see L & C Journals, Vol.1 P.116 ). Area of St. Helena, Neb.

60. River Jacques-
Now the James river south of Mission Hill, N.D. Also known as the Dakota river.

61. Island of Bonhomme-
Translated "Good Mans Island" now under the Lewis & Clark Lake, held back by the Gavin's Point Dam.

62. Ponca Island-
Now under the Lewis & Clark Lake.

63. Little and Big Osage-
Two of the same, with little variance; Siouxian in language. The Little Osage lived next to the Missouris on the River Missouri near the present day town of Miami Junction.

64. Mahas-
Another name for the Omaha People. One of the main tribes of the Siouan Nation; they moved from Ohio, following the rivers. Their name means "against the current" or wind. {See L & C Journals, Vol.1 P.108 - 119}

65. Otoes-
The Oto people were a large body of the Siouan nation, the name means "The Lechers". After a large smallpox scourge they went to the Omaha tribe.

66. Yentons-
One of the seven main divisions of the Dakotas. They lived along the Missouri river in Iowa and the Dakotas, being of Siouan linguistic.

67. Immel & Lorimier-

68. Rees-
Another name for the Arikara, sometimes pronounced "A-Rick-A-Ree". A plains tribe which split off from the Pawnee in northern Nebraska. They were one of the most fierce tribes of the plains, outside of the Blackfoot.

69. Papin-
In reference to Louis Papin, of a prominent St. Louis founding family, Creole Canadian from Fort Detroit.

70. River Luipere-
L & C called this river the "White Paint", now the Bazile creek.

71. "another small River"-
L & C called this the "Rapid river".

72. Liquicourt River-
Perhaps the Chouteau river; named after the patriarch of the Chouteau family in St. Louis, Auguste, or Pierre.

73. Sanquinett-

74. "Island not far from Ponca River"-
L & C called this island "Pania Island".

75. Ponca River-
L & C called this the "Pocarar River" Perhaps Niobrara river, today.

76. Sioux Indians-
Could be any number of the Sioux groups and sub cultures.??

77. LeNez-
French translation into English "The Nose", Chief of the ?

78. White River-
South of Oacoma, S.D.

79. Little Cedar Island-

80. "Chief called, The Sleeper"-

81. "small River"-
Could be the Smith and Crow creeks of today. {see L & C Journals Vol.1 P.150}

82. Black Sky & Black Buffaloe-
Two Chefs of one of the Sioux Nations

83. Big Horse-
Native name "Shongotongo" Oto Chief, he was the Chief who L & C gave a Jefferson peace metal to in 1804.

84. Crooked Hand-
A very important Chief of the Otos.

85. Mr. Bijou-

86. Tatons-
Correct spelling Tetons, they were the western division of the Dakota-Sioux Nation; name means "People of The Prairie".

87. Shaunee-
Perhaps there is an error in the recognition of the "Shawnee", if that is what Luttig is identifying.

88. Bapteise Alar-
At this point of the voyage, Alar was fired my Manuel Lisa, Luttig says a "good for nothing".

89. Charles-
A Black slave owned by Manuel Lisa.

90. Immel-

91. - Now in the area of Big Bend Dam.

92. Big Bend, or Great Bend-
Sometimes known in the French name of "Grand de Tortu (Detour). Now under the waters of Lake Sharpe; named after an official of the American Fur Company, Joseph Sharpe. {see L & C Journals Vol.1 P.157}

93. Cedar Island-
Now at the bottom of "Lake Francis Case", formed by the Fort Randall Dam at Pickstown, S.D. {see L & C Journals Vol.1 P.155.} Also was the site of Fort Recovery, on the west bank was Fort Cedar (aux Cedres).

96. Cheyenne River-
L & C called this the "Chien", (French for dog), and "Dog" river. Area now at the bottom of Lake Oahe, back-up water from Oahe Dam north of Pierre, S.D..

97. Garrow-

98. Goshe-
A Chief of the Ree Natives.

99. Mauro River-
Moreau river; the same that Hugh Glass crossed in his "belly crawl" to the Cheyenne river and on to Fort Kiowa, in 1822. {see L & C Journals Vol.1 P.182 >> Native name was sounded "Sur-war-kar-na" L & C called it the "Park" or "Owl" River.}

100. Dougherty-
John Dougherty, an engage on many river trips with Lisa. In 1815 would become Indian Agent to the Missouri Territory and beyond till 1832.

101. Weir-

102. Grand River-
Empties into the Missouri River just up from Mobridge, S.D.

103. Fort-
"Lisa's Fort", built to trade in this area, located 12 miles below the Ree Villages at the "Big Knife river.

104. - "Village about 12 miles" at the mouth of the Big Knife river.

105. La Plume-

106. Village-
The Ree village.

108. Bigbellies-
A sect of the Blackfoot Nation, known as the "Gross Ventures", French for "Large Bellies".

109. Panis-
Members of the Pawnee, the Caddoan Nation; name means "Horn People", also "Men of Men" because they were used as slaves by many of the other Native tribes. The Pawnee never made war on the U.S.

110. Chayenne-
Cheyenne, part of the Algonquian Nation; driven from their home in what is now Minnesota they came to this place on the Missouri river. They were very active in the battle against Custer. They traveled about, lived in skin tepees, and the "Sun Dance" was one of their great ceremonies.

111. Nes Corbain-
Nez Corbain, A Sioux Chief, translated into English from the French "Broken Nose".

112. Chief Brone-

113. Gray Eye-
Gray Eyes, the principal Ree Chief, who later would pose a great problem for the Ashley-Henry men in 1822 at the Ree Village; Hugh Glass was thought of burying his mother after she died in 1822.

114. Big White-
The Big White, a chief of the Mandans, name in Mandan sounds like "She-He-Ke". {See Breakenridge Journal JK 1992}

115. 36 Packs-
One pack of beaver would weigh from 100 to 150 lbs.

116. Mandan-
The most unusual tribe on the face of the North American Continent. {see L&C Journals of 1804, winter} The Mandan people were totally wiped out, i.e. of the population of 1600, only 31 could get to their kinfolk the Hidatsa. - The Ariaka lost 2000 out of 4000 people in the time span of six months.

117. "Boat started for St. Louis"-
It was customary to send the keelboat back to St. Louis, to be fitted for the next years voyage. About half of the men would be engaged in this endeavor, while the other number stayed.

118. "Spanish waters"-
In reference to the area south of Santa Fe.?, perhaps California?

119. Wind River-
In the Crow Nation's area of the Rockies "Absaroka", "home of the Crows".

120. little Horn-
In reference to the Little Big Horn river.

121. Mercier-

122. La Chapel-
Carriere- Pascal Carrie - as earlier referenced.

NOTE: the items of 117 to 122 are in reference to that of dispatching different "brigades", or groups, of men to areas west of where they landed. It was Manuel Lisa that came up with the first idea of sending large units of men into the wilderness, and to "rendezvous" at another time after trading with the Natives, and bringing in a "harvest" of furs. NOT William Ashley.

123. Legross-
Le Gross Translated into English from the French means, "The Big".

124. Chaboneau-
This man, though he lived with the Mandans, and married to a captured slave women -- Sacegeweia -- was the most useless man of his time. Capt. Lewis and Clark had him on the Corps of Discovery and found that the only thing that he was good for was the fact that he had married a women that knew the land where they were going in 1804. He was responsible for the mishandling of the keel boat on the way up the Missouri on this expedition. He was so lazy that he never mastered the language of his wife; though she mastered his, and therefore was of great service to Lewis in 1804 - 1806.

125. Lecomte-

126. Crows-

127. Elie-
Captured in battle, the Snake is another name for the Shoshone Nation of people.

128. Saunie-

129. Manegre-

130. Little Crow-
A Mandan chief; {see L & C Journals Vol.1 P. 240, where he and his wife visits L & C.}

131. Legrand-
Possibly the same man as Le Gross.

132. Lajoie-

133. Gogal-

134. Woahl-

135. Chaine-
Pierre Chaine was a hunter and engage for St. Louis-Missouri Fur Co.

136. Camerad-

137. Bapiste Provost-
Could be Etienne Provost?? Provo, Utah is named after him; a very long traveled man. Later to be with the Ashley-Henry men, and was on the party along with Bridger when they found "South Pass", and is considered to be the discoverer.

138. Langue de Bache-

139. "about 6 miles above the Fort"-

140. Pierre Chaine-
As mentioned before.

140a. Pointsabir-

Not to be confused with the fort "LISA" at the mouth of the Big Horn river at the Yellowstone.

142. "5 miles above the fort"-

144. Baptiste, Antoine - a.k.a. Machecou-

145. Danis-

146. Duroche-

147. Cadet Chevalier-

148. Arepaos-
Arapaho Nation

149. Chaplain-

150. Lafargue-
la Farge,

151. Colla Glineau-

152. "singing the Chevelier"-

153. "Wife of Chaboneau a Snake Squaw"-
Here Luttig makes reference to the death of NOT Sacegeweia, for she was at this time in St. Louis with her son, but perhaps another woman that was a prisoner of the Mandans; because Luttig makes note of "SQUAW", meaning that she was more as a 'tool' to the man that owned her.

155. River Bullet-

156. Antoine Citoleux-

157. Latour-

158. Large-

159. "little Chajenne fork"-

160. Machesou-

161. Latour-
Machecou -- Duroch -- Joseph Laderoute-

162. River St. Peters-

163. Liet. Pike-
Lt. Zeboulin Pike, explorer for the U.States Gov. first U.S. Army expedition up the Mississippi river, and overland to the interior, discovered Pike's Peak.

164. Garrison on Salt River-

165. "4 Leagues"-
One league is equal to the distance of (3) three miles, so the distance was that of 12 miles or there about!

166. Archambeau-

168. Chaboneau and Laclair-
Even though Lisa did not think much of these men they were all that he had to send out that knew the situation of the area and the natives therein.

NOTE: When referencing L & C Journals, I refer to the "Complete Journals of Lewis And Clark" Published by "ARNO PRESS".

The reference to "The American Fur Trade In The Far West" a two volume set by Hiram Martin Chittenden. Other references from "The Dictionary of The North American Indians.

James R. Kyle


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