A Consultation Whether to Proceed by Land or Water- Preparations for Boat-Building.-
An Exploring Party.- A Party of Trappers Detached.- Two Snake Visitors.- Their Report
Concerning the River. - Confirmed by the Exploring Party. - Mad River Abandoned.-
Arrival at Henry's Fort.- Detachment of Robinson, Hoback, and Rezner to Trap.- Mr.
Miller Resolves to Accompany Them.- Their Departure.
0N the banks of Mad River Mr. Hunt held a consultation with the other partners as to
their future movements. The wild and impetuous current of the river rendered him
doubtful whether it might not abound with impediments lower down, sufficient to render
the navigation of it slow and perilous, if not impracticable. The hunters who had acted
as guides knew nothing of the character of the river below; what rocks, and shoals, and
rapids might obstruct it, or through what mountains and deserts it might pass. Should
they then abandon their horses, cast themselves loose in fragile barks upon this wild,
doubtful, and unknown river; or should they continue their more toilsome and tedious,
but perhaps more certain wayfaring by land?
The vote, as might have been expected, was almost unanimous for embarkation; for
when men are in difficulties every change seems to be for the better. The difficulty now
was to find timber of sufficient size for the construction of canoes, the trees in these
high mountain regions being chiefly a scrubbed growth of pines and cedars, aspens,
haws, and service-berries, and a small kind of cotton-tree, with a leaf resembling that of
the willow. There was a species of large fir, but so full of knots as to endanger the axe
in hewing it. After searching for some time, a growth of timber, of sufficient size, was
found lower down the river, whereupon the encampment was moved to the vicinity.
The men were now set to work to fell trees, and the mountains echoed to the unwonted
sound of their axes. While preparations were thus going on for a voyage down the
river, Mr. Hunt, who still entertained doubts of its practicability, despatched an
exploring party, consisting of John Reed, the clerk, John Day, the hunter, and Pierre
Dorion, the interpreter, with orders to proceed several days' march along the stream,
and notice its course and character.
After their departure, Mr. Hunt turned his thoughts to another object of importance. He
had now arrived at the head waters of the Columbia, which were among the main points
embraced by the enterprise of Mr. Astor. These upper streams were reputed to abound
in beaver, and had as yet been unmolested by the white trapper. The numerous signs
of beaver met with during the recent search for timber gave evidence that the
neighborhood was a good "trapping ground." Here, then, it was proper to begin to cast
loose those leashes of hardy trappers, that are detached from trading parties, in the
very heart of the wilderness. The men detached in the present instance were Alexander
Carson, Louis St. Michel, Pierre Detaye, and Pierre Delaunay. Trappers generally go in
pairs, that they may assist, protect, and comfort each other in their lonely and perilous
occupations. Thus Carson and St. Michel formed one couple, and Detaye and
Delaunay another. They were fitted out with traps, arms, ammunition, horses, and every
other requisite, and were to trap upon the upper part of Mad River, and upon the
neighboring streams of the mountains. This would probably occupy them for some
months; and, when they should have collected a sufficient quantity of peltries, they
were to pack them upon their horses and make the best of their way to the mouth of
Columbia River, or to any intermediate post which might be established by the
company. They took leave of their comrades and started off on their several courses
with stout hearts and cheerful countenances; though these lonely cruisings into a wild
and hostile wilderness seem to the uninitiated equivalent to being cast adrift in the
ship's yawl in the midst of the ocean.
Of the perils that attend the lonely trapper, the reader will have sufficient proof, when
he comes, in the after part of this work, to learn the hard fortunes of these poor fellows
in the course of their wild peregrinations.
The trappers had not long departed, when two Snake Indians wandered into the camp.
When they perceived that the strangers were fabricating canoes, they shook their
heads and gave them to understand that the river was not navigable. Their information,
however, was scoffed at by some of the party, who were obstinately bent on
embarkation, but was confirmed by the exploring party, who returned after several days'
absence. They had kept along the river with great difficulty for two days, and found it a
narrow, crooked, turbulent stream, confined in a rocky channel, with many rapids, and
occasionally overhung with precipices. From the summit of one of these they had
caught a bird's-eye view of its boisterous career for a great distance through the heart
of the mountain, with impending rocks and cliffs. Satisfied from this view that it was
useless to follow its course, either by land or water, they had given up all further
These concurring reports determined Mr. Hunt to abandon Mad River, and seek some
more navigable stream. This determination was concurred in by all his associates
excepting Mr. Miller, who had become impatient of the fatigue of land travel, and was
for immediate embarkation at all hazards. This gentleman had been in a gloomy and
irritated state of mind for some time past, being troubled with a bodily malady that
rendered travelling on horseback extremely irksome to him, and being, moreover,
discontented with having a smaller share in the expedition than his comrades. His
unreasonable objections to a further march by land were overruled, and the party
prepared to decamp.
Robinson, Hoback, and Rezner, the three hunters who had hitherto served as guides
among the mountains, now stepped forward, and advised Mr. Hunt to make for the post
established during the preceding year by Mr. Henry, of the Missouri Fur Company.
They had been with Mr. Henry, and, as far as they could judge by the neighboring
landmarks, his post could not be very far off. They presumed there could be but one
intervening ridge of mountains, which might be passed without any great difficulty.
Henry's post, or fort, was on an upper branch of the Columbia, down which they made
no doubt it would be easy to navigate in canoes.
The two Snake Indians being questioned in the matter, showed a perfect knowledge of
the situation of the post, and offered, with great alacrity, to guide them to the place.
Their offer was accepted, greatly to the displeasure of Mr. Miller, who seemed
obstinately bent upon braving the perils of Mad River.
The weather for a few days past had been stormy, with rain and sleet. The Rocky
Mountains are subject to tempestuous winds from the west; these sometimes come in
flaws or currents, making a path through the forests many yards in width, and whirling
off trunks and branches to a great distance. The present storm subsided on the third of
October, leaving all the surrounding heights covered with snow; for while rain had
fallen in the valley, it had snowed on the hill tops.
On the 4th, they broke up their encampment, and crossed the river, the water coming
up to the girths of their horses. After travelling four miles, they encamped at the foot of
the mountain, the last, as they hoped, which they should have to traverse. Four days
more took them across it, and over several plains, watered by beautiful little streams,
tributaries of Mad River. Near one of their encampments there was a hot spring
continually emitting a cloud of vapor. These elevated plains, which give a peculiar
character to the mountains, are frequented by large gangs of antelopes, fleet as the
On the evening of the 8th of October, after a cold wintry day, with gusts of westerly
wind and flurries of snow, they arrived at the sought-for post of Mr. Henry. Here he had
fixed himself, after being compelled by the hostilities of the Blackfeet, to abandon the
upper waters of the Missouri. The post, however, was deserted, for Mr. Henry had left it
in the course of the preceding spring, and, as it afterwards appeared, had fallen in with
Mr. Lisa, at the Arickara village on the Missouri, some time after the separation of Mr.
Hunt and his party.
The weary travellers gladly took possession of the deserted log huts which had formed
the post, and which stood on the bank of a stream upwards of a hundred yards wide, on
which they intended to embark. There being plenty of suitable timber in the
neighborhood, Mr. Hunt immediately proceeded to construct canoes. As he would have
to leave his horses and their accoutrements here, he determined to make this a trading
post, where the trappers and hunters, to be distributed about the country, might repair;
and where the traders might touch on their way through the mountains to and from the
establishment at the mouth of the Columbia. He informed the two Snake Indians of this
determination, and engaged them to remain in that neighborhood and take care of the
horses until the white men should return, promising them ample rewards for their
fidelity. It may seem a desperate chance to trust to the faith and honesty of two such
vagabonds; but, as the horses would have, at all events, to be abandoned, and would
otherwise become the property of the first vagrant horde that should encounter them, it
was one chance in favor of their being regained.
At this place another detachment of hunters prepared to separate from the party for the
purpose of trapping beaver. Three of these had already been in this neighborhood,
being the veteran Robinson and his companions, Hoback and Rezner, who had
accompanied Mr.Henry across the mountains, and who had been picked up by Mr.
Hunt on the Missouri, on their way home to Kentucky. According to agreement they
were fitted out with horses, traps, ammunition, and everything requisite for their
undertaking, and were to bring in all the peltries they should collect, either to this
trading post, or to the establishment at the mouth of Columbia River. Another hunter, of
the name of Cass, was associated with them in their enterprise. It is in this way that
small knots of trappers and hunters are distributed about the wilderness by the fur
companies, and like cranes and bitterns, haunt its solitary streams. Robinson, the
Kentuckian, the veteran of the "bloody ground," who, as has already been noted, had
been scalped by the Indians in his younger days, was the leader of this little band.
When they were about to depart , Mr. Miller called the partners together and threw up
his share in the company, declaring his intention of joining the party of trappers.
This resolution struck every one with astonishment, Mr. Miller being a man of education
and of cultivated habits, and little fitted for the rude life of a hunter. Besides, the
precarious and slender profits arising from such a life were beneath the prospects of
one who held a share in the general enterprise. Mr. Hunt was especially concerned and
mortified at his determination, as it was through his advice and influence he had
entered into the concern. He endeavored, therefore, to dissuade him from this sudden
resolution; representing its rashness, and the hardships and perils to which it would
expose him. He earnestly advised him, however he might feel dissatisfied with the
enterprise, still to continue on in company until they should reach the mouth of
Columbia River. There they would meet the expedition that was to come by sea; when,
should he still feel disposed to relinquish the undertaking, Mr. Hunt pledged himself to
furnish him a passage home in one of the vessels belonging to the company.
To all this Miller replied abruptly, that it was useless to argue with him, as his mind was
made up. They might furnish him, or not, as they pleased, with the necessary supplies,
but he was determined to part company here, and set off with the trappers. So saying,
he flung out of their presence without vouchsafing any further conversation.
Much as this wayward conduct gave them anxiety, the partners saw it was in vain to
remonstrate. Every attention was paid to fit him out for his headstrong undertaking. He
was provided with four horses, and all the articles he required. The two Snakes
undertook to conduct him and his companions to an encampment of their tribe, lower
down among the mountains, from whom they would receive information as to the
trapping grounds. After thus guiding them, the Snakes were to return to Fort Henry, as
the new trading post was called, and take charge of the horses which the party would
leave there, of which, after all the hunters were supplied, there remained seventy-seven. These matters being all arranged, Mr. Miller set out with his companions, under
guidance of the two Snakes, on the 10th of October; and much did it grieve the friends
of that gentleman to see him thus wantonly casting himself loose upon savage life. How
he and his comrades fared in the wilderness, and how the Snakes acquitted
themselves of their trust respecting the horses, will hereafter appear in the course of
these rambling anecdotes.