Wintry Storms.- A Halt and Council.- Cantonment for the Winter. - Fine Hunting
Country.- Game of the Mountains and Plains.- Successful Hunting- Mr. Crooks and a
Grizzly Bear.- The Wigwam. - Bighorn and Black-Tails.- Beef and Venison.- Good
Quarters and Good Cheer.- An Alarm.- An Intrusion.- Unwelcome Guests.- Desolation
of the Larder. - Gormandizing Exploits of Hungry Savages. - Good Quarters
THE travellers encamped for the night on the banks of the river below the cataract. The
night was cold, with partial showers of rain and sleet. The morning dawned gloomily,
the skies were sullen and overcast, and threatened further storms; but the little band
resumed their journey, in defiance of the weather. The increasing rigor of the season,
however, which makes itself felt early in these mountainous regions, and on these
naked and elevated plains, brought them to a pause, and a serious deliberation, after
they had descended about thirty miles further along the course of the river.
All were convinced that it was in vain to attempt to accomplish their journey, on foot, at
this inclement season. They had still many hundred miles to traverse before they
should reach the main course of the Missouri, and their route would lay over immense
prairies, naked and bleak, and destitute of fuel. The question then was, where to
choose their wintering place, and whether or not to proceed further down the river.
They had at first imagined it to be one of the head waters, or tributary streams, of the
Missouri. Afterwards they had believed it to be the Rapid, or Quicourt River, in which
opinion they had not come nearer to the truth; they now, however, were persuaded,
with equal fallacy, by its inclining somewhat to the north of east, that it was the
Cheyenne. If so, by continuing down it much further they must arrive among the
Indians, from whom the river takes its name. Among these they would be sure to meet
some of the Sioux tribe. These would appraise their relatives, the piratical Sioux of the
Missouri, of the approach of a band of white traders; so that, in the spring time, they
would be likely to be waylaid and robbed on their way down the river, by some party in
ambush upon its banks.
Even should this prove to be the Quicourt or Rapid River, it would not be prudent to
winter much further down upon its banks, as, though they might be out of the range of
the Sioux, they would be in the neighborhood of the Poncas, a tribe nearly as
dangerous. It was resolved, therefore, since they must winter somewhere on this side
of the Missouri, to descend no lower, but to keep up in these solitary regions, where
they would be in no danger of molestation.
They were brought the more promptly and unanimously to this decision, by coming
upon an excellent wintering place, that promised everything requisite for their comfort.
It was on a fine bend of the river, just below where it issued out from among a ridge of
mountains, and bent towards the northeast. Here was a beautiful low point of land,
covered by cotton-wood, and surrounded by a thick growth of willow, so as to yield both
shelter and fuel, as well as materials for building. The river swept by in a strong current,
about a hundred and fifty yards wide. To the southeast were mountains of moderate
height, the nearest about two miles off, but the whole chain ranging to the east, south,
and southwest, as far as the eye could reach. Their summits were crowned with
extensive tracts of pitch pine, checkered with small patches of the quivering aspen.
Lower down were thick forests of firs and red cedars, growing out in many places from
the very fissures of the rocks. The mountains were broken and precipitous, with huge
bluffs protruding from among the forests.
Their rocky recesses and beetling cliffs afforded retreats to innumerable flocks of the
bighorn, while their woody summits and ravines abounded with bears and black-tailed
deer. These, with the numerous herds of buffalo that ranged the lower grounds along
the river, promised the travellers abundant cheer in their winter quarters.
On the 2d of November, therefore, they pitched their camp for the winter, on the woody
point, and their first thought was to obtain a supply of provisions. Ben Jones and the
two Canadians accordingly sallied forth, accompanied by two others of the party,
leaving but one to watch the camp. Their hunting was uncommonly successful. In the
course of two days, they killed thirty-two buffaloes, and collected their meat on the
margin of a small brook, about a mile distant. Fortunately, a severe frost froze the river,
so that the meat was easily transported to the encampment. On a succeeding day, a
herd of buffalo came trampling through the woody bottom on the river banks, and
fifteen more were killed.
It was soon discovered, however, that there was game of a more dangerous nature in
the neighborhood. On one occasion, Mr. Crooks had wandered about a mile from the
camp, and had ascended a small hill commanding a view of the river. He was without
his rifle, a rare circumstance, for in these wild regions, where one may put up a wild
animal, or a wild Indian, at every turn, it is customary never to stir from the camp-fire
unarmed. The hill where he stood overlooked the place where the massacre of the
buffalo had taken place. As he was looking around on the prospect, his eye was caught
by an object below, moving directly towards him. To his dismay, he discovered it to be a
grizzly bear, with two cubs. There was no tree at hand into which he could climb; to run,
would only be to provoke pursuit, and he should soon be overtaken. He threw himself
on the ground, therefore, and lay motionless, watching the movements of the animal
with intense anxiety. It continued to advance until at the foot of the hill, when it turned,
and made into the woods, having probably gorged itself with buffalo flesh. Mr. Crooks
made all haste back to the camp, rejoicing at his escape, and determining never to stir
out again without his rifle. A few days after this circumstance, a grizzly bear was shot in
the neighborhood by Mr. Miller.
As the slaughter of so many buffaloes had provided the party with beef for the winter, in
case they met with no further supply, they now set to work, heart and hand, to build a
comfortable wigwam. In a little while the woody promontory rang with the unwonted
sound of the axe. Some of its lofty trees were laid low, and by the second evening the
cabin was complete. It was eight feet wide, and eighteen feet long. The walls were six
feet high, and the whole was covered with buffalo skins. The fireplace was in the
centre, and the smoke found its way out by a hole in the roof.
The hunters were next sent out to procure deer-skins for garments, moccasins, and
other purposes. They made the mountains echo with their rifles, and, in the course of
two days' hunting, killed twenty-eight bighorns and black-tailed deer.
The party now reveled in abundance. After all that they had suffered from hunger, cold,
fatigue and watchfulness; after all their perils from treacherous and savage men, they
exulted in the snugness and security of their isolated cabin, hidden, as they thought,
even from the prying eyes of Indian scouts, and stored with creature comforts; and they
looked forward to a winter of peace and quietness, of roasting, and boiling, and
broiling, and feasting upon venison, and mountain mutton, and bear's meat, and
marrow bones, and buffalo humps, and other hunter's dainties, and of dozing and
reposing round their fire, and gossiping over past dangers and adventures, and telling
long hunting stories, until spring should return; when they would make canoes of
buffalo skins and float themselves down the river.
From such halcyon dreams, they were startled one morning, at daybreak, by a savage
yell. They started tip and seized their rifles. The yell was repeated by two or three
voices. Cautiously peeping out, they beheld, to their dismay, several Indian warriors
among the trees, all armed and painted in warlike style; being evidently bent on some
Miller changed countenance as he regarded them. "We are in trouble," said he, "these
are some of the rascally Arapahays that robbed me last year." Not a word was uttered
by the rest of the party, but they silently slung their powder horns and ball pouches,
and prepared for battle. M'Lellan, who had taken his gun to pieces the evening before,
put it together in all haste. He proposed that they should break out the clay from
between the logs, so as to be able to fire upon the enemy.
"Not yet," replied Stuart; "it will not do to show fear or distrust; we must first hold a
parley. Some one must go out and meet them as a friend."
Who was to undertake the task! It was full of peril, as the envoy might be shot down at
"The leader of a party," said Miller, "always takes the advance."
"Good!" replied Stuart; "I am ready." He immediately went forth; one of the Canadians
followed him; the rest of the party remained in the garrison, to keep the savages in
Stuart advanced holding his rifle in one hand, and extending the other to the savage
that appeared to be the chief. The latter stepped forward and took it; his men followed
his example, and all shook hands with Stuart, in token of friendship. They now
explained their errand. They were a war party of Arapahay braves. Their village lay on
a stream several days' journey to the eastward. It had been attacked and ravaged
during their absence, by a band of Crows, who had carried off several of their women,
and most of their horses. They were in quest of vengeance. For sixteen days they had
been tracking the Crows about the mountains, but had not yet come upon them. In the
meantime, they had met with scarcely any game, and were half famished. About two
days previously, they had heard the report of fire-arms among the mountains, and on
searching in the direction of the sound, had come to a place where a deer had been
killed. They had immediately put themselves upon the track of the hunters, and by
following it up, had arrived at the cabin.
Mr. Stuart now invited the chief and another, who appeared to be his lieutenant, into
the hut, but made signs that no one else was to enter. The rest halted at the door;
others came straggling up, until the whole party, to the number of twenty-three, ,were
gathered before the hut. They were armed with bows and arrows, tomahawks and
scalping knives, and some few with guns. All were painted and dressed for war, and
had a wild and fierce appearance. Mr. Miller recognized among them some of the very
fellows who had robbed him in the preceding year; and put his comrades upon their
guard. Every man stood ready to resist the first act of hostility; the savages, however,
conducted themselves peaceably, and showed none of that swaggering arrogance
which a war party is apt to assume.
On entering the hut the chief and his lieutenant cast a wistful look at the rafters, laden
with venison and buffalo meat. Mr. Stuart made a merit of necessity, and invited them
to help themselves. They did not wait to be pressed. The rafters were soon eased of
their burden; venison and beef were passed out to the crew before the door, and a
scene of gormandizing commenced, of which few can have an idea, who have not
witnessed the gastronomic powers of an Indian, after an interval of fasting. This was
kept up throughout the day; they paused now and then, it is true, for a brief interval, but
only to return to the charge with renewed ardor. The chief and the lieutenant surpassed
all the rest in the vigor and perseverance of their attacks; as if from their station they
were bound to signalize themselves in all onslaughts. Mr. Stuart kept them well
supplied with choice bits, for it was his policy to overfeed them, and keep them from
leaving the hut, where they served as hostages for the good conduct of their followers.
Once, only, in the course of the day, did the chief sally forth. Mr. Stuart and one of his
men accompanied him, armed with their rifles, but without betraying any distrust. The
chieftain soon returned, and renewed his attack upon the larder. In a word, he and his
worthy coadjutor, the lieutenant, ate until they were both stupefied.
Towards evening the Indians made their preparations for the night according to the
practice of war parties. Those outside of the hut threw up two breastworks, into which
they retired at a tolerably early hour, and slept like overfed hounds. As to the chief and
his lieutenant, they passed the night in the hut, in the course of which, they, two or
three times, got up to eat. The travellers took turns, one at a time, to mount guard until
Scarce had the day dawned, when the gormandizing was renewed by the whole band,
and carried on with surprising vigor until ten o'clock, when all prepared to depart. They
had six days' journey yet to make, they said, before they should come up with the
Crows, who, they understood, were encamped on a river to the northward. Their way
lay through a hungry country, where there was no game; they would, moreover, have
but little time to hunt; they, therefore, craved a small supply of provisions for their
journey. Mr. Stuart again invited them to help themselves. They did so with keen
forethought, loading themselves with the choicest parts of the meat, and leaving the
late plenteous larder far gone in a consumption. Their next request was for a supply of
ammunition, having guns, but no powder and ball. They promised to pay magnificently
out of the spoils of their foray. "We are poor now," said they, "and are obliged to go on
foot, but we shall soon come back laden with booty, and all mounted on horseback,
with scalps hanging at our bridles. We will then give each of you a horse to keep you
from being tired on your journey."
"Well," said Mr. Stuart, "when you bring the horses, you shall have the ammunition, but
not before." The Indians saw by his determined tone, that all further entreaty would be
unavailing, so they desisted, with a good-humored laugh, and went off exceedingly well
freighted, both within and without, promising to be back again in the course of a
No sooner were they out of hearing, than the luckless travellers held another council.
The security of their cabin was at an end and with it all their dreams of a quiet and cozy
winter. They were between two fires. On one side were their old enemies, the Crows;
on the other side, the Arapahays, no less dangerous freebooters. As to the moderation
of this war party, they considered it assumed, to put them off their guard against some
more favorable opportunity for a surprisal. It was determined, therefore, not to await
their return, but to abandon, with all speed, this dangerous neighborhood. From the
accounts of their recent visitors, they were led to believe, though erroneously, that they
were upon the Quicourt, or Rapid River. They proposed now to keep along it to its
confluence with the Missouri; but, should they be prevented by the rigors of the season
from proceeding so far, at least to reach a part of the river where they might be able to
construct canoes of greater strength and durability than those of buffalo skins.
Accordingly, on the 13th of December, they bade adieu, with many a regret, to their
comfortable quarters where for five weeks they had been indulging the sweets of
repose, of plenty, and of fancied security. They were still accompanied by their veteran
pack-horse, which the Arapahays had omitted to steal, either because they intended to
steal him on their return, or because they thought him not worth stealing.