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Begin Quote: Book of Mormon Alma 46:11-14 11 And now it came to pass that when Moroni, who was the chief commander of the armies of the Nephites, had heard of these dissensions, he was angry with Amalickiah.

12 And it came to pass that he rent his coat; and he took a piece thereof, and wrote upon it--In memory of our God, our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children--and he fastened it upon the end of a pole.

13 And he fastened on his head-plate, and his breastplate, and his shields, and girded on his armor about his loins; and he took the pole, which had on the end thereof his rent coat, (and he called it the title of liberty) and he bowed himself to the earth, and he prayed mightily unto his God for the blessings of liberty to rest upon his brethren, so long as there should a band of Christians remain to possess the land--14 For thus were all the true believers of Christ, who belonged to the church of God, called by those who did not belong to the church. End Quote.

NOTICE: Arms though they be rocks, clubs, knives, arrows, bullets should be for the defense of "our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children!" December 2012

GUN CONTROL: Begins with trigger finger control,

then with bone control,

then with nerve control,

then with thought control.

In short GUN CONTROL is 'thought control' December 2013

Air Pellet Guns can be used to train new shooters; thus defraying

the artificial scarcity of the twenty-two--to maintain the gun culture.

Long live the Lewis & Clark Girandoni Air Rifle. March 2014

*(For those who do not want to read the details of the theory of Kinetic Pulse. It is simply: given two bullets of equal kinetic energy the heavier bullet with greater mass has greater Kinetic Pulse or punch;Similarly, the lighter bullet of less mass will disrupt less impact mass or splash. Both will release the same kinetic energy, but the heavier bullet will move greater target mass(ejecta) at lesser velocity than the lighter bullet and the lighter bullet will move less target mass(ejecta) at greater velocity than the slower bullet.)
Kinetic Pulse is the difference. Bullet construction is a factor also.
*

*
(Also for those who do not want to read the details of the theory of Kinetic Pulse. It is simply: given two bullets of equal kinetic pulse and equal velocity and equal mass, the greater diameter bullet will produce a shallower crater; similarly, the smaller diameter bullet will produce a deeper crater.. Both will release the same kinetic energy and will move the same target mass(ejecta).
Shape is the difference. Bullet construction is a factor also.
Now the details:
*

The debate goes on as to whether momentum or kinetic energy is the best

measuring rod for determining the effective striking power of a bullet.

Of course the obvious answer has somehow been obscured or avoided.

What is the answer? It is to merge somehow these two parameters of

bodies in motion . What is that merge and what empirical observation

could lead to a mathematical formula to represent this OTHER measuring

rod? The easiest start to dealing with the unknown is to name it and the

author takes this easy route and coins *KINETIC PULSE* as the name of

the new measuring rod.

Now we have *Kinetic Pulse* as our quick reference to a new method of

measuring a body in motion such as a bullet or a meteor. We will confine

our study to the ballistics of the bullet.

The formula for kinetic energy for a bullet in motion is :

ENERGY (in ft-lbs) = .5 times (mass in grains) times velocity squared all

divided by a number to represent slugs in mass or 225218

or symbolically:

ke = ( .5 * m * v ^ 2 ) / 225218 in units of ft-lbs.

1 grain which is 1/7000 th of a pound is equal to 1/ 225218 th of a slug.

Thus an 180 grain bullet = 180 / 225218 slug = .0007992 slug in decimals.

In order to get the correct ft-lbs of energy all
measurements will converted

to slug units of mass. Thus 1 grain unit in mass is equal to 1 / 225218 slug

or in decimals is equal to .0000044 slug or 1 gr = .0000044 slug.

NOTE! what a grain weighs will be different at higher altitudes than at

sea level. A slug was intended to be the amount of mass that represented

the acceleration of mass at sea level. This may be different at 4000 feet

or 10000 feet in the mountains of Utah. The mass is the same even in

outer space but the acceleration of 1 slug of mass at 100 miles high

will not be 32.17xxxx ft/s^2. It is difficult to find the exact number

for a slug except at sea level it is the same weight in pounds as the

acceleration of gravity at that altitude. Hopefully the calculations here

are accurate enough for practical purposes. I would appreciate an email

with the acceleration of gravity at sea level in feet / sec^2 to 10 places.

As of September 9,2002 settled on 225218 as it seems to matter very little

significantly.

The formula for momentum of a bullet in motion is momentum is equal to

mass times velocity and it's unit of measure is the (slug ft/sec) or

symbolically:

momentum = ( m * v ) / 225218 slug ft/sec.

225218 resolves mass in terms of grains which is the common unit of mass for

a bullet. There are 7000 grains in a pound. Or 7000 grains = 1 lb of mass

or .0310815 slug.

The force a bullet exerts on impact is a ratio to the time it takes to stop

the bullet divided into the momentum or symbolically:

Force = momentum / (time to stop) or F = mv/t

If a bullet hits an object and it stops in 1/10000 of a second the force

is for a bullet traveling a 2000 ft/s and weighing 180 gr is for example:

Force = ( ( 180 gr * 2000 ft/s ) / 225218 ) / .0001 = 15984.6 lbs .

That is if it stops in 2.4 inches of medium 15984.6 lbs is applied.

If a bullet hits an object and it stops in 1/1000 of a second the force

is for a bullet traveling a 2000 ft/s and weighing 180 gr is for example:

Force = ( ( 180 gr * 2000 ft/s ) / 225218 ) / .001 = 1598.46 lbs .

That is if it stops in 24 inches of medium 1598.476 lbs of force is applied.

If a bullet hits an object and it stops in 1/100 of a second the force is

for a bullet traveling a 2000 ft/s and weighing 180 gr is for example:

Force = ( ( 180 gr * 2000 ft/s ) / 225218 ) / .01 = 159.846 lbs .

That is if it stops in 20 feet of medium 159.8476 lbs is applied.

In all this slowing down in a medium the same energy is expended which is:

Energy = ( .5 * 180 gr 2000 * 2000 ) / 225218 ) = 1598.46 ft-lbs.

Now two bullets of the same momentum can have different energy content.

for example: a 360 gr bullet with a velocity of 1000 ft/s has the same

momentum of the 180 gr bullet with a velocity of 2000 ft/s which is:

momentum of 180 gr bullet = ( 180 gr * 2000 ) / 225218 = 1.59846 slug ft/s

momentum of 360 gr bullet = ( 360 gr * 1000 ) / 225218 = 1.59846 slug ft/s

energy of 180 gr bullet = ( .5 * 180 * 2000 * 2000 ) / 225218 = 1598.476 ft-lbs

energy of 360 gr bullet = ( .5 * 360 * 1000 * 1000 ) / 225218 = 799.238 ft-lbs

The lighter 180 gr bullet has twice the energy of the 360 gr bullet. This

means that the penetration of bullets will be the same due to the same force

on the medium; but, twice as much energy will be expended on the medium at a

right angle to the direction of penetration. This will cause a greater cavity

of impact; never the less, the same depth of penetration. This is assuming the

bullets are *geometrically the same dimensions and the same toughness* but

only differ in weight. This is done as in a comparison, so some factors can be

canceled. If you were to predict the behavior of an object of a given geometry

and a given medium to impact all factors must be determined. But we are

here only building a comparison and these can be ignored because they will

be assumed the same in both bullets.

How can we predict the size of the cavity or crater the impact will cause?

If two bullets of equal momentum penetrate the same. The depth of the

crater is directly proportional to the momentum of the bullet. Also the

displacement of medium away from the bullet travel is proportional to the

energy. That is twice the energy as the above example demonstrates then

twice the material of the medium is moved away producing the crater or

wound in the medium. Therefore the volume of displacement of the medium is

a product of both actions of kinetic energy and momentum. Then let us find

two different bullets that will hit the medium and produce the same volume

of displacement or cavity of impact or wound as it were. In other words

some combination of momentum and energy can create the same volume of

crater or wound.

momentum of 180 gr. bullet = ( 180 gr * 2000 ) / 225218 = 1.598 slug ft/s

energy of 180 gr bullet = ( .5 * 180 * 2000 * 2000 ) / 225218 = 1598.476
ft-lbs

momentum of 360 gr bullet = ( 360 gr * 1260 ft/s ) / 225218 = 2.014 slug ft/s

energy of 360 gr bullet = ( .5 * 360 gr * 1260 * 1259 ) / 225218 = 1268.87 ft-lbs

Notice the 180 gr bullet will penetrate 1.598 units into the medium and

also the 360 gr bullet will penetrate 2.014 units into the medium due to the

force translation into the medium from the momentum and the conservation

of momentum law of physics constant through the universe. Therefore the 180 gr

bullet will dispense 1598 ft-lbs along 1.598 units of medium penetration and

the 360 gr bullet will dispense 1268.870 ft-lb along 2.014 units of medium

penetration. The volume of the cavity or wound will be the same or

1.598 * 1598.476 is nearly equal to 2.014 * 1268.870 or 2566.922 close to 2567.404 .

The shallow penetration of the 180 gr bullet has greater splash or cratering.

Where the wound or crater of the 360 is narrower but deeper. But the volume

will nearly be equal.

Note! bullet construction, dimensions, toughness __does not__ change the volume

of the pock or crater or wound--

produces the same volume as the soft nose slug. So choose your slugs wisely.

Well enough for theory.

There is a clay pit west of Utah Lake in Utah county in Utah. After a rain

this pit is ideal for shooting bullets and measuring the pocks or craters

they produce. I consider this a simulation of the effect that ballistics

have in impact with a medium. Or I am satisfied in my mind that the theories

above fit the volume of the pocks or craters produce by bullet impact.

After pouring water into the craters of different bullets at different

velocities. The following empirical observations has derived a formula to

measure the wound or crater in clay. Which is that the volume of water that

is able to pour into the cavity produced is proportional to the energy times

the momentum or symbolically:

volume in crater of water =* f ** kinetic energy * momentum

where* f * is some factor to compensate for medium consistency. Since

the bullets were always fired into the same medium it can be eliminated.

I have named this "volume of the crater" as the KINETIC PULSE or

KILLING POWER ( if you are a hunter ) or for short reference as KP.

Guns are designed to be lethal so killing power is appropriate.

Of course KP could mean KINETIC PROTECTION for the defensive minded!

( KP can be considered a ** unit of measure **for the physics
purist. )

Therefore KP = kinetic energy * momentum or in symbolic formula using

the units of physics:

KP = (mv)(.5mv^2)

If you were an experience hunter which of these two calibers would you
take

hunting dangerous game? Based on energy the 30-06 wins but based upon

momentum the 45-70 gov wins. However if kinetic pulse or kp is used

it might be arguable which one really hits the hardest when it comes to

stopping the big game. Of course now days with modern guns the old

45-70 gov can be uploaded to greater pressures and is near the 458
mag.

But let us use the factory ballistics for this example:

45-70 gov

5617 kp 300 gr 1850 ft/s 2280 ft-lb 2.46 slug ft/s

6460 kp 400 gr 1600 ft/s 2273 ft-lb 2.84 slug ft/s

6091 kp 500 gr 1350 ft/s 2023 ft-lb 2.99 slug ft/s

30-06 springfield

5989 kp 150 gr 3000 ft/s 2997 ft-lb 1.99 slug ft/s

6287 kp 180 gr 2700 ft/s 2913 ft-lb 2.16 slug ft/s

6627 kp 220 gr 2400 ft/s 2813 ft-lb 2.34 slug ft/s

Now an example for the soldier. Which would you take into battle

the .45 acp or the 9mm luger? Below is typical data profile

specifications using the KP formula:

.45 acp

320.3 kp 230 gr 850 ft/s 368.9 ft-lb 0.868 slug ft/s

9mm luger

225.2 kp 115 gr 1200 ft/s 367.6 ft-lb 0.613 slug ft/s

Note the energy is nearly identical. But the *stopping
power is not!*

PS check the 200 yard specs!

.45 acp 200 yard specifications

240 kp 230 gr 772 ft/s 304 ft-lb 0.788 slug ft/sec

9 mm 200 yard specifications

95 kp 115 gr 900 ft/s 207 ft-lb 0.478 slug ft/sec

Obviously the 45 acp beats in every category at 200 yards but

who would use a pistol at 200 yards and could hit any thing.

However, I have seen a 45 acp 1911 bench shot at 100 yards with all 7

rounds in a 12 inch group.

BALLISTICS COMPARISON of PISTOLS AT 100 YARDS _____________________________________________ 380 Auto Mass = 95 Velocity = 835 Kinetic Pulse = 51.793 kp Kinetic Energy = 147.049 ft-lb Momentum = 0.352 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 417.500 E/M 7.62X25 Tokarev Mass = 85 Velocity = 1187 Kinetic Pulse = 119.112 kp Kinetic Energy = 265.881 ft-lb Momentum = 0.448 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 593.500 E/M 9mm Luger Mass = 115 Velocity = 1007 Kinetic Pulse = 133.121 kp Kinetic Energy = 258.895 ft-lb Momentum = 0.514 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 503.500 E/M 9mm Luger Mass = 147 Velocity = 909 Kinetic Pulse = 159.989 kp Kinetic Energy = 269.657 ft-lb Momentum = 0.593 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 454.500 E/M 45 ACP Mass = 230 Velocity = 816 Kinetic Pulse = 283.328 kp Kinetic Energy = 339.997 ft-lb Momentum = 0.833 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 408.000 E/M 357 Mag Mass = 180 Velocity = 1020 Kinetic Pulse = 338.929 kp Kinetic Energy = 415.757 ft-lb Momentum = 0.815 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 510.000 E/M 44 Mag Mass = 250 Velocity = 1057 Kinetic Pulse = 727.560 kp Kinetic Energy = 620.093 ft-lb Momentum = 1.173 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 528.500 E/M 45 Win Mag Mass = 260 Velocity = 1033 Kinetic Pulse = 734.533 kp Kinetic Energy = 615.944 ft-lb Momentum = 1.193 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 516.500 E/M 454 Casull Mass = 260 Velocity = 1427 Kinetic Pulse = 1936.344 kp Kinetic Energy = 1175.407 ft-lb Momentum = 1.647 slug f/s Energy/Momentum = 713.500 E/M

Now an example for the archer. Make sure the blades are sharp!

Ancient arrows have a blood groove for a reason.

arrow

27.82 kp 425 gr 250 ft/s 58.97 ft-lb 0.472 slug ft/s

.22 rim long rifle

30.81 kp 40 gr 1250 ft/s 138.76 ft-lb 0.222 slug ft/s

Which dog are you afraid of, the one with the big bark or,

the quiet dog with the long snarling teeth? Or does the

narrow bullet work as well as the thicker bullet? So here

we compare the 30-06 springfield with the 6.5 X 55 swedish

at different ranges. Please consider the 1000 yard figures:

6.5 X 55 swedish 140 gr full metal jacket

muzzle

4241 kp 140 gr 2800 ft/s 2437 ft-lb 1.741 slug ft/s

300 yards

2347 kp 140 gr 2299 ft/s 1643 ft-lb 1.429 slug ft/s

600 yards

1227 kp 140 gr 1852 ft/s 1066 ft-lb 1.151 slug ft/s

1000 yards

486.0 kp 140 gr 1360 ft/s 574.9 ft-lb 0.845 slug ft/s

30-06 springfield 150 gr full metal jacket

muzzle

5989 kp 150 gr 3000 ft/s 2997 ft-lb 1.998 slug ft/s

300 yards

3001 kp 150 gr 2383 ft/s 1891 ft-lb 1.587 slug ft/s

600 yards

1423 kp 150 gr 1858 ft/s 1150 ft-lb 1.237 slug ft/s

1000 yards

486.2 kp 150 gr 1299 ft/s 561.9 ft-lb 0.865 slug ft/s

For the caveman let us compare the 5.56 NATO with the spear

with a big ugly flint folsum point weighing 2 lbs total.

Caveman Spear

1316 kp 2 lb 88 ft/s 241 ft-lb 5.47 slug ft/s

5.56mm NATO at muzzle

1072 kp 55 gr 3300 ft/s 1330 ft-lb 0.81 slug ft/s

May this explain the extinction of some animals or not?

Now a word about recoil. Just like momentum determines the

depth of penetration of the bullet: recoil is determined by

momentum. Due to the law of the conservation of momentum,

whatever momentum goes out forward through the barrel also

goes backward in the other direction. There is no such

equality to energy or we would certainly be afraid to squeeze

the trigger. Now let us for simplification forget the powder

that also escapes the end in blast and heat and the weight of

shooters shoulder in our calculations. The recoil comes

from the momentum of the bullet. Let us take the 30-06

springfield 150 gr and the 6.5X55 swedish with the 140 gr

as above illustrated:

30-06 springfield 150 gr full metal jacket

muzzle

5988 kp 150 gr 3000 ft/s 2998 ft-lb 1.998 slug ft/s

6.5 X 55 swedish 140 gr full metal jacket

muzzle

4241 kp 140 gr 2800 ft/s 2437 ft-lb 1.741 slug ft/s

What is the recoil in terms of KP units if a 7.5 lb rifle is used?

30-06 springfield rifle with 7.5 lbs or 52500 gr

recoil-->17.11 kp 52500 gr 8.571 ft/s 8.562 ft-lb 1.998 slug ft/s

6.5 X 55 swedish rifle with 7.5 lbs or 52500 gr

recoil-->11.32 kp 52500 gr 7.468 ft/s 6.501 ft-lb 1.741 slug ft/s

The 6.5X55 swedish has superb reputation for accuracy but perhaps it

is due to the easy recoil properties that enable the shooter to hold down

the shots because the tendency to flinch seems to be reduced. Now it is

known that some percentage of the shooters mass is added to the gun

and reduces the felt recoil. That is why a woman with smaller shoulders

will feel more recoil than a bigger shouldered man. (Don't think she will

feel the same as you did!). It takes much experience to learn to roll with

the recoil and still shoot straight. A first shot if painful could take the

recreation out of shooting.

Please note here that the momentum of the recoil is equal to the bullet
momentum

in each case of the 6.5X55mm and the 30-06 springfield. Momentum is

distributed according to the rule--what goes out one end comes back the other

direction:

30-06 Momentum percentage = 50% of total 3.996 slug ft/s each direction

30-06 springfield bullet momentum is 1.998 slug ft/s

30-06 springfield rifle momentum is 1.998 slug ft/s

6.5X55mm Momentum percentage = 50% of total 3.482 slug ft/s each direction

6.5X55mm swedish bullet momentum is 1.741 slug ft/s

6.5X55mm swedish rifle momentum is 1.741 slug ft/s

30-06 Energy percentage = .285890% of total 3006.571 ft-lb for rifle
direction

30-06 Energy percentage = 99.997141% of total 3006.571 ft-lb for bullet
direction

30-06 springfield bullet energy is 2998 ft-lb

30-06 springfield rifle energy is 8.571 ft-lb

6.5X55mm Energy percentage = .266762% of total 2443.501 ft-lb for rifle
direction

6.5X55mm Energy percentage = 99.997332% of total 2443.501 ft-lb for
bullet direction

6.5X55mm swedish bullet energy is 2437 ft-lb

6.5X55mm swedish rifle energy is 6.501 ft-lb

30-06 KP percentage = .285228% of total 6005 kp for rifle direction

30-06 KP percentage = 99.99706% of total 6005 kp for bullet direction

30-06 springfield bullet KP is 5988 kp

30-06 springfield rifle KP is 17.108 kp

6.5X55mm KP percentage = .266133% of total 4252 kp for rifle direction

6.5X55mm KP percentage = 99.99733% of total 4252 kp for bullet direction

6.5X55mm swedish bullet KP is 4241 kp

6.5X55mm swedish rifle KP is 11.316 kp

The great invention of the ballistics is that 99.99...% of the energy
(also kp)

goes with the bullet and not to the shoulder of the marksman.

This is also the basis of the invention of *Kinetic Pulse* which
is that

penetration is due to momentum. Cratering is due to the kinetic energy

transferred on impact which causes the lateral movement of material
away

from line of penetration.

Now a parting shot or two about comparative ballistics. Energy alone
will

not determine the effective bullet performance. Note the differnce

between kinetic energy and the kinetic pulse in the charts below:

Comparative Ballistic Table in 100 yard increments Velocity/fps kp/400 Kinetic Energy/fp grs Muzzle 100 200 300 400 kp Muzzle 100 200 300 400 6.5x55 139 2790 2630 2470 2320 2163 1927 2403 2135 1883 1661 1444 270 Win. 130 3140 2885 2640 2405 2160 1678 2846 2403 2012 1670 1347 150 2800 2615 2345 2260 2080 1996 2611 2278 1975 1701 1441 30-06 Spr. 150 2970 2860 2400 2140 1923 1577 2938 2392 1918 1525 1232 180 2700 2490 2295 2110 1913 2236 2914 2478 2105 1779 1463

Details below:

6.5.55mm Swedish DISTANCE KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM Muzzle 4136.37 kp 139 gr 2790 ft/s 2402 ft-lb 1.72 slug ft/s 100 yd 3464.77 kp 139 gr 2630 ft/s 2135 ft-lb 1.62 slug ft/s 200 yd 2870.10 kp 139 gr 2470 ft/s 1883 ft-lb 1.52 slug ft/s 300 yd 2378.32 kp 139 gr 2320 ft/s 1661 ft-lb 1.43 slug ft/s 400 yd 1927.42 kp 139 gr 2163 ft/s 1444 ft-lb 1.34 slug ft/s 270 Winchester DISTANCE KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM Muzzle 5157.66 kp 130 gr 3140 ft/s 2846 ft-lb 1.81 slug ft/s 100 yd 4000.38 kp 130 gr 2885 ft/s 2402 ft-lb 1.67 slug ft/s 200 yd 3065.32 kp 130 gr 2640 ft/s 2012 ft-lb 1.52 slug ft/s 300 yd 2317.44 kp 130 gr 2405 ft/s 1670 ft-lb 1.39 slug ft/s 400 yd 1678.90 kp 130 gr 2160 ft/s 1347 ft-lb 1.25 slug ft/s 270 Winchester DISTANCE KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM Muzzle 4868.93 kp 150 gr 2800 ft/s 2611 ft-lb 1.87 slug ft/s 100 yd 3966.20 kp 150 gr 2615 ft/s 2277 ft-lb 1.74 slug ft/s 200 yd 3202.26 kp 150 gr 2435 ft/s 1975 ft-lb 1.62 slug ft/s 300 yd 2560.27 kp 150 gr 2260 ft/s 1701 ft-lb 1.51 slug ft/s 400 yd 1995.95 kp 150 gr 2080 ft/s 1441 ft-lb 1.39 slug ft/s 30-06 Springfield DISTANCE KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM Muzzle 5810.70 kp 150 gr 2970 ft/s 2938 ft-lb 1.98 slug ft/s 100 yd 4269.37 kp 150 gr 2680 ft/s 2392 ft-lb 1.79 slug ft/s 200 yd 3066.14 kp 150 gr 2400 ft/s 1918 ft-lb 1.60 slug ft/s 300 yd 2173.70 kp 150 gr 2140 ft/s 1525 ft-lb 1.43 slug ft/s 400 yd 1577.24 kp 150 gr 1923 ft/s 1232 ft-lb 1.28 slug ft/s 30-06 Springfield DISTANCE KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM Muzzle 6286.56 kp 180 gr 2700 ft/s 2913 ft-lb 2.16 slug ft/s 100 yd 4930.83 kp 180 gr 2490 ft/s 2478 ft-lb 1.99 slug ft/s 200 yd 3860.74 kp 180 gr 2295 ft/s 2105 ft-lb 1.83 slug ft/s 300 yd 3000.33 kp 180 gr 2110 ft/s 1779 ft-lb 1.69 slug ft/s 400 yd 2235.98 kp 180 gr 1913 ft/s 1462 ft-lb 1.53 slug ft/s Now here is a list various bullets and velocities that have thesame energywith in 10 ft-lbs. Note the kp and the slug ft/s. This should give one the feel that energy alone or momentum alone in not the final measurement. KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM 8601 kp 535 gr 1450 ft/s 2497 ft-lb 3.44 slug ft/s 8317 kp 500 gr 1500 ft/s 2498 ft-lb 3.33 slug ft/s 6360 kp 295 gr 1950 ft/s 2490 ft-lb 2.55 slug ft/s 5936 kp 255 gr 2100 ft/s 2497 ft-lb 2.38 slug ft/s 5181 kp 195 gr 2400 ft/s 2494 ft-lb 2.08 slug ft/s 4990 kp 180 gr 2500 ft/s 2498 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 4696 kp 160 gr 2650 ft/s 2495 ft-lb 1.88 slug ft/s 3706 kp 100 gr 3350 ft/s 2492 ft-lb 1.49 slug ft/s 3326 kp 80 gr 3750 ft/s 2498 ft-lb 1.33 slug ft/s This is a list of various bullets and velocities that have thesame momentummore or less. Note the kp and the energy ft-lb. This should give one the feel that energy alone or momentum alone in not the final measurement. KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM 1497 kp 600 gr 750 ft/s 749 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 1611 kp 565 gr 800 ft/s 803 ft-lb 2.01 slug ft/s 1906 kp 475 gr 950 ft/s 952 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 2152 kp 405 gr 1100 ft/s 1088 ft-lb 1.98 slug ft/s 2495 kp 360 gr 1250 ft/s 1249 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 2888 kp 310 gr 1450 ft/s 1447 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 3087 kp 290 gr 1550 ft/s 1547 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 3401 kp 265 gr 1700 ft/s 1700 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 3593 kp 250 gr 1800 ft/s 1798 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 3992 kp 225 gr 2000 ft/s 1998 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 4110 kp 220 gr 2050 ft/s 2053 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 4491 kp 200 gr 2250 ft/s 2248 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 4961 kp 185 gr 2450 ft/s 2465 ft-lb 2.01 slug ft/s 4990 kp 180 gr 2500 ft/s 2498 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 5618 kp 175 gr 2650 ft/s 2728 ft-lb 2.06 slug ft/s 5581 kp 165 gr 2750 ft/s 2770 ft-lb 2.01 slug ft/s 5776 kp 155 gr 2900 ft/s 2894 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 5988 kp 150 gr 3000 ft/s 2997 ft-lb 2.00 slug ft/s 7263 kp 140 gr 3350 ft/s 3488 ft-lb 2.08 slug ft/s In the examples used here no consideration was given to the diameter of the projectile. Therefore to answer the question as to what effect the diameter of the bullet or projectile or meteor has on energy, momentum or kinetic pulse, the following is given: The diameter or mushrooming of the bullet does not effect the energy or the momentum or the kinetic pulse (kp). However the shape of the crater or wound cavity is changed. A simple rule is that the larger the bullet is ;or, becomes through mushrooming, the more shallow the crater or wound. This is because the larger diameter bullet must move more material at once. The amount of material moved does not change--it must be emphasized to understand the impact shape. Soft point bullets were invented or used to take advantage of this effect as full metal jacket bullet tended to just pass through. Therefore no matter what shape or diameter the bullet the volume of the crater is the same. Meteors that hit the earth or moon will disintegrate upon impact and produce the widest shape craters. Also very high velocity bullets will disintegrate or "blow up" and produce superficial wounds. That is why you don't use the 25-06 to hunt elk unless you hit them. One thing that has not been considered is the rotation of a rifled bullet. Let us take the 30-06 with a 150gr bullet exiting the muzzle at 3000 ft/s. What is the rotational velocity of the bullet and what is the MAXIMUM POSSIBLE kinetic pulse and kinetic energy and momentum of this rotation? The bullet is .308 inches in diameter an moves down a 1 in 10" rifling twist. The outside circumference of the bullet is PI * .308 or .9676105 inches. The bullet rotates at: ((velocity) times (circumference of bullet) times (length of 1 foot divided by twist rate)) all divided by the number of inches in a foot. Or symbolically as: (v * Circumference / 12 / (twist rate)) / 12 Or numerically as: (3000 ft/s * .9676105 * 12 / 10 ) / 12 = 290.28316 ft/s The outer diameter of the bullet travels at 290.283 ft/s and the very center of the bullet does not travel at all--that is rotationally. Now let us pretend that the mass of the bullet is all in the surface of the bullet of 150 grains. This means the bullet is hollow. What is the maximum kinetic pulse, energy and momentum? 5.42 kp 28.061 ft-lb 0.193 slug ft/s 5988 kp 2997.142 ft-lb 1.998 slug ft/s By percentage: .09058 % kp .93625 % ft-lb 9.65965 % slug ft/s Remember most bullets are solid so these figure are very high and the actual figures are much less. It is nearer to one half or less of those values due to the shape of the bullet orjust rightAPPROXIMATELY:2.71 kp 14.03 ft-lb 0.0965 slug ft/s ^ This is the most significant and will | act at a 90 degree from the line of travel | and will cause greater bullet expansion and | cratering in the medium.(Note: we are not here figuring torque or force applied around a fixed radius as the torque of a bullet is not understandable in the chaos of impact in the medium crater. It must be set free of any rotation around an axis. Torque and moments of inertia imply a system within a machine where the force is applied around an axis.)The volume of the crater is increased slightly by the addition of 2.726 kp in the example above. The point here is to get an understanding of the effect of spin on bullet performance. It can be generally omitted in calculations for practical purposes. Spin does effect accuracy and distance of travel. As spin allows us to stabilize slender bullets of high sectional density. Therefore, it is still vital to modern ballistics. Let us put this into perspective with a car traveling 60 mph. What kind of units of measure discribe the accident of collision: 2 ton car traveling 60 mph hitting a tree. Mass = 2 tons Velocity = 88 ft/s Kinetic Pulse = 5,266,731,618 kp Kinetic Energy = 481,389.854 ft-lb Momentum = 10,946.678 slug ft/s Drive carefully. What makes a bullet slow down in air? Essentially two factors one is air friction and the other is the impact the bullet has with the mass of the air or the water in the air such as rain, fog, moisture. It is my opinion that friction plays a smaller part in the slow down of a bullet than that of the impact of the bullet with the mass of the air. We will assume it is not raining, as rain slows the bullet and disperses the impact. The grouping will be larger. An example of this is that the mass of the air takes off momentum from the bullet as it impacts the air molecules due to the conservation of momentum. Example: What is the mass of the air in grains and in slugs that a 30-06 180 gr bullet impacts with 400 yards of air, with the follow ballistics statistics. Weight Velocity 100 yd increments Energy in 100 yd increments in grains Muzzle 100 200 300 400 kp Muzzle 100 200 300 400 180 gr 2700 2490 2295 2110 1913 2235 2914 2478 2105 1779 1463 Momentum at the muzzle = 2.158 slug ft/s Momentum at 400 yards = 1.529 slug ft/s Difference in Momentum is .629 slug ft/s Average velocity is 2306.5 feet / second Mass of the air in slugs is momentum / velocity = .629 / 2306.5 = .000272 slug or in grains .000272 * 225218 = 61.258 grains of air hit by the bullet. Of course we are not figuring in the friction so the actual mass would be somewhat less but not much. Meteors heat up most probably not from friction but by the actual impact with the meteor with the mass of the air. This means that the air at high altitudes will slow the bullet less than at sea level. Answer is .000272 slugs or 61.258 grains of air in 400 yards of air.

Traditionally in mathematics a vector can be multiplied by a scalar and the magnitude of the vector is the product of the scalar and the magnitude of the vector with the resultant as a vector. Kinetic energy is a scalar. Momentum is vector as it acts in a direction. KP can be a vector as KP = KE*MV or Kinetic Pulse is equal to the product of the scalar Kinetic Energy and Momentum. This is symbolically represented as: Kinetic Pulse KP = (.5 * m * v^2) * (m * v) Now if a bullet is not 90 degrees from point of impact it will cause the KP to be at the instant of impact represented by two components according to the vector addition. If a bullet is shot at water 3 degrees from horizontal, what KP is the component of impact with the water 90 degrees to the surface of the water? Let us use a 30-06 180gr hitting water at 2690 ft/s with a total kinetic pulse of 6216 kp and kinetic energy of 2892 ft-lb and momentum of 2.150 slug ft/s. The vector of kp 90 degrees to the water is equal to SIN 3 degree times the total kp of 6216 kp or symbolically: resultant kp 90 degrees to water is kp(water) = sin(3) * kp(total) or numerically: kp(hitting water) = .052335956 * 6216 kp = 325.3 kp or approximately kp(hitting water) = 5.23% kp(total) This means 94.77% keeps on going in the direction of bullet travel and will probably bounce off the water at a certain angle. Shooting into lakes is not advisable for safety reasons.5.56 Nato or 223 Remington .224 diameter bullet DISTANCE KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM Muzzle 1071 kp 55 gr 3300 ft/s 1329 ft-lb 0.806 slug ft/s 100 yd 671 kp 55 gr 2824 ft/s 974 ft-lb 0.690 slug ft/s 200 yd 406 kp 55 gr 2389 ft/s 697 ft-lb 0.584 slug ft/s 300 yd 241 kp 55 gr 2004 ft/s 490 ft-lb 0.489 slug ft/s 400 yd 137 kp 55 gr 1666 ft/s 339 ft-lb 0.407 slug ft/s 500 yd 77 kp 55 gr 1374 ft/s 231 ft-lb 0.336 slug ft/s 600 yd 46 kp 55 gr 1157 ft/s 163 ft-lb 0.283 slug ft/s 7.62x39mm or AK 47 Standard round .310 diameter bullet DISTANCE KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM Muzzle 2061 kp 123 gr 2400 ft/s 1573 ft-lb 1.311 slug ft/s 100 yd 1424 kp 123 gr 2122 ft/s 1229 ft-lb 1.159 slug ft/s 200 yd 971 kp 123 gr 1867 ft/s 951 ft-lb 1.020 slug ft/s 300 yd 655 kp 123 gr 1638 ft/s 732 ft-lb 0.895 slug ft/s 400 yd 433 kp 123 gr 1427 ft/s 556 ft-lb 0.779 slug ft/s 500 yd 289 kp 123 gr 1249 ft/s 426 ft-lb 0.682 slug ft/s 600 yd 206 kp 123 gr 1114 ft/s 338 ft-lb 0.608 slug ft/s The only thing I can say about the 5.56 Nato isJust how does the 5.56 Nato and 7.62x39mm compare?rebore all the riflesto 6 mm and use a 70 gr bullet with the same case and the ballistics will greatly improve with only 15 gr weight per bullet increase! 6 mm Nato with a 70 gr .244 diameter bullet and a 223 remington/5.56 Nato case. DISTANCE KINETIC PULSE WEIGHT VELOCITY ENERGY MOMENTUM Muzzle 1435 kp 70 gr 3100 ft/s 1494 ft-lb 0.964 slug ft/s 100 yd 1014 kp 70 gr 2759 ft/s 1183 ft-lb 0.858 slug ft/s 200 yd 702 kp 70 gr 2441 ft/s 926 ft-lb 0.759 slug ft/s 300 yd 480 kp 70 gr 2150 ft/s 718 ft-lb 0.668 slug ft/s 400 yd 323 kp 70 gr 1883 ft/s 551 ft-lb 0.585 slug ft/s 500 yd 177 kp 70 gr 1544 ft/s 371 ft-lb 0.480 slug ft/s 600 yd 140 kp 70 gr 1425 ft/s 315 ft-lb 0.443 slug ft/s This appears to give a 34% increase in kinetic pulse and a down range velocity increase of 268 ft/s at 600 yards. Also the bullet will hit 11 inches higher at 600 yards suggesting flatter trajectory. And will add approximately 3.5 oz per 100 rounds of carrying weight. Perhaps that weight increase is worth the improved performance. BETTER YET USE THE 6.8 Remington SPC with the 270 bullet but the cost of conversion is greater. 6.8 Remington SPC Ballistics chart Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. Muzzle 100 yd. 200 yd. 300 yd. 115-gr. FMJ 2,800 2,523 2,202 2,017 2,002 1,622 1,250 1,039 115-gr. BTHP 2,800 2,535 2,285 2,049 2,002 1,644 1,345 1,075 115-gr. MK 2,800 2,535 2,285 2,049 2,002 1,644 1,345 1,075 *24-inch Barrel BALLISTICS COMPARISON VARIABLES for the 6.8 Remington SPC Mass = 115 Velocity = 2800 Kinetic Pulse = 2861.762 kp Kinetic Energy = 2001.616 ft-lb Momentum = 1.430 slug ft/sec Energy/Momentum = 1400.000 E/M Mass = 115 Velocity = 2523 Kinetic Pulse = 2093.685 kp Kinetic Energy = 1625.172 ft-lb Momentum = 1.288 slug ft/sec Energy/Momentum = 1261.500 E/M Mass = 115 Velocity = 2202 Kinetic Pulse = 1391.911 kp Kinetic Energy = 1237.939 ft-lb Momentum = 1.124 slug ft/sec Energy/Momentum = 1101.000 E/M Mass = 115 Velocity = 2017 Kinetic Pulse = 1069.737 kp Kinetic Energy = 1038.668 ft-lb Momentum = 1.030 slug ft/sec Energy/Momentum = 1008.500 E/M I have read in Parker O. Ackley's (Utah gunsmith) fine reloading book the discussion ofhydrostatic shockin tissue. I also have personal experience with this effect in certain mediums. I believe that there is a pressure wave created when the bullet hits tissue at speeds greater than 2800+ ft/s. This may be due the speed of sound in tissue. This means that the tissue on impact can not bounce off the bullet and accumulates as a wave in front of the bullet travel path. This has the effect of making the medium more dense and increases the transfer of momentum or depletion of momentum from the bullet. Simply this means the bullet will penetrate less than if it were traveling slower (that is less than 2800 ft/s). Thus more energy per unit of bullet penetration is expended. The 5.56 NATO drops below 2800 ft/s around 100 yards. What this all means is there will be an explosive impact at distances under 100 yards. This is perhaps greater at 25 yards than 75 yards due to the rapid loss of energy during bullet travel in air. If you hit water with a hammer on a cement side walk you can observe that the water travels at much higher velocity than the velocity of the hammer in the first place. Thus an expanding bullet can create ahydrostatic shockby mushrooming and forcing the medium or tissue to have to move around the bullet even though it is traveling less than 2800 ft/s. This is similar to the water at the face of the hammer is accelerated when hit on a hard surface. The tissue become like a hard surface. Anyone who has 'belly flopped' can attest to the slap of the water effect. So the 5.56 NATO will slap energy into the wound cavity at speed greater than 2800 ft/s or at distances under 100 yards. Therefore at ranges beyond 100 yards thehydrostatic shockmay not be seen unless a bone is hit or the bullet is tumbling. Note: Larger diameter bullets will cause greater pressure waves but then they slow down in air to below 2800 ft/s faster also. I guess what I am suggesting is that at different velocities the medium of impact behaves by way of resistance differently. For example by personal experiments I have shot arrows into water 20 feet down into water and hit objects. Also I have shot bullets into water and the bullet never goes that deep. Another example: I was ask to test a new bullet proof plastic that was to be used in a secure area. I chose the 30-06 180gr to make tests and the standard military ball of full metal jacket. The bullets bounce off the material with a big dent and came near hitting me at some yards back. Then because of the near wound experience I took a .22 rimfire and stepped to the side a ways and let fly with the semi-auto .22 and after part of box of 50 I examined the plastic. The .22 penetrated the plastic and fragments of lead went completely through with sufficient velocity to penetrate the wood box it was leaning against. Who knew the .22 would make the 'bullet proof' plastic unsafe. (Actually only one .22 rimfire was needed to penetrate the plastic as it was discovered that the lead would heat up the plastic on impact and soften allowing the flattened lead bullet to squeeze through a rupture in the softened plastic. It appeared that when the plastic was slightly heated it would greatly lose its strength. The .22 would penetrate the warm plastic. Perhaps the 30-06 was going too fast to heat the plastic to penetrate.) The hydrostatic shock that is being referred to here is not the wave of pressure that would go through the whole body of tissue (as some think) but the reaction of the medium of going to the next level of resistance and build a wall of greater momentum absorption. If the material medium does this there will be sudden release of remaining bullet energy to make very shallow but wide crater especially if the bullet blows up. I was hunting with my brother in the Utah mountains and a buck at 200 yards showed up and my brother with a 6 mm Remington with 100 gr bullet hit the front shoulder and the bullet splash off the deer and the wound was wide and the bullet fragmented I followed the deer for hours till it was downed. This was a max loaded 6 mm with soft point bullets. I should have loaded Noslers or Barns and the deer would not have gone anywhere. The point is, at different velocities in a medium the medium does not absorb momentum equally or linearly. There is a curve of resistance. P. O. Ackley could be wrong about the hydraulic wave of whole body damage. But Perhaps at 2800 ft per second the animal tissue will adsorb greater momentum per distance traveled in the medium causing greater energy release. Otherwise there is no explanation for explosive wounds with the 5.56 NATO. The 5.56 NATO is a very short range military piece. It also has endangered our soldiers due to inconsistencies. I have shot 5 gallon plastic jugs of water with slow moving bullets and they just pass through. At high velocity the same bullets never go the distance and break up in pieces even with full metal jackets. The water gets 'harder' at higher velocities. Perhaps this is a hydrostatic shock. Water can only get out of the way so fast. When the water can NOT move away it piles up in front of the bullet and offers greater momentum drain off per distance of penetration. If this happens BANG the energy is released faster per distance of penetration due the the universal laws of physics. Obviously more experiments are warranted to study so back to the reloading bench for the next plinking trip. Update from plinking trip as of Oct 27,2001: Date of test October 27, 2001 3:00pm Bright Sunny day. Rifle Ruger Mini 14 .223 cal or 5.56 Nato chambering. Both bullets were fired forty feet from test material. The test was with two sets of three plastic bottles of water and a backstop of two plywood sheets of 1/2" and 3/4" thickness 2 feet apart. The 1/2" plywood was in front of the 3/4" plywood sheet. Two bottles were of 1 quart each. Four bottles were of 1 gallon each. The quart bottles were in front of the two gallon bottles in front of the plywood back stops for each trial. The bottles were 1/2" apart. The bottles were 6" in front of the 1/2" plywood and the 3/4" plywood was 24" behind further. Hot load was 55gr full metal jackets on top of 23 grains of 2230 for a velocity of 3200 ft/s. Soft load was 55gr full metal jackets on top of 18 grains of 2230 for a velocity of 2650 ft/s. RESULTS: Hot load: First quart bottle penetrated both sides clean no bottle rupture. Second gallon bottle penetrated both sides with explosive rupture and energy display. Third gallon bottle penetrated both sides with mild explosive rupture. Forth plywood 1/2" hit but not penetrated. Fifth plywood 3/4" not touched. Total remaining bullet weight is 49 grains. Could not find missing 6 grains of lead. Bullet intact with flattened shape only loss of lead from shape distortion with no loss of jacket. Soft load: First quart bottle penetrated both sides clean no bottle rupture. Second gallon bottle penetrated both sides with explosive rupture and energy display but not as great. Third gallon bottle penetrated both sides with mild explosive rupture. Forth plywood 1/2" hit and completely penetrated. Fifth plywood 3/4" hit and penetrated 1/2" as bullet stuck in board. Total remaining bullet weight is 53 grains counting small lead extrusion. Total remaining bullet weight is 46 grains not counting small lead extrusion. Found lead extrusion from misshapen bullet. Bullet intact with flattened shape only loss of lead from shape distortion with no loss of jacket. Pictures of the actual bullets The conclusion is that the higher velocity bullet met up with greater resistance and stopped with less penetration but with greater 90 degree energy display. Also the slower bullet penetrated more material with less 90 degree energy display. Perhaps P. O. Ackly was right about the 2800+ ft/s hydro static shock effect. If I were hunting big dangerous game I think that I would use aHEAVY SLOW MOVING BULLET. Addendum to the above test:

February 18,2002 Monday. Another sunny day at the usual place the shooting pit. This time the test is with the .45 ACP with 230 grain military ball. This test involved five one gallon jugs of water of the same dimensions as the 5.56 NATO test above. The distance from the jugs which were in a straight row is forty feet from the test gun. The test gun is a Brolin 'colt wanabee' 45 acp. Results of the test was two shots. The first shot missed everything. I was surprised as my son said "Dad you missed!" I said "Tell me about it." This was newly acquired gun which I had never fired before. The second shot hit the string of bottles dead center and passed through all five bottles rupturing the plastic and all were immediately empty but the last bottle retained some water of about a half quart. The bullet hit the dirt bank behind and was retrieved. The bullet buried itself in the embankment three inches.

Pictures of the .45 acp bullet

Conclusion is that slow moving bullet do. according to the momentum factor which is .868 slug ft/s for the .45 pistol and .806 slug ft/s for the 5.56 Nato or .223 Remington Ruger Mini 14. 45 ACP 230 grain Muzzle 320.25 kp 230 gr 850 ft/s 368.926 ft-lb 0.868 slug ft/s 5.56 Nato 55 grain Muzzle 1071 kp 55 gr 3300 ft/s 1329 ft-lb 0.806 slug ft/s What does it mean when a cartidge is said to be efficient? When a cartidge with a certain range of bullets have kinetic energy and momentum peak together then maximum kinetic pulse is possible. If for example kinetic energy peaks with 150 gr bullets and momentum peaks with 180 gr bullets the pressure curves are not designed right. But if the kinetic energy peaks at 165 grains and the momentum also peaks at 165 grains then there is efficiency in the pressure curves of the powder and cartidge dimensions. If you want a certain bullet to get maximum benefit from the cartridge design and powder then the momentum and the kinetic energy should reach maximum with this weight bullet. I will use the 6.5x55mm and 7x57mm Mauser as an illustrations: 6.5x55mm Swedish Weight Velocity Kinetic Pulse Kinetic Energy Momentum 100 gr 3090 ft/s 2908 kp 2120 ft-lb 1.372 slug ft/s 120 gr 3000 ft/s 3832 kp 2398 ft-lb 1.598 slug ft/s 129 gr 2880 ft/s 3917 kp 2375 ft-lb 1.650 slug ft/s 140 gr 2790 ft/s 4197 kp 2415 ft-lb 1.734 slug ft/s <-- best 150 gr 2620 ft/s 3989 kp 2286 ft-lb 1.745 slug ft/s 160 gr 2480 ft/s 3848 kp 2185 ft-lb 1.762 slug ft/s Anyone who has used the 6.5x55mm with different bullets find that the 140 gr is hard to beat for flat shooting and hard hitting. I personally do not use the other weight bullets at all. 7x57mm Mauser Weight Velocity Kinetic Pulse Kinetic Energy Momentum 100 gr 3200 ft/s 3230 kp 2273 ft-lb 1.421 slug ft/s 120 gr 3000 ft/s 3832 kp 2398 ft-lb 1.598 slug ft/s 130 gr 2886 ft/s 4004 kp 2404 ft-lb 1.666 slug ft/s 140 gr 2800 ft/s 4241 kp 2437 ft-lb 1.741 slug ft/s 150 gr 2736 ft/s 4543 kp 2493 ft-lb 1.822 slug ft/s 162 gr 2626 ft/s 4684 kp 2480 ft-lb 1.889 slug ft/s <-- best 175 gr 2457 ft/s 4478 kp 2345 ft-lb 1.909 slug ft/s 195 gr 2290 ft/s 4501 kp 2270 ft-lb 1.983 slug ft/s P. O. Ackley has stated that the 7x57mm Mauser is probably the most efficient cartridge ever developed. Perhaps he was right. These numbers are impressive. Therefore the most efficient bullet weight to use with the 7x57 is the 160 grain bullet. Although the other bullet weights are close. This suggest a very well designed cartridge. Since the 7x57mm is over 110 years old and still going strong attest to the veracity of these good numbers! The kp rating of 130 grain to 195 grains is very flat of 4023 kp to 4522 kp. It is too bad the cartidge manufactures underload this round. Handloaders can make this 7x57mm Mauser sing in a modern rifle. How does the ratio of energy to momentum help understand ballistics. The ratio can be named energy per momentum. energy per momentum or E/M = (.5mv^2 / mv) (ft-lb/slug ft/s). E/M is directly proportional to velocity as it is numerically one half velocity. Therefore a indespensible measure of ballistic properties is velocity and must be always included in data to get the full parametric discription of the bullet or projectiles action on impact. This means that a bullet that has 2270.632 ft-lb of energy and 1.983 slugs ft/s traveling 2290 ft/s will have .5 * 2290 (ft-lb)/(slug ft/s) or 1135 (ft-lb/slug ft/s) or E/M = 1135 To illustrate with an example for comparison of two cartridges of similar momentum but divergent energy: 45 ACP 230 grain has 425.03 E/M Muzzle 320.25 kp 230 gr 850 ft/s 368.926 ft-lb 0.868 slug ft/s 5.56 Nato 55 grain has 1648.88 E/M Muzzle 1071 kp 55 gr 3300 ft/s 1329 ft-lb 0.806 slug ft/s This math says that the 5.56 Nato is more 'explosive' so to speak. But that is obvious. Does bullet construction and weight really have that much importances? We will go to the scenario to find out. Let us take one shot at a rabid bear with the following ballistics: 1 shot total kp of 1886 kp, total energy 971 ft-lb, total 1.943 slug ft/s with 1 ounce slug Weight Velocity KP Kinetic Energy Momentum 437.5 gr 1000 ft/s 1886 kp 971 ft-lb 1.943 slug ft/s OR Let us take two shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics: 2 shots with total kp of 943 kp, total energy 971 ft-lb, total 1.943 slug ft/s with 1/2 ounce slugs Weight Velocity KP Kinetic Energy Momentum 218.75 gr 1000 ft/s 471 kp 486 ft-lb 0.971 slug ft/s OR Let us take four shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics: 4 shots with total kp of 471 kp, total energy 971 ft-lb, total 1.943 slug ft/s with 1/4 ounce buck shot Weight Velocity KP Kinetic Energy Momentum 109.375 gr 1000 ft/s 117 kp 242 ft-lb 0.486 slug ft/s OR Let us take eight shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics: 8 shots with total kp of 234 kp, total energy 971 ft-lb, total 1.943 slug ft/s with 1/8 ounce buck shot Weight Velocity KP Kinetic Energy Momentum 54.6875 gr 1000 ft/s 29.5 kp 121 ft-lb 0.243 slug ft/s OR Let us take sixteen shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics: 16 shots with total kp of 117 kp, total energy 971 ft-lb, total 1.943 slug ft/s with 1/16 ounce buck shot Weight Velocity KP Kinetic Energy Momentum 27.34375 gr 1000 ft/s 7.369 kp 60.706 ft-lb 0.121 slug ft/s OR Let us take thirty two shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics: 32 shots with total kp of 59 kp, total energy 971 ft-lb, total 1.943 slug ft/s with 1/32 ounce pellets Weight Velocity KP Kinetic Energy Momentum 13.671875 gr 1000 ft/s 1.842 kp 30.353 ft-lb 0.061 slug ft/s OR Let us OR take sixty four shots at a rabid bear with the following ballistics: 64 shots with total kp of 29 kp, total energy 971 ft-lb, total 1.943 slug ft/s with 1/64 ounce pellets Weight Velocity KP Kinetic Energy Momentum 6.8359375 gr 1000 ft/s 0.461 kp 15.177 ft-lb 0.030 slug ft/s Now all shooting sessions expended the same energy and the same momentum but which session would you most likely could survive? For me and mine I would take the single shot with the 1985 kp rating. The sixty four shots with the 1000 ft/s 6.84 gr pellets is no better that hunting with a pellet gun. Even though the total energy and momentum was the same the results would be a hunter up a tree at best. HOPE THAT BEAR CAN'T CLIMB TREES! This whole scenario is to demonstrate that bullet construction and weight is of prime importances to bullet impact and Kinetic Pulse. Also this is the same thing that happens when a shotgun hunter selects the right size pellet for the shot in the "skatter gun". It is known that some pellets don't even get through the feathers. For the math wizzard the above formulas are based upon the fact that adding the kp of two bullets of 1/2 the weight is not equal to the Kinetic Pulse of a single bullet of one bullet of double the weight. Adding the kp of two bullets of mass m: (1/2 m * v^2) * (m * v) + (1/2 m * v^2) * (m * v) = m^2v^2(1/2v + 1/2v) = m^2v^3 This is the total kp of the two bullets kp = m^2v^3 Adding the kp of ONE bullet of mass 2m or m + m. (1/2 (2m) * v^2) * ((2m) * v) = mv^2 * 2mv = 2 * m^2v^3 Adding the kp in the formula for a single bullet kp = 2 * m^2v^3 For the physics guru the momentum transfer is the reason that kp diminishes when the bullets separate. It is not just the air resistance increase alone. That is why shotguns at a distance are not as effective as right up close with the pack of pellets nearly act as one bullet! Where does the Shotgun Slug rate in hitting power among big guns as legend has it these guns are heavy hitters? Using the Ballistics Data from the Remington Catalog the following specs for the 12 gauge slug are: 45-70 Gov at 100 yards Mass = 405 Velocity = 1168penetrate plenty and deepKinetic Energy = 1226 ft-lb Momentum = 2.100 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 583 .444 Marlin at 100 yards Mass = 240 Velocity = 1815Kinetic Pulse = 2576 kpKinetic Energy = 1755 ft-lb Momentum = 1.934 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 907 12 gauge slug shotgun 1 oz load at 100 yards Mass = 437 Velocity = 1283Kinetic Pulse = 3395 kpKinetic Energy = 1597 ft-lb Momentum = 2.489 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 786 30-06 at 100 yards Mass = 180 Velocity = 2522Kinetic Pulse = 3976 kp <--------------Kinetic Energy = 2542 ft-lb Momentum = 2.016 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 1261 405 Winchester Mass = 300 Velocity = 1859Kinetic Pulse = 5123 kpKinetic Energy = 2302 ft-lb Momentum = 2.476 slug ft/s Momentum = 79.264 pound ft/s * ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 930Kinetic Pulse = 5700 kp

* (info taken for American Rifleman

by Bruce M. Towsley

Article "Handloading The .405 Win." Jan 2002)

35 Whelen 100 yards Mass = 250 Velocity = 2197Kinetic Energy = 2679 ft-lb Momentum = 2.439 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 1098 458 Win Mag at 100 yards Mass = 450 Velocity = 1901Kinetic Pulse = 6534 kpKinetic Energy = 3610 ft-lb Momentum = 3.798 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 951 375 Rem Ultra Mag at 100 yards Mass = 300 Velocity = 2505Kinetic Pulse = 13714 kpKinetic Energy = 4179 ft-lb Momentum = 3.337 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 1252 Comments on the new 17 caliber Rimfire from Hornady .22 Win Mag at muzzle .22 Win Mag at 100 yards Mass = 33 Velocity = 2000 Mass = 33 Velocity = 1495 Kinetic Pulse = 85.88 kp Kinetic Pulse = 35.869 kp Kinetic Energy = 293.054 ft-lb Kinetic Energy = 163.746 ft-lb Momentum = 0.293 slug ft/s Momentum = 0.219 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 1000 ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 749 .22 Long Rifle at muzzle .22 Long Rifle at 100 yards Mass = 40 Velocity = 1255 Mass = 40 Velocity = 1017 Kinetic Pulse = 31.177 kp Kinetic Pulse = 16.590 kp Kinetic Energy = 139.869 ft-lb Kinetic Energy = 91.849 ft-lb Momentum = 0.223 slug ft/s Momentum = 0.181 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 627 ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 508 Below is the New .17 caliber Hornady Magnum Rimfire as found in Shooting Times page 43 Feb 2002Kinetic Pulse = 13945 kp

.17 HMR at muzzle .17 HMR at 100 yards .17 HMR at 200 yards Mass = 17 Velocity = 2616 Mass = 17 Velocity = 1929 Mass = 17 Velocity = 1423 Kinetic Pulse = 51.002 kp Kinetic Pulse = 20.448 kp Kinetic Pulse = 8.209 kp Kinetic Energy = 258.284 ft-lb Kinetic Energy = 140.439 ft-lb Kinetic Energy = 76.424 ft-lb Momentum = 0.197 slug ft/s Momentum = 0.146 slug ft/s Momentum = 0.107 slug ft/s ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 1311 ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 962 ENERGY/MOMENTUM = 714 The ENERGY/MOMENTUM tells me the 17 Hornady is explosive up close. quote: by Rick Jamison, Reloading/Rifles Editor Page 45 of Shooting Times page 45. "In the animal glue expansion medium, the 17-grain V-Max penetrated two inches at 25 feet, three inches at 100 yards, and four inches at 200 yards." The article states that the bullet fragmented at 25 feet and mushroomed at 100 yards and at 200 yards only lost the plastic tip. The question is why the bullet at 25 feet only penetrated 2 inches? There are three answers: 1. Kinetic Pulse disperses as the bullet fragments as there is not a sum of kp for the parts that equal the solid bullet kp. 2. The medium was offering different resistances due to the 'hydrostatic' shock. 3. Both the above apply. My preferred answer is the third answer. It still looks like the .22 Win Mag is the heavier hitter at long range but the trajectory has more drop. The 200 yard stats on the .22 Win Mag is usually the same as the .22 Rimfire at 100 yards which is still higher than the .17 . The question might be asked if the .22 Mag Rimfire will use a better bullet with better coefficient of ballistics to get flatter trajectory. Of course you can down load the .223 Remington to reduce noise and use very light bullets to get the shallow wound for 'virmin'. QUESTION: Why do heavier bullet tend to carry more KP? ANSWER: Due the unversial law of momentum the heavier object hitting a lighter object move the lighter object onward and the heavier object only slows down. If a lighter object hits a heavier object the lighter object tends to bounce back and the energy is not distributed into the heavier object. This rule applies to impact mediums also. The heavier the object is the greater the transfer of momentum to the medium. The heavier the medium the greater the tendency to bounce back the object of impact. When there is this 'bounce' the energy is not transfered to the medium. Since KP has a component of momentum (KP = E * M) then this same principle applies to KP. For example let us look at the KP of the Winchester 308 and the 7mm-08 Remington to see the KP of different weight bullets. For example: CARTRIDGE Weight muzzle 100yard 200yard 300yard 400yard 500yard 308_Winchester 180gr 5694 kp 3723 kp 2366 kp 1464 kp 895 kp 564 kp 308_Winchester 150gr 5361 kp 3679 kp 2474 kp 1620 kp 1038 kp 658 kp 308_Winchester 168gr 5250 kp 4227 kp 3382 kp 2680 kp 2112 kp 1649 kp 7mm-08_Remington 120gr 3799 kp 2847 kp 2113 kp 1546 kp 1112 kp 791 kp 7mm-08_Remington 140gr 4480 kp 3588 kp 2851 kp 2249 kp 1758 kp 1362 kp Note: The ballistics is for commercial manufacture but the general idea is the same for the military full metal jacket round. Notice how the 168 grain 308 (7.62 NATO) has the highest down range KP at 500 yards. Also the 7mm-08 Rem 140 grain bullet performs better than the 150 grain 308 Win. It is known that the match ammo of military usage is about 162 grains. Perhaps to penetrate down range through more air at 1000 yards the heavier bullet is needed. Also the wind bucking is better with the heavier bullet than the 147 grain standard nato round. However I would use the 190 grain or 180 grain in the 30-06 so the greater case capacity can get the heavier bullet going within effective ranges. The 308 does not do as well the 30-06 with heaver bullets. Perhaps a 180 grain with a match profile will do better than this data indicates but the idea is the same. So the simple answer is that heavier bullets have more mass and impact transfer is subject to the laws of physic where a heavier object moves the lighter object with out this 'bounce'. Passing through air then uses this principle; because air remains the same density the heavier the bullet the better it passes through air without the bounce back. More KP means more Momentum. In theof the future what round would one recommend for the M14? The data above would indicate that one should either change the bullet weight or the bore diameter. If one is to stay with the same recoil properties and weight of bullet one should reduce the bore diameter to .284 or 7mm and use the 7mm-08 Remington with a 140 grain bullet. This gives twice the KP at 500 yards than the .308 calibre 147 grain bullet. Otherwise increase the weight of the .308 bullet to 165 grains to get the range increase. The battle fields of the future will be over long distances. Such would be an improvement for the M14 for distance. SUMMARY I used to break up cement as a young man on a city repair crew. The sledge hammer was a tool that was used where the air hammer was not practical. This was usually small jobs. But the hammer would bust up concrete with sharp impact. I have also seen bullets hit rocks and cement and have not seen the same damage as the hammer. The energy in the hammer is very much less than the bullet but the damage was at least impressive to a young man. The measuring rod of energy is inadequate and the momentum only approach is also inadequate. Kinetic Pulse can measure both the hammer and the bullet and describe the overall results AT LEAST BETTER. HAMMER: 8 pound sledge hammer Mass = 56000 gr Velocity = 60 feet / second Kinetic Pulse = 6677.188 kp <-- crator effect of impact Kinetic Energy = 447.566 ft-lb <-- splash effect of impact Momentum = 14.919 slug ft/sec <-- punch effect of impact Energy/Momentum = 30.000 E/M BULLET: 150 grain bullet Mass = 150 gr Velocity = 2900 feet / second Kinetic Pulse = 5409.291 kp <-- crator effect of impact Kinetic Energy = 2800.620 ft-lb <-- splash effect of impact Momentum = 1.931 slug ft/sec <-- punch effect of impact Energy/Momentum = 1450.000 E/M Every bullet on impact has crator, splash, punch properties and the proper selection of bullet weight , velocity, and bullet construction will control these effects. Momentum mostly determineschanging battle fieldpunch. Kinetic Energy mostly determinessplash. Kinetic Pulse determinescrator. Post Script: I have seen an arrow penetrate several feet of wet sand yet a bullet from a high velocity rifle will only penetrate a few inches or less than a foot. Also in a local gun store there is a large bell that was used as a target. There are dents and holes in the bell. These shots were mainly to demonstrate the effectiveness of the pistol round. The 357 mag punctured the metal where the 45 acp put a large dent. Other common pistol rounds were labeled aside from the bullet impact. A gunsmith I know said he ran experiments with 1/4 inch steel plate and said that a 5.56 nato round will penetrate the 1/4 inch steel plate easily where a 45-70 Government does not. Yet he has taken elk with the 45-70 and the bullet has penetrate stem to stern and exited the elk with a sure kill. Puncturing steel may be useful in combat but most game are not carrying body armor made of steel but fur and hide. The 7.62X25mm Tokarev will also penetrate the bell in this gun shop as well as the 44 Remington Mag. Are we to say that the 30 cal Tokarev can be used on bear as well as the 44 Mag? Common Sense and Intuition betray this equation. Generally, hard mediums like steel will be punctured by a high velocity bullet but in soft mediums like clay or water the slow bullet will do better. The 45-70 Government will take down any game on earth with surety. The 5.56 Nato will not be as effective on most large size game unless the game is hit in a vital area where shallow penetration is suffient. In all the experiments I have conducted thenature of the mediumis to be considered in the collision of an object such as a bullet or meteor with this medium. Even though the 45 acp did not penetrate a bell made of metal this venerable round has been battle proven for almost a century. The 45-70 Gov is even older and today new rifles in 45-70 Gov, pistols 45 acp are being sold and made. Now how does your favorite cartridge calibre match up with the venerable 30-06 180 grain 30 calibre as comparison listed below: name brand bullet weight muzzle kp% 100 yard kp% 200 yard kp% 300 yard kp% 400 yard kp% 500 yard kp% -------------------- ------------------ ---------------------------- ------ ---------- ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ ------------ 22_Hornet Winchester jacketed_hollow_point 34 5.15% 2.19% 0.80% 0.38% 0.28% 0.25% 222_Remington Winchester Ballistic_Silvertip 40 9.58% 7.69% 6.10% 4.70% 3.54% 2.60% 22_Hornet Remington pointed_soft_point 45 6.18% 3.37% 1.67% 0.88% 0.68% 0.61% 22_Hornet Remington jacketed_hollow_point 45 6.18% 3.37% 1.67% 0.88% 0.68% 0.61% 218_Bee Winchester hollow_point 46 6.98% 3.83% 1.92% 1.00% 0.72% 0.66% 222_Remington Remington pointed_soft_point 50 12.11% 8.57% 5.80% 3.76% 2.39% 1.68% 222_Remington Remington V_Max_boattail 50 12.11% 10.04% 8.19% 6.55% 5.13% 3.97% 222_Remington Remington hollow_point_power_lokt 50 12.11% 8.89% 6.30% 4.29% 2.86% 1.99% 222_Remington Remington pointed_soft_point 50 12.11% 8.57% 5.80% 3.76% 2.39% 1.68% 220_Swift Remington Point Soft Point 50 21.15% 15.30% 10.88% 7.43% 4.85% 3.11% 223_Remington Remington Hollow Point Power-Lokt 55 16.16% 12.57% 9.59% 7.08% 5.05% 3.62% 223_Remington Remington Pointed Soft Point 55 16.16% 12.24% 9.02% 6.42% 4.42% 3.11% 225_Winchester Winchester Pointed Soft Point 55 21.61% 17.00% 13.20% 10.00% 7.32% 5.25% 22-250_Remington Remington Pointed Soft Point 55 23.67% 18.21% 13.82% 10.18% 7.24% 5.04% 22-250_Remington_hp Remington Hollow Point Power-Lokt 55 23.67% 19.49% 15.92% 12.82% 10.10% 7.74% 223_Remington Remington Hollow Point Match 62 16.70% 12.75% 9.46% 6.77% 4.77% 3.46% 243_Winchester Remington Point Soft Point 80 37.71% 32.14% 27.15% 22.56% 18.46% 14.82% 25-20_Winchester Remington Soft Point 86 3.61% 2.45% 1.97% 1.82% 1.83% 1.88% 25-06_Remington Winchester Positive Expanding Point 90 51.67% 44.42% 37.93% 31.93% 26.49% 21.55% 32_20 Winchester Remington Lead 100 2.78% 2.07% 1.84% 1.79% 1.75% 1.83% 250_Savage Winchester Silvertip 100 35.16% 29.23% 23.84% 19.05% 15.00% 11.97% 243_Winchester Remington Point Soft Point Core-Lokt 100 40.66% 38.20% 35.74% 33.28% 30.75% 28.37% 6mm_Remington Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 100 46.71% 44.08% 41.44% 38.83% 36.20% 33.57% 30_Carbine Remington Soft Point 110 14.94% 9.07% 5.55% 4.11% 3.70% 3.62% 260_Remington Remington Nosler Ballistic Tip 120 54.49% 54.46% 54.37% 54.28% 54.18% 54.15% 25-06_Remington Winchester Positive Expanding Point 120 60.35% 57.05% 53.70% 50.36% 46.94% 43.56% 7mm-08_Remington Remington Hollow Point 120 60.96% 56.74% 52.63% 48.45% 44.23% 40.30% 762x39mm Winchester Soft Point 123 31.37% 24.75% 19.10% 14.57% 11.42% 9.83% 260_Remington Remington Nosler Partition 125 58.23% 57.85% 57.51% 57.10% 56.64% 56.29% 30-06_Springfield Winchester Pointed Soft Point 125 75.85% 65.38% 55.72% 46.76% 38.66% 31.58% 270_Winchester Winchester Power-Point Plus 130 82.80% 78.68% 74.65% 70.45% 66.27% 62.00% 270_WSM Winchester Ballistic Silvertip 130 93.05% 92.53% 92.20% 91.88% 91.69% 91.39% 6.5x55mm Swedish Norma Soft point 139 65.79% 68.45% 70.86% 73.90% 74.74% 76.62% 6.5X55 Swedish Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 140 50.95% 49.72% 48.34% 46.88% 45.47% 44.17% 6.5x55_Swedish Winchester Soft Point 140 50.95% 50.10% 49.14% 48.17% 47.14% 46.26% 260_Remington Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 140 63.91% 62.83% 61.67% 60.33% 59.03% 58.02% 7mm-08_Remington Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 140 71.89% 69.03% 66.10% 62.96% 59.86% 56.70% 7mm-08_Remington Remington Pointed Soft Point,Boat Tail 140 71.89% 71.50% 71.01% 70.48% 69.93% 69.38% 7mm-08_Remington Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 140 71.89% 69.03% 66.10% 62.96% 59.86% 56.70% 270_Winchester Winchester Fail Safe 140 76.51% 72.72% 68.87% 64.87% 60.86% 56.80% 280_Remington Remington Pointed Soft Point,Boat Tail 140 82.97% 82.78% 82.67% 82.45% 82.34% 82.22% 280_Remington Remington Nosler Ballistic Tip 140 82.97% 84.14% 85.38% 86.74% 88.27% 89.96% 280_Remington Remington Power Soft Point Core-Lokt 140 82.97% 80.05% 77.06% 73.86% 70.76% 67.45% 264_Winchester_Mag. Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 140 85.48% 82.16% 78.90% 75.52% 71.96% 68.42% 270_WSM Winchester Fail Safe 140 93.77% 89.74% 85.68% 81.51% 77.29% 73.00% 7mm_Remington_Mag. Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 140 98.35% 95.32% 92.23% 89.13% 85.96% 82.68% 7mm_Remington_Mag. Remington Pointed Soft Point,Boat Tail 140 98.35% 98.57% 98.88% 99.15% 99.60% 100.25% 7mm_WSM Winchester Ballistic Silvertip 140 103.06% 103.87% 104.81% 105.83% 107.16% 108.61% 7mm_STW Remington Swift A-Frame PSP 140 112.97% 105.12% 97.58% 90.10% 82.78% 75.50% 7mm_STW Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 140 112.97% 109.78% 106.72% 103.67% 100.64% 97.35% 7mm_Rem_Ultra_Mag Remington PSP Core-Lokt 140 123.46% 120.19% 117.16% 114.10% 111.22% 108.05% 7mm_Mauser_(7x57) Winchester Power-Point 145 62.03% 57.51% 53.00% 48.39% 44.07% 40.04% 30-30_Winchester Winchester Power Point Plus 150 53.80% 40.28% 29.19% 20.84% 15.43% 13.09% 280_Remington Remington Power Soft Point Core-Lokt 150 85.13% 79.14% 73.15% 67.03% 61.10% 55.48% 308_Winchester Winchester Power-Point Plus 150 86.02% 73.32% 61.62% 50.77% 41.29% 33.52% 30-06_Springfield Winchester Power Point 150 87.80% 75.23% 63.61% 52.84% 43.28% 35.30% 270_Winchester Winchester Power-Point Plus 150 90.55% 84.22% 78.06% 71.76% 65.51% 59.60% 7mm_Remington_Mag. Remington Swift Scirocco 150 106.10% 109.84% 113.97% 118.58% 123.75% 129.60% 7mm_Remington_Mag. Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 150 106.10% 99.28% 92.70% 86.02% 79.24% 72.75% 7mm_Remington_Mag. Remington Nosler Ballistic Tip 150 106.10% 108.17% 110.54% 113.13% 115.95% 119.21% 270_WSM Winchester Power-Point 150 110.24% 103.23% 96.34% 89.41% 82.50% 75.60% 300_Winchester_Mag. Winchester Fail Safe 150 122.19% 111.66% 101.54% 91.70% 82.14% 72.85% 357_Mag. Winchester Jacketed Soft Point 158 23.99% 14.13% 8.94% 7.21% 6.68% 6.57% 30-06_Springfield Winchester Silvertip 160 98.89% 89.34% 80.02% 70.82% 62.29% 54.36% 7mm_Remington_Mag. Winchester Fail Safe 160 99.92% 95.72% 91.51% 99.28% 82.62% 78.09% 7mm_Remington_Mag. Remington Nosler Partition 160 103.03% 103.89% 104.88% 105.80% 106.96% 108.15% 30-06_Springfield Winchester Pointed Soft Point 165 93.69% 90.29% 86.75% 82.95% 79.20% 75.39% 30-06_Springfield Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 165 93.69% 86.25% 78.83% 71.51% 64.32% 57.72% 280_Remington Remington Soft Point Core-Lokt 165 95.72% 83.82% 72.48% 61.80% 52.07% 43.86% 308_Winchester Winchester Ballistic Silvertip 168 84.24% 84.24% 84.23% 83.99% 84.01% 84.00% 30-30_Winchester Winchester Power-Point 170 48.25% 38.30% 29.84% 23.32% 18.97% 17.17% 32 Win Special Remington Soft Point Core-Lokt 170 51.62% 39.90% 30.24% 22.85% 18.22% 16.35% 8mm_Mauser_(8x57) Winchester Powe-Point 170 59.56% 42.97% 30.01% 20.97% 15.91% 14.26% 7x64 Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 175 89.35% 87.15% 84.66% 82.07% 79.47% 77.02% 7mm_Remington_Mag. Remington Pointed Soft Point Core-Lokt 175 112.31% 110.34% 108.24% 105.95% 103.58% 101.12% 38-40_Winchester Winchester Soft Point 180 7.93% 6.30% 5.78% 5.61% 5.61% 5.76% 30-40_Krag Winchester Power-Point 180 72.90% 58.35% 45.60% 35.19% 27.53% 23.13% 303_British Winchester Power Point 180 75.63% 70.25% 64.81% 59.42% 54.46% 50.08% 308_Winchester Winchester Power Point 180 91.37% 74.19% 58.93% 45.88% 35.60% 28.73% 30-06_Springfield Winchester Power-Point 180 100.00% 98.23% 96.44% 94.27% 92.24% 90.22% 30-06_Springfield Winchester Silvertip 180 100.00% 94.96% 89.81% 84.49% 79.24% 74.17% 30-06_Springfield Remington Nosler Partition 180 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 30-06_Springfield Remington Nosler Partition 180 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 300_H&H._Mag. Winchester fail safe 180 121.36% 114.51% 107.65% 100.69% 93.68% 86.75% 300_Winchester_Mag. Winchester Fail Safe 180 131.76% 128.66% 125.28% 121.81% 118.30% 114.67% 300_WSM Winchester Fail Safe 180 133.09% 129.93% 126.80% 123.41% 120.01% 116.30% 300_Wby._Mag. Remington Pointed soft point corelock 180 154.30% 148.53% 151.11% 136.82% 130.67% 124.45% 300_Wby._Mag. Remington Pointed Soft Point,Boat Tail 190 157.43% 159.31% 161.27% 163.55% 166.07% 168.77% 44-40_Winchester Remington Soft Point 200 10.57% 7.93% 7.10% 6.80% 6.72% 6.78% 35_Remington Winchester Power-Point 200 51.68% 34.73% 23.16% 16.92% 14.84% 14.57% 375_Winchester Winchester Power-Point 200 66.77% 48.59% 34.60% 24.98% 20.09% 18.75% 356_Winchester Winchester Power-Point 200 93.36% 73.58% 56.49% 42.75% 32.90% 27.46% 358_Winchester Winchester Silvertip 200 96.81% 79.69% 64.26% 51.11% 40.77% 33.88% 348_Winchester. Winchester Silvertip 200 100.35% 84.64% 70.09% 57.25% 46.70% 43.05% 35_Whelen Remington Pointed Soft-Point 200 120.03% 104.72% 90.14% 76.53% 64.40% 54.51% 8mm_Remington_Mag. Remington Swift A-Frame PSP 200 152.94% 140.55% 128.09% 115.86% 104.14% 93.07% 338_Winchester_Mag. Winchester Power-Point 200 162.63% 146.25% 130.39% 115.04% 100.36% 87.01% 44_Remington_Mag. Remington Semi-Jacketed Hollow Point 210 48.94% 27.66% 16.54% 12.79% 11.69% 11.31% 30-06_Springfield Remington Pointed Soft-Point Core-Lokt 220 106.21% 91.07% 77.01% 64.43% 54.10% 46.61% 44 Remington Magnum Remington Semi-jacketed Hollow Point 240 49.23% 29.47% 19.38% 16.11% 15.16% 15.03% 44_Remington_Mag. Remington Soft Point 240 49.23% 29.47% 19.38% 16.11% 15.16% 15.03% 44_Remington_Mag. Remington Semi-Jacketed Hollow Point 240 49.23% 29.47% 19.38% 16.11% 15.16% 15.03% 444_Marlin Remington Soft Point 240 117.20% 67.06% 36.59% 22.66% 18.66% 17.37% 35_Whelen Remington Pointed Soft-Point 250 135.46% 129.06% 122.59% 115.95% 109.51% 104.18% 338_Rem_Ultra_Mag Remington PSP Core-Lokt 250 229.25% 225.71% 221.77% 217.71% 213.60% 209.02% 38-55_Winchester Winchester Soft Point 255 23.44% 21.34% 20.55% 21.00% 22.55% 24.96% 375_H&H_Mag. Winchester Fail Safe 270 217.55% 207.99% 197.81% 187.56% 177.09% 167.19% 375_Rem_Ultra_Mag Remington Soft Point 270 278.75% 237.58% 199.68% 164.74% 133.85% 108.81% 44_Remington_Mag. Remington JHP Core-Lokt 275 46.76% 31.83% 24.03% 21.53% 21.16% 21.70% 45-70_Government Winchester Jacketed Hollow Point 300 93.76% 78.72% 63.39% 51.90% 47.22% 46.15% 375_H&H_Mag. Winchester Fail Safe 300 228.51% 223.40% 217.98% 211.97% 206.05% 200.87% 375_Rem_Ultra_Mag Remington Swift A-Frame 300 296.68% 275.47% 253.85% 232.25% 211.58% 191.90% 416_Remington_Mag. Remington Swift A-Frame PSP 400 346.77% 320.55% 294.07% 268.44% 244.79% 225.17% 458_Winchester_Mag Winchester Soft Point 510 346.21% 280.85% 225.38% 182.76% 156.56% 148.14%

- Ballistics by the inch website on barrel length effect
- Shooting Elite Ammunition 5.7x28 (and .45acp) Into Clay(
*a little deja Vu for me and my clay work*) - Watch kineticpulse in action on youtube.com 1 million fps slow motion by Werner Mehl
- KP of Pellets link talk
- KP on Pistols PDF
- More gun talk on KP at huntchat.com
- More gun on KP at huntingnet.com
- More gun talk on castbullets an KP
- More gun talk
- Ranking of Common Cartridges by Kinetic Pulse at muzzle
- Ranking of Common Cartridges by Kinetic Pulse at 100 yards
- Ranking of Common Cartridges by Kinetic Pulse at 200 yards
- Ranking of Common Cartridges by Kinetic Pulse at 300 yards
- Ranking of Common Cartridges by Kinetic Pulse at 400 yards
- Ranking of Common Cartridges by Kinetic Pulse at 500 yards
- Listing of Common Cartridge by Velocity
- Compute Kinetic Pulse for yourself
- Compute Kinetic Pulse for seven data sets
- Picture of my reloading bench
- Chuck Hawk writes article about 5.56 NATO
- Table of Kinetic Pulse for reference
- C program to produce the table
- Vector Mathematics by james n. hall
- HOME

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revised November 1,2000

revised January 5,2001 added Comparative Ballistics jnh.

revised February 5,2001 added more Comparative Ballistics jnh.

revised February 13,2001 answered to question on projectile diameter
jnh.

revised February 26,2001 Added Email and FAQ .

revised February 28,2001 Added the factor to convert grains to
slugs.

revised March 20,2001 Added the rotation of the bullet comparison.

revised March 27,2001 Added the car impact comparison.

revised May 02,2001 Added the slow down of bullet with air comparison.

revised May 09,2001 Changed meteorite to meteor as a meteor has
successfully reached the earth becomes a meteorite.

revised June 26,2001 Minor touchup on wordsmithing. Perhaps it
needs more of this but I'll have to find the time.

revised July 6,2001 added access counter for the curious.

revised August 14,2001 added angle impact with water from reader
query.

revised September 21,2001 5.56 Nato and 7.62x39mm compared.

revised September 29,2001 Picture of reloading bench added link.

revised October 02,2001 Added interesting link on 5.56 nato.

revised October 03,2001 Added hydrostatic shock discussion on
5.56 nato.

revised October 04,2001 Added cartridge efficiency discussion.

revised October 04,2001 Added compare7 Ballistics calculator.

revised October 04,2001 Added Message Board Ballistics Posting.

revised October 06,2001 Added greater illustration to controversial
hydrostatic shock

revised October 06,2001 explained why the bullet proof plastic
failed.

revised October 24,2001 showed that energy per momentum is .5
* velocity

revised October 27,2001 Test results on penetration of slow verses
fast

revised November 23,2001 Shotgun effect on the rabid bear.

revised December 11,2001 Shotgun slug rate among the big guns
.

revised December 22,2001 Added the 405 Winchester info from A.R.M.

revised January 01,2002 Corrected the weight of a grain in slugs
225214.55152 225179.5 per slug is wrong. also added some related explanations.

revised January 19,2002 added the 17 HMR eval

revised February 18,2002 added the 45 ACP addendum test.

revised March 18,2002 corrected typos.

revised April 2,2002 corrected some math.

revised June 26,2002 added muzzle,100,200,300,400,500 rating of
KP.

revised July 12,2002 related KP with momentum properties.

revised July 23,2002 finally learned to spell Ballistics

revised July 26,2002 removed the headon car analogy due to relativity.

revised August 26,2002 percentage of energy distribution of recoil.

revised September 9,2002 f/s to ft/s for clarity and trunc numbers
for same.

revised September 9,2002 settled on 225218 as grains to slug conversion.

revised November 26,2002 Added the E/M formula and explanation

revised November 27,2002 revised E/M formula and explanation there was a mistake

revised December 11,2002 Added a Summary.

revised December 22,2002 Modified compare2.html.

revised January 23,2003 200 yard 45 acp 9mm compared.

revised May 23,2003 100 yard 45 acp, 9mm, 7.62X25mm, etc compared.

revised December 7,2003 hard vs soft medium penetration and velocity.

revised March 3,2004 punch, splash , crator

revised June 7,2004 6.8 Remington SPC added

revised November 28,2004 added the 30-06 comparison to 180 gr

revised December 16, 2011 added bullet toughness with some formatting.

revised December 7, 2013 added thought control statement.

revised January 12, 2014 used spell checker, needs more.

revised January 14, 2014 added book order icon as header.

revised September 13, 2014 added ballisticsbytheinch link.