Narratives of the Emigration from the Scandinavian Mission 1852-1868
from excerpts of the History of the Scandinavian Mission, by Andrew Jenson.
Note: See the book for years after 1868.

Migration Years: 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868

1852 (p. 46-48)

Up to the beginning of 1852, the subject of emigration had scarcely been mentioned by the American missionaries, but by degrees it dawned upon the minds of the Saints through the light of the spirit which had been conferred upon them after baptism, that this was a gathering dispensation, and the Elders had, therefore introducing the doctrine. The Scandinavian Saints were eager to cast their lots with the Saints in America as were the converts in England and other parts of the world. As a large company of Saints prepared to emigrate from the British Isles in the month of February, 1852, Apostle Franklin D. Richards, who presided over the British Mission, wrote to President Erastus Snow, that if any of the Saints in the Scandinavian Mission desired to go to Zion, they might have the privilege of joining that company. When Elder Snow made this known a few days previous to the time appointed for the emigration to leave England, he found nine persons ready to respond at once. Hurriedly they arranged their affairs and commenced their long journey Jan. 31, 1852.

The names of these first nine who proved to be the forerunners of tens of thousands of Saints who have subsequently wended their way from Denmark, Sweden,and Norway to the Valley of the Mountains were Rasmus Petersen, wife and adopted child; Conrad Emil Edward Schvanveldt, wife and two children, and two unmarried men, Wilhem Knudsen and Nils Olson. They traveled by stage from Copenhagen to Corsair, whence they crossed "Storable" and "Lillebelt" on ferries; they then traveled through by stage to Rensborg in Holstein, where they arrived in the evening of February 2nd. The following day they continued the journey by rail to Altona, where Elder George P. Dykes was on hand to receive them. After treating them to dinner, he took them on board the steamship, "John Bull", which on the morning of the 4th sailed for London, England, where it arrived on the 5th, in the evening. After much inquiry in London, the little company of foreigners at length succeeded in finding Elder Jacob Gates, who presided over the London Conference, and to whom they had a letter of introduction from Apostle Erastus Snow. Elder Gates rendered them necessary aid and assisted them to continue the journey by rail to Liverpool on the 7th. Arriving there, they were informed that they were too late to sail on the "Ellen Maria," as had been their intention, for that ship had just cleared port the same day. Consequently the little company, had to wait in Liverpool over a month to find an opportunity to sail on another vessel. Brother Rasmus Petersen was detained one day in London to get the luggage passed through the customhouse. In the meantime Elder Snow arrived in Liverpool with nineteen more Scandinavian emigrants, and with these the first nine embarked in the ship "Italy" on the 11th of March, 1852, and commenced the voyage across the Atlantic.

Having finished his work in Scandinavia, Apostle Erastus Snow sailed from Copenhagen March 4, 1852, on his return to America, accompanied by nineteen Saints whose names are as follows: Ole Ulrick Christian Monster (one of the first fifteen baptized in Denmark), wife and child; Christian Hildur Raven, wife and three children; Niles Jensen, wife and one child; Fredrik Petersen, Ferdinand F. Hansen, Hans Hansen, Carl Jorgensen, Bertha S. Hansen, Augusta Dorius, Cecelia Jorgensen and Johanne Andersen. The company took steamer from Copenhagen to Kile, in Holstein; thence traveled by rail to Altona, took steamer from Hamburg to Hull, in England, and thence went by rail to Liverpool, where they arrived March 8th, and found the previously named nine persons waiting for them. Apostle Erastus Snow, who had some importance business to attend to in England before he could return home, place Ole U.C. Monster in charge of the little company of Danish Saints, now numbering twenty-eight souls, and saw them safely on board the ship "Italy", on March 11, 1852. After a safe passage they arrived at New Orleans, May 10th. Processing up the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the Danish emigrants reached Kanesville (now Council Bluffs), Iowa in good health and spirits. There they were met again by their beloved Apostle Erastus Snow, who had reached the Bluffs by way of New York, and in the beginning of July, 1852, attached to a large company of Saints under the leadership of Eli B. Kelsey, the twenty-eight Danish emigrants commenced the journey across the pains with ox-teams; they arrived in Salt Lake City, Otc. 16, 1852.

1852 (p. 70-72)

An earnest desire on the part of the Scandinavian Saints to emigrate to Zion soon became quite general, an increased interest in that direction having been manifested by many of them since the first little company had left from the mountains a few months previously. Consequently, the Elders had been busily engage for some time past in making preparations to send off a large company. About the beginning of December, 1852, the emigrants from the respective conferences in the mission began to gather in Copenhagen, Denmark, and on Monday, Dec. 20, 1852, 294 Saints, including three children, went on board the steamship "Obotrit" and sailed from "Toldboden" (the custom-house) at 4 o'clock p.m. under the leadership of Elder John E. Forsgren, one of the Elders who was in connection with Apostle Erastus Snow first introduced the gospel into Scandinavia two years before. A great multitude of people had gathered on the wharf to witness the departure of the "Mormons," and many of the rabble gave utterance to the most wicked an blasphemous language, while they cursed and swore so many of their countrymen were disgracing themselves by following to America "that Swedish Mormon Priest," and appellation they gave Elder Forsgren. No violence, however, was resorted to, and the ship got safely away.

After a rather stormy and unpleasant voyage, the "Obotrit" arrived safely at Kiel, in Holstein, on the evening of the 22nd. The following day the journey was continued by rail to Hamburg, where a large hall had been hired and supper prepared for the emigrants. In the afternoon on the 24th the Saints went on board the steamship "Lion," which glided slowly with the tide down the River Elbe to Cuxhaven, where the captain cast anchor, owing to the heavy fog that prevailed. The emigrants now celebrated Christmas Eve on board with songs and amusements of different kinds.

In the morning of the 25th, anchor was weighed, and the "Lion" sailed to the mouth of the river, where it was met by heavy headwinds that made it impossible to reach the open sea until midnight. Finally, the passage from the river to the sea was made in the moon light. Early it) the morning of the 26th, the ship passed Heligoland, soon after which a heavy gale blew up from the south West which increased in violence until the next day when it assumed the character of a regular hurricane, the like of which old sailors declared they had never before experienced on the North Sea. The ship's bridge and part of the gunwale was destroyed and some goods standing on the deck were broken to pieces and washed overboard; otherwise, neither the ship nor the emigrants were injured. On the 28th, in the evening after the storm had spent its fury, the "Lion" steamed into the harbor of Hull, England. About 150 vessels were lost on the North Sea in the storm and the people of Hull were greatly surprised when the "Lion" arrived there safely on the 28th, as it was firmly believed that she had gone under like the many other ships that were lost. From Hull the emigrating Saints continued their journey on the 29th by rail to Liverpool, where lodgings and meals previously ordered were prepared for them, and on the 31st of December, 1852, they went on board the packet ship "Forest Monarch," which was hauled out of the dock and anchored in the River Mersey. There it lay about two weeks because of storms and contrary winds. In the meantime, three of the company died, two babies were born, and three fellow-passengers were united with the Church by baptism. One man, who had been bitten by a dog, was left in Liverpool, to be forwarded with the next company of emigrating Saints. One night the ship became entangled with another vessel and sustained some damage; and a few days later, during a heavy storm, it got adrift, pulling up both anchors, and was just about to run aground when two tugboats came to the rescue and saved it. On the loth of January, 1853, the "Forest Monarch" put out to sea. The emigrants now numbered 297 souls who were placed under the direction of Elder John E. Forsgren, in connection with whom Elders Christian Christiansen and J. Herman Christensen acted as counselors. Elder Willard Snow and Peter 0. Hansen, who had accompanied the emigrating Saints to Liverpool, now returned to Copenhagen.

During the voyage across the At. lantic Ocean the "Forest Monarch" was favored with very pleasant weather, but for several days there was a perfect calm. In many respects the emigrants, who were nearly all unaccustomed to seafaring life, found the voyage trying and tedious. The provisions were poor and their fresh water supply gave out before the journey was ended. Four deaths also occurred on board, and three children were born during the voy. age. On the 8th of March, 1853, the ship arrived safely at the mouth of the Mississippi River, where five of the company died, and on the arrival at New Orleans, March 16th, two others departed this life; one family, which had apostatized, remained in that city. From New Orleans the journey was continued by steamboat up the Mississippi River to St. Louis, Missouri, where the -emigrants landed March 31st. In -that city, tents and other commodities needed for the overland journey were purchased. After tarrying about a month, during which time six of the emigrants died and two couples were married, the company left St. Louis and proceeded by steamboat about two hundred miles further up the Mississippi River to Keokuk, Iowa, where the emigrants pitched their tents for the first time and lay in camp for several weeks before starting for the Plains.

In the meantime, the emigrants received their teams of oxen and wagons. Some of the Scandinavian emigrants, who disliked the American way of driving oxen in yokes, made harness in regular Danish fashion; but - no sooner were they placed on the animals than they, frightened half to death, struck 'out in a wild run, refusing to be guided by the lines in the hands of their new masters from the far North. As they crossed ditches and gulches in their frenzy, parts of the wagons were strewn by the wayside;)but the oxen (many of which had never been hitched up before) were at last stopped by men who understood how to manipulate that most important article of all teamsters' outfits-the whip-and the Danish emigrants, profiting by the experience they had gained, soon concluded that, although harness might do well for oxen in Denmark, the yoke and whip were preferable in America, and they readily accepted the method of their adopted country. With 34 wagons and about 130 oxen, the company rolled out from the camping-ground near Keokuk on the 21st of May, and after three weeks' rather difficult travel over the prairies of Iowa, the town of Council Bluffs, on the Missouri River, was reached. Here the company rested for several days, but on the 27th of June, the emigrants resumed their journey by crossing the Missouri River, after which they were soon out on the Plains. In the overland journey a number of the emigrants died, and more children were born, while a few lost the faith in the midst of the hardships and trials of the long march. Finally, on the 30th of September, 1853, the company arrived safely in Great Salt Lake City. On the 4th of October the emigrants were nearly all rebaptized by Apostle Erastus Snow, and they were counseled by President Brigham Young to settle in different parts of the Territory with people of other nationalities, so as to become useful in developing the resources of the new country. Most of them located in Sanpete Valley, whither other companies from Scandinavia subsequently followed them yearly, and that val. ley has ever since been known as a stronghold of the Scandinavians in Utah. Still, President Young's advice has not been unheeded, as the people from the three countries of the North, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, are represented to a greater or less extent in nearly every town and settlement of the Saints in the Rocky Mountains.

1853-1854 (p. 87-89)

Quite a number of the recently baptized converts in Denmark possessed considerable means, and as the spirit of emigrating to America was universal in all the branches of the Church throughout the mission, the well-to-do Saints made almost immediate preparations to sell their property and wend their way Zion ward. The incessant persecutions which prevailed against the members of the Church in nearly all parts of the country also increased the desire to emigrate, and, rather than tarry, a number preferred to sell their homes at half price, if by so doing they could only obtain sufficient means to defray the expenses of the journey. Under these circumstances the spirit of brotherly love also manifested itself in its best form, and under its divine influence the rich Saints remembered their poorer fellow-religionists and extended to them that material help and succor which has always characterized the Saints of the Most High. Thus hundreds of the poor, whose chances to emigrate to Zion with their own means were almost beyond reasonable expectations, were assisted by their wealthier brethren. Through the columns of "Skandinaviens Stjerne," the Church organ in Scandinavia, plain and minute instructions were given to the emigrants who nearly all were unacquainted with the incidents of travel. In fact, there were many among them, who, during all their previous experiences in life, had never had occasion to go farther from their homes than to the nearest market town. It was, therefore, no easy task for the Elders, who presided over the different branches and conferences in the mission, to plan and arrange everything for the emigrants, and the burden rested heavily especially upon the presiding brethren in Copenhagen, where the headquarters of the mission was located. In the latter part of December, 1853, however, Pres. John Van Cott succeeded in making the necessary contracts for transportation, etc., and in the afternoon of Dec. 22, 1853. the first emigrant company of the season and the third emigrating company of the Saints from Scandinavia (301 souls) set sail from Copenhagen on board the steamship "Slesvig," under the presidency of Chr. J. Larsen, who had been released from his appointment to Norway with permission to emigrate to Zion. A large concourse of people had assembled at the wharf in Copenhagen to witness the departure of the "Mormons," and a great deal of bitterness and hard feelings were manifested. When Elder Peter 0. Hansen, after the vessel had left the harbor, was walking back to the mission office, he was followed by a mob who knocked him down and beat him considerably about the head. He lost a quantity of blood, but received no dangerous injuries. Pres. John Van Cott accompanied the emigrants as far as England, and during his absence from Scandinavia Elder Peter 0. Hansen took temporary charge of the mission. By way of Kiel, Gluckstadt, and Hull, the emigrants reached Liverpool, England in safety on Dec. 28th, and on the first day of January, 1854, they went on board the ship Jesse Munn," which had been chartered by the presidency in Liverpool for the transportation of the Scandinavian Saints, and also a few German Saints, which swelled the total number of souls to 333. The company sailed from Liverpool Jan. 3, 1854, and after a prosperous voyage, arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi River, Jan. 16th. During the voyage twelve of the emigrants died, namely, two adults and ten children. Three couples were married. On Monday, Feb. 20th, the "Jesse Munn arrived at New Orleans, where Chr. J. and Svend Larsen made a contract for the further transportation of the company to St. Louis, Missouri, and on Saturday, Jan. 25th, the river journey to that city was commenced. Owing to unusual low water in the Mississippi the passage was slow and tedious, which, in connection with the change of climate and difference in the mode of living, caused cholera of a very malignant type to break out among the emigrants, resulting in an unusual number of deaths. After arriving in St. Louis, March 11th, houses were rented for the temporary occupation of the emigrants who tarried there about a month until the next company of Scandinavian emigrants, under the direction of Hans Peter Olsen (Piercy) arrived. During the stay in St. Louis sickness continued among the Saints and many more died of the cholera. On Monday, Dec. 26, 1853, another company of Scandinavian Saints, consisting of more than 200 souls, sailed from Copenhagen Denmark, by the steamship "Eideren, bound for Utah, under the leadership of Hans Peter Olsen, who had labored about ten months on the lsland of Bornholm. Like the preceding company, these emigrants traveled by way of Kiel, Gluckstadt and Hull to Liverpool, where they arrived January 9, 1854. Here they were compelled to wait nearly two weeks, during which time the greater portion of the children were attacked with fever. resulting in the death of twenty-two of the little ones; two adults also died. On the 22nd of January the emigrants went on board the ship "Benjamin Adams," together with a few German Saints. On the 24th, the doctor, who examined the condition of the emigrants, declared that fifteen of them were unfit to proceed on the voyage, and they were consequently landed in Liverpool, with the understanding that they would be sent on to New Orleans when sufficiently recovered to travel. The "Benjamin Adams" sailed from Liverpool Jan. 28th, with 384 Saints on board, and arrived in New Orleans on the 22nd of March, after a very pleasant and prosperous voyage. Eight deaths occurred during the voyage, namely, two very old persons and six children; two children were born on board and nine couples were married. On the 25th of March the company continued the journey from New Orleans by the steamboat. "M. Kennet," and arrived in St. Louis, Mo., on the 3rd of April. During the passage up the river considerable sickness prevailed and fourteen of the emigrants died. From St. Louis where many members of the Church resided at that time, the emigrants continued the journey up the river April 5th, to Kansas City, where they arrived April 10th. A few days late they were joined there by the company which had crossed the Atlantic in the "Jesse Munn." Westport, now a part of Kansas City, Jackson County, Missouri, had been selected as the outfitting place for the Saints who crossed the Plains that year, and the Scandinavian emigrants made their encampment near Westport, situated a short distance south of the Missouri River. After the arrival of the "Jesse Munn" company from St. Louis, the two companies were amalgamated and organized for the journey across the Plains, May 9th. Hans Peter Olsen was chosen leader of the amalgamated company and Christian J. Larsen as chaplain, while Bent Nielsen was chosen wagon master, Jens Hansen camp captain and Peter P. Thomsen captain of the guard. The company, which consisted of sixty nine wagons, was divided into six smaller compares with ten or twelve wagons and a captain in each company. To each wagon were attached four oxen and two cows. There were also in the company a number of reserve oxen. From ten to twelve persons were assigned to each wagon. Elders Carl Capson, Anders Andersen, Peter Beckstrom, Jens Jorgensen Anders W. Winberg and Valentine Valentinsen were appointed captains of the six divisions. Oxen, wagons, tents and other traveling equipment which the emigrants bought in St. Louis and Kansas City or vicinity, cost more than had been expected, on account of which a number of the emigrants ran short of means all were unable to furnish a full outfit. The more well-to-do, however, among whom we might mention Bro. Bent Nielsen from Sjaelland and Peter P. Thomsen from Falster, contributed freely of their means, 80 that none were left in the States through lack of money. Toward the close of May, another camping place was chosen about eight miles west of Kansas City, from which place the emigrants commenced their long journey over the Plains on Thursday, June 15, 1854. This company of emigrants traveled over a new but shorter road than previous companies had done. After traveling about twenty miles from Kansas City, a halt was called because nearly all the teams were too heavily loaded, owing to the fact that the emigrants had taken too much baggage along, contrary to instructions or counsel given. At the suggestion of Bro. Olsen some of the brethren went to Leavenworth City, about thirty miles from the camping place, to consult Apostle Orson Pratt, who, in his capacity of emigration agent, had located temporarily in said city. Elder Pratt advanced the company sufficient money to buy fifty oxen, after which the journey was continued. A few days journey west of Fort Kearney the company, on the 5th of August, met Apostle Erastus Snow and other Elders from the Valley who had been called on missions to the States. Elder Snow held a meeting with the Scandinavian Saints and addressed them in their own language, which caused great rejoicing in the camp. Of all the emigrant companies, who this year crossed the Plains, the Scandinavians suffered the most with sickness (cholera), and during their temporary sojourn at the camping place near Westport, as well as on the steamboats, fatalities were more numerous. Scores fell as victims of the dreadful disease and many of the Saints were compelled to bury their relatives and friends without coffins on the desolate plains. So great was the mortality among them that of the 680 souls who had left Copenhagen the previous winter only about 500 reached their destination The others succumbed to the sickness and hardships of the journey. The survivors reached Salt Lake City, Oct. 5, 1854.

1854 (p. 97-99)

On Friday, Nov. 24, 1854 about 300 Scandinavian Saints sailed from Copenhagen, Denmark, on board the steamer "Cimbria" bound for Utah, under the direction of Elder Peter O. Hansen. All the emigrants were in good health and excellent spirits, but had an - exceedingly rough passage over the North Sea. At 10 o'clock on the morning of the 25th, the "Cimbria" arrived at Frederikshaven have, on the east coast of Jutland. where 149 more emigrants from the Aalborg and Vendsyssel conferences came on board. With these additional passengers the voyage was continued on the morning of the 26th. The prospects were fair until about 2 o'clock in the morning of the 27th. when the wind turned south-west, and began to blow so heavily that the captain, an experienced sailor, deemed it necessary to turn back and seek the nearest harbor in Norway.

Consequently, the course was changed, and about 4 o'clock in the afternoon the "Cimbria" put into the port of Mandal, which is an excellent natural harbor, surrounded by very high and steep granite cliffs. This romantic place and its surroundings were as much of a curiosity to the Danish emigrants as a shipload of "Mormons" were to the people of Mandal. In this harbor the emigrants tarried for several days, while the winds outside spent their fury on the troubled sea. Some of the Saints went ashore to lodge; they found the inhabitants of Mandal very hospitable, and, by request, some of the brethren preached several times to the people on shore. The result of this was that some of the inhabitants became interested in the gospel.

On the morning of Dec. 7th, when the weather seemed to be more favorable, the "Cimbria" again put to sea, and steamed off towards England once more; but the captain and all on board soon learned that the change in the weather was only a lull preceding a more violent outburst of a long winter storm. Towards midnight of the 7th, the wind became a terrific gale, which increased in violence till it shattered the ship's bulwarks and broke a number of boxes. About 2 o'clock in the morning of Dec. 8th, the captain decided to turn back to Mandal, but as the wind, waves and strong current rendered it very dangerous to turn the vessel in the direction of Norway, it; was deemed necessary to go clear back to Frederikshavn, where the ship arrived on the 9th about 4 p. m. By this time the emigrants were suffering severely, but with the exception of two or three individuals. who decided to remain behind, the Saints bore their hardships with great fortitude and patience. While laying weatherbound in Frederikshavn, most of the emigrants went on shore to refresh and rest themselves after their rough experience at sea, and while waiting for the weather and wind to change in their favor, a number of meetings were held which made a good impression upon the people of that seaport town, who hitherto had been unwilling to listen to the preaching of "Mormonism."

On the 20th of December the weather moderated, and the captain made a third attempt to reach England. By this time the emigrants were rested and in good spirits, but in the night between the 21st and 22nd, a worse storm than any of the preceding ones arose, threatening the ship and all on board with utter destruction. For many hours the noble "Cimbria" fought her way against the raging elements, but was at length compelled to change her course, and for the third time the company was turned back. But while the captain and crew began to feel discouraged, most of the Saints continued cheerful and thanked the Lord for their preservation. About 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the 22nd, the wind suddenly changed to the north and the captain immediately steered for Hull once more, amid the rejoicings of the Saints, and on the 24th, about noon, the ship anchored safely in the Humber. On the following day (Dec. 25th) the emigrants continued their journey by rail from Hull to Liverpool, where they joined two smaller companies which had left Copenhagen about the same time as the "Cimbria," and had waited for the arrival of the latter for several weeks.

The Presidency in Liverpool chartered the ship "Hellos" to take the Scandinavian emigration to New Orleans, but the company being detained so long on account of the storms, the "Hellos" had been filled with other passengers, and the "James Nesmith," Captain Mills, was secured for the transportation of the Scandinavians. Consequently, 440 (or 441) emigrating Saints, all from Scandinavia except one, sailed from Liverpool, England, Jan 7, 1855, bound for New Orleans. The ship arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi River Feb. 18, 1855, after a successful voyage, during which, however, thirteen deaths occurred. At New Orleans, where the company landed on the 23rd, most of the emigrants went on board the large steam boat "Oceana" and sailed from New Orleans on the 24th. On the journey up the Mississippi River, seven of the Saints died; on the 7th of March the company arrived at St. Louis. Missouri. From that city about 150 of the Scandinavian Saints continued their journey on the 10th of March for Weston, Missouri, with the intention of remaining somewhere in-. that section of the country until they could obtain means to go through to the Valley; and 175 others, under the leadership of Peter O. Hansen, left St. Louis March 12th by the steam boat "Clara" for Atchison, Kansas, but owing to low water in the river, they were compelled to land in Leavenworth, where they tarried until the company led by Elder Hogan arrived. During the stay in Leavenworth, about twenty of the emigrants died, and after selecting a new camping place, cholera broke out in the company and caused nine more deaths. In the latter part of May the emigrants removed to Mormon Grove, situated about five miles west of Atchison, Kansas, which place had been selected as the outfitting point for the emigrants who crossed the plains in 1855.

They arrived at Mormon Grove, May 22nd, 1855. Most of the Scandinavian emigrants, who continued the journey to the Valley that season, left Mormon Grove, June 13, 1855, in Captain Jacob. F. Secrist's company and arrived in Salt Lake City Sept 7,1855.

1855-1856 (p. 106-107)

Another large company of emigrating Saints leaves Copenhagen—A general mission conference held in Denmark—Fyen Conference organized—Summary of Pres. John Van Cott's mission to Scandinavia. On Thursday, Nov. 29, 1855, a company of Scandinavian Saints numbering 447 souls sailed from Copenhagen, on board the steamship "Lover," bound for Utah, under the direction of Elder Canute Peterson, who returned from his mission to Norway. After a pleasant voyage, Kiel, in Holstein, was reached, and thence the emigrants continued their journey by rail to Gluckstadt, thence by steamer to Grimsby, England, and thence by rail to Liverpool, where the Scandinavian emigrants were joined by 42 British and 30 Italian Saints, and went on board the ship "John J. Boyd."

Elder Charles R. Savage one of the emigrating missionaries, gives the following report of the voyage:

"We left Liverpool on Wednesday, Dec. 12th, 1855, at 7 a. m. and had a fine run down the channel sighted Cape Clear on the Friday morning following, and had mild weather with a fair wind for three days after. During this time we had leisure to devise plans for the maintenance of order and cleanliness during the voyage. Not. withstanding that our company consisted of Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, Icelanders Italians, English, Irish and Scotch, the rules adopted proved efficient in maintaining a strict entente cordiale among us all. The Saints were by the sound of the trumpet called to prayer morning and evening. Meetings were also frequently held in the Danish, English and Italian fan. guages during the voyage. On the whole we enjoyed ourselves first rate, notwithstanding the gales and hurricanes we experienced, from the breaking up of the tine weather in longitude 15 degrees to our anchoring off Sandy Hook.

"About midway on our passage we fell in with the clipper ship "Louis Napoleon," from Baltimore to Liverpool, laden with flour, with all her masts and spars carried away and leeward bulwarks stove in; upon nearing the ship we found her in a sinking condition. The captain and crew desired to be taken off, which was done. This acquisition was of great advantage to us as the bad weather, sickness and exhaustion from overwork had made quite a gap in our complement of sailors. We had much sickness on Board from the breaking out of the measles, which caused many death) among the Danish, chiefly among the children. In the English and Italian companies we lost three children. The weather got worse after crossing the Banks, so much so, that we were driven into the Gulf Stream three times, and many of our sailors were frost-bitten,. Our captain got superstitious on account of the long passage and ordered that there should be no singing on board; the mate said that all ships that had preachers on board were always sure of a bad passage; however, the Lord heard our prayers, and in his own due time we arrived at our destination On the evening of the 15th of February we were safely anchored, having been 66 days out from Liverpool."

"Our supply of water was almost exhausted. We had on our arrival only about one day's water on board. The provisions were very good and proved abundant to the last. On our taking the pilot on board he informed us that there had been many disasters during the months of January and February; many ships had been wrecked We had made the passage without the loss of a single spar."

On the 16th of February, 1856, the emigrants landed in New York, and after tarrying a few days at Castle Garden, the journey was continued on the 21st or 22nd by rail via Dunkirk and Cleveland to Chicago, where the company, according to previous arrangements, was divided into three parts, of which one, consisting of about 150 souls, went to Burlington, Iowa, another to Alton, Illinois, and a third to St. Louis, Mo. Most of those who went to Burlington and Alton remained in those places, or near them, a year or more, working to earn means wherewith to continue the journey to Utah. The part of the company which went to St. Louis arrived in that city on the 10th of March and soon afterwards proceeded to Florence, Nebraska, where they joined the general emigration that crossed the Plains in 1856.

Elder Chr. Christiansen, who was sent as a missionary from Utah to preside over the Scandinavian Saints in the Western States, relates the following about the emigrants who stopped in Burlington:

"On the 29th of February, 1856, about 150 Scandinavian emigrants arrived in Burlington, Iowa, to be placed under my jurist diction, as they, through lack of means, were unable to continue the journey to Utah that year. I assisted them in the transportation of their luggage across the Mississippi River on the ice, and brought them to a house belonging to an apostate 'Mormon' by the name of Thomas Arthur, of whom I had hired a room for the accommodation of the emigrants--the only one I could Secure in the whole town. On that day the editors of the Burlington papers announced to the public the startling fact that the town had been 'taken' by the 'Mormons.' Without friends or money I stood in the midst of my poor brethren not knowing what to do, but I set to work in earnest and succeeded in finding employment for some of the brethren as wood choppers in the country, where I also rented a number of empty cabins for the Saints, who subsisted on corn meal, bacon and other articles of food which they received as advance payment for their labors. For the young men and women I also secured places as servants, and in Burlington alone I found places for 50 of them. I also hired wagons and took some of the emigrants to Montrose and Keokuk in search of employment. Thus, in less than a week after the arrival of the emigrants at Burlington, all who were able to work had found something to do. But there was a number of other persons, who needed financial aid, and as I had no money I approached one of the emigrants who had a twenty dollar gold piece, but he was an unbeliever and refused to lend his money to me, or anyone else, even for the relief of the sick. A few days later he died, and his widow promptly advanced me the means, thus I secured the necessary medicines and other things needed by the sufferers. My next step was to organize the Saints into branches of the Church, over which I appointed presidents. After a little while everything went well, and in a remarkably short time the emigrants earned means enough to continue their journey to the Valley."

1856 (p. 112-113)

On Wednesday, April 23, 1856, under the leadership of Elder Johan A. Ahmanson, 161 emigrating Saints bound for Utah, sailed from Copenhagen per steamship "Rhoda." The route taken by this company of emigrants was by steamer to Kiel, by railroad to Hamburg, by steamer to Grimsby in England and by railroad to Liverpool. The company arrived safe and well at Liverpool, April 29th.

On Sunday, May 4, 163 Scandinavian emigrants sailed from Liverpool per ship "Thornton," together with about 600 Saints from Great Britain. The whole company was placed in charge of Elder James G. Willie with Millen G. Atwood, Johan A. Ahmanson and Moses Cluff as his assistants. During the voyage Captain Collins showed himself a considerate and pleasant gentleman, as he allowed the emigrants all the liberty and privileges which could be expected, and praised them for their cleanliness and good order, and also for their willingness to conform to all his requests. He also gave the Elders unlimited liberty to preach and hold meetings on board, and, together with the ship's doctor and other officers, he listened repeatedly to the. preaching by the Elders and occasionally joined them in singing the songs of Zion. Considerable sickness prevailed among the emigrants, of whom quite a number were old and feeble. Seven deaths (among which two Scandinavian children), three births and two marriages took place on board.

On Saturday, June 14th, the beautiful ship "Thornton" arrived at New York, and a little steam tug brought the emigrants to Castle Garden where they were heartily received by Apostle John Taylor and Elder Nathaniel H. Felt. On the 17th of June the emigrants left New York and traveling by rail arrived at Dunkirk, Ohio, on the 19th. Here they went on board the steamship "Jersey City" and sailed to Toledo, where they arrived on the 21st. The following day they were in Chicago, Ill. At Toledo, the emigrants were treated in a most unfriendly manner by the railroad men and in consequence were subjected to much unpleasantness. On the 23rd the company left Chicago in two divisions, of which the one started a few hours before the other. At Pond Creek it was ascertained that the bridge at Rock Island had tumbled down while a railway train was passing over it Apostle Erastus Snow and other brethren from Utah happened to be on board when the accident happened, but they escaped unhurt. The emigrants left Pond Creek on the 26th and arrived the same day at Iowa City, Iowa, which at that time contained about 3,000 inhabitants and was the western terminus of the railroad. The place had been chosen by the Church emigration agents that year as an outfitting place for the Latter day Saint emigrants who crossed the Plains. In order that as many of the poor Saints as possible should get the opportunity of emigrating at a small expense, the First Presidency of the Church had suggested in their 13th general epistle, which was dated in Salt Lake City, Oct. 29, 1855, that the emigrants who in 1856 were assisted to emigrate to Zion by the Perpetual Emigrating Fund should cross the Plains with handcarts. Consequently this cheaper but difficult method of traveling was tried for the first time. The first handcart company, under the direction of Elder Edmund Ellsworth, left Iowa City, June 9, 1856. About 100 Scandinavian emigrants constituted the fifth division of the fourth company of the handcart emigration which, under the direction of James G. Willie, left Iowa City, July 16th. John A. Ahmanson was appointed leader of the Scandinavian division.

After almost untold suffering and hardships this company of handcart emigrants arrived in Salt Lake City Nov. 9, 1856. About sixty of the emigrants died on the journey across the plains, among whom were a number of Scandinavian Saints.

1857 (p. 120-122)

On Friday, April 18, 1857, a company of emigrating Saints, numbering 536 souls, bound for Utah, sailed from Copenhagen on the steamer "L. N. Hvidt," in charge of Elder Hector C. Haight, who accompanied the emigrants to England. Among the emigrants was the late Simon Peter Eggertsen of Provo, Utah. After a successful voyage the ship arrived at Grimsby, England, April 21st in the afternoon, thence the journey was continued the following day by rail to Liverpool, where the emigrants, to "together with four returning Utah Elders from Great Britain, went on board the ship "Westmoreland" and sailed from Liverpool, April 25th. In the evening of the 24th, while the ship still lay at anchor in the River Mersey, five young couples were married, namely: Carl C. A. Christensen and Eliza Haarby, Johan F. F. Dorius and Karen Fransen, Carl C. N Dorius and Ellen G. Rolfsen, Lauritz Larsen and Anne M Thomsen and Jacob Bastian and Gertrud Petersen Matthias Cowley was appointed by the presidency in Liverpool to take charge of the company, with Henry Lunt and Ola N. Liljenquist as his counselors. The Saints were divided into four districts under the presidency of Elders George W. Thurston, Lorenzo D. Rudd, Chr. G. Larsen and Carl C. N. Dorius. The following discipline or order was observed during the voyage: The emigrants went to bed between 9 and 10 o'clock in the evening and arose about 5 o'clock in the morning. Prayers were held morning and evening, and, as far as possible, also at noon. The Sundays were occupied with fasting, prayers and preaching. Schools were also organized in each district for the purpose of giving the Scandinavian Saints instructions in English. A musical company was organized and the Saints frequently enjoyed themselves in the dance and other innocent diversions. Splendid health as a rule existed among the emigrants and only two small children and an old man (82 years of age) died during the voyage. A child was born May 3, 1857, which was named Decan Westmoreland, after the captain and the ship. After a successful voyage, which lasted 36 days, the company arrived in Philadelphia, Pa., May 31, 1857. Here they were received by Elder Angus M. Cannon, who, during the absence of Pres. John Taylor, acted as emigration agent; he made the necessary arrangements for the journey of the company through the States. On the 2nd of June, the emigrants continued by rail from Philadelphia, and, traveling via Baltimore and Wheeling, they arrived safely in Iowa City, Iowa, July 9, 1857. This place was the outfitting point for the Saints who crossed the Plains in 1857 the same as in 1856. During the railroad journey, a Brother Hammer from Bornholm and three children died.

About the 15th of June, a part of the company commenced the journey toward the Valley from Iowa City with an ox-train, under the captaincy of Elder Matthias Cowley, while another fraction of the company, about the same time, commenced the journey across the Plains with handcarts under the leadership of Elder James P. Park. Several of the emigrants who had not sufficient means to continue the journey to the Valley that year, remained in the States for the purpose of earning money with which to continue the journey later. The ox-train, which consisted of 198 souls, 31 wagons, 122 oxen and 28 cows, arrived at Florence, Neb., July 2,1857, in pretty good health; but when the handcart company reached that place the following day a number of the handcart emigrants were sick, owing to the change of food and climate, and also because of over-exertion. Consequently, a council was called for the purpose of considering their condition, and, after some discussion, it was decided by unanimous vote that the company should continue the journey at once and that all who were not strong enough to stand the journey should remain behind, so as not to become a burden to the company. The ox-train rolled out of Florence, July 6th, and the handcart company, which consisted of 330 souls, with 68 handcarts, 3 wagons and 10 mules, continued the journey from Florence, July 7th, under the leadership of Elder Chr. Christiansen, who returned home from a mission to the Western States. Both companies arrived safe and well in Salt Lake City, Sept. 13, 1857.

The second division of the season's emigration from Scandinavia, consisting of 286 souls, sailed from Copenhagen, May 20, 1857, en route for Utah. The company arrived at Liverpool, England, on the 24th, being accompanied that far by Pres. Hector C. Haight. Together with a large number of emigrating Saints from the British Mission, the Scandinavian emigrants sailed from Liverpool, on the ship "Tuscarora," early on the morning of May 30, 1857, under the leadership of Richard Harper. After a pleasant voyage of about five weeks, the "Tuscarora" arrived in Philadelphia, July 3, 1857. From that city the journey was continued by railroad westward to Burlington, Iowa, from which place the emigrants scattered in their endeavors to find employment and earn means wherewith to continue their journey to Utah as soon as possible. At the April conference held at. Louis, Mo., that year, it was decided that the Scandinavian Saints who were stopping temporarily in the States, should be advised to move from St. Louis, Mo., and Alton, Illinois, to Omaha and Florence, Neb., which places at that time were being built up with great energy, and the brethren stood a good chance to fine remunerative employment there until they could travel further west This move was carried out almost immediately, and in a remarkable short time all the Scandinavians hat left Missouri and Iowa for Nebraska About the same time a number of temporary settlements were founder by the Saints west of Florence or the route to Utah, according to instructions from President Brigham Young. After the departure of the two companies of emigrants, the Elders who were left in the different Scandinavian conferences continued their missionary labors with renewed zeal and soon new converts took the places of the many who had emigrated to Zion.

1858 (p. 129-131)

About 75 Saints, who had gathered in Korsor, Sjaelland, Denmark, left that place en route for Utah, Feb. 21, 1858. They had intended to take a steamer to Kiel, in Holstein, but when they found that navigation between Korsor and Kiel had ceased for the time being on account of ice, they crossed Storebelt to the island of Fyen, and thence traveled from Nyborg, via Odense, to Assens, whence they crossed Lillebelt to Haderslev in Schleswig. From Haderslev they went overland by way of Apenrade to Flensborg where they were robbed by an unscrupulous hotel-keeper who charged them 65 rigsdaler for serving each of the emigrants with a cup of coffee, a few "tvebakker" and a quart of family beer. From Flensborg they continued the journey by rail to Hamburg, where they found the river Elbe frozen over, with no prospect of opening up for some time to come. The emigration agent, who met them in Flensborg, succeeded, however, in making the necessary arrangements for their embarkation at Bremerhafen in Hanover. Consequently, they left Hamburg March 3, 1858, and tray traveled by wagons to Bremerhafen, arriving there the following day. Here they secured passage on a steamer and sailed for England. Elder Iver N. Iversen was made captain of the company. On account of the "Utah War," he returned to his mountain home, after having labored only a short time in the mission, and most of this time he had spent among his relatives on the island of Als, where he baptized three persons. Elders, Christian A. Madsen and Christoffer O. Folkmann were appointed assistants, or counselors, to Elder Iversen. President Carl Widerborg accompanied the emigrants to Hamburg. Among the Saints in this company were the following brethren who had labored as missionaries in different parts of the Scandinavian Mission: Christian A. Madsen, who had presided over the Stockholm Conference and, since September, 1856, acted as pastor over the missionary labors in Jutland; Christian D. Fjeldsted, who had labored as a traveling Elder.

Owing to storms, contrary winds and ice, the little company of emigrants were tossed about upon the North Sea for four and one-hall days, and suffered a great deal from seasickness. Once they were compelled to return to Bremerhafen to take in more coal. During their temporary stay in Bremerhafen, Sister Anna Louisa Madsen, wife of Elder Christian A. Madsen, who had suffered on account of poor health for a long time, died March 10, 1858. The next day (March 11th) an attempt was made to get the steamer through the ice out into the open sea, but it did not prove successful until the 12th. Having finally reached open water, the voyage to Hull in England was continued and the emigrants arrived in that city on the 14th. The following day (March 15th) they went by rail to Liverpool, where quarters were secured for them in an emigrant hotel, and here the company remained until the 18th, when they went on board the ship "John Bright" and sailed from Liverpool on the 22nd.

After a successful voyage, the ship reached New York harbor, April 23, 1858. Besides the Scandinavian emigrants, who now numbered eighty souls, and nine English saints, about 600 Irish emigrants crossed the ocean in the same vessel. During the voyage a young girl from Jutland and a little child died. The emigrants landed in New York April 24th.

From New York the company continued the journey on April 26th, and, traveling by rail via Dunkirk, Buffalo, Cleveland and Chicago, they arrived in Iowa City, Iowa, May 1st. Here the company was disorganized and the young, unmarried brethren, fourteen in number, commenced their journey westward May 9th, with four wagons, drawn by mules, under the direction of Hector C. Haight. In Florence they were amalgamated with a number of returning missionaries and others, after which the company consisted of 40 brethren with 14 wagons and 47 mules and horses, under the leadership of Horace S. Eldredge. After 39 days journeying from Florence, they arrived in Salt Lake City, July 9,1858.

The other emigrants remained a short time in Iowa City and vicinity. A number of them, however, commenced their journey towards the mountains under the leadership of Elder Iver N. Iversen, and reached the Valley Sept. 20, 1858. The remainder of the company (two families excepted), under the guidance of Capt. Russell K. Homer, Christoffer O. Folkmann and others, commenced their journey westward and crossed the Plains with a number of English emigrants; they reached the Valley Oct. 7, 1858.

1859 (p. 139-142)

In January, 1859, Pres. Carl Widerborg returned to Copenhagen from his visit to England. To the great joy and satisfaction of the Scandinavian Saints, a communication was received from President Brigham Young towards the close of the year 1858, announcing that the emigration to Utah, which, on account of the "Utah War," had been temporarily interrupted, could now be resumed, and that the Saints would have the privilege of crossing the Plains either with handcarts or ox-teams. Pres. Carl Widerborg and his co-laborers went to work at once to make the proper preparations for the migration of a large company of Saints the following spring. And as the more well-to-do Saints exhibited an usual liberal and kind spirit to" wards their poorer co-religionists, a great number of names were placed on the emigration list for 1859. "Skandinaviens Stjerne" of Jan. l, 1859, announced that the cost for each adult who intended to cross the Plains with handcarts in 1859, would be about 150 rigsdaler ($75), and that those who expected to cross with oxen and wagons would need about 200 rigsdaler ($100), if eight persons were reckoned to each wagon. Those who expected to emigrate under those terms were advised to send their names, with ages, date and place of birth, occupation, etc., to their respective conference presidents, and at the same time, advance 40 rigsdaler ($20) for each handcart emit grant and 80 rigsdaler ($40) for each wagon emigrant. This money was to be sent to America in advance to purchase the necessary outfit for the journey across the Plains, such as handcarts, wagons, oxen, provisions, etc.

On Friday, April 1, 1859, a company of Scandinavian Saints, consisting of 355 souls, namely 224 Danes, 113 Swedes and 18 Norwegians, sailed from Copenhagen, Denmark, on the steamer "L. N. Hvidt," in charge of Elders Carl Widerborg and Niels Wilhelmsen. After a rather stormy voyage over the North Sea the company reached Grimsby, England, on the 6th. From Grimsby the emigrants continued the journey by rail the same day to Liverpool, where they, on the 7th, went on board the ship "William Tapscott," Captain Bell, and were joined by British and Swiss emigrants. Elder Robert F. Neslen was appointed president of the company, with Henry H. Harris and George Rowley as counselors. Under them Elders Soren P. Guhl, Johan E,. Klingbeck, Peter A. Fjeldsted, Anders Petersen, Lars Petersen and Morten Petersen presided over the Scandinavians. Brothers Christian Jeppesen and Niels Jacobsen acted as interpreters and Hans O. Magleby and Anton Petersen as cooks. On Monday, April 11, 1859, the ship lifted anchor and was tugged out of the Mersey into the open sea with its precious cargo of 726 souls. Songs of joy resounded from all parts of the ship as it was pulled out to sea, but these were subsequently succeeded by a chorus of those who, during the first days of the voyage, yielded to the usual attack of sea. sickness, in which most of the passengers participated to a greater or less extent. After going through the process of government inspection, clearing, etc., Pres. Neslen, in connection with his counselors, proceeded to organize the company into ten wards, namely, five English and five Scandinavian, appointing a president over each to see to the faithful observance of cleanliness, good order, etc. The Scandinavian Saints occupied one side of the vessel and the British and Swiss the other. The company was blessed with a most pleasant and agreeable voyage, which lasted only 31 days. The health of the passengers was exceptionally good, which was demon strafed by the fact that only one death occurred on board, and that was an old Swedish sister by the name of Inger Olson Hagg, 61 years old, who had been afflicted upwards of four years previous to her embarkation This single loss by death was counter balanced by two births. In the matrimonial department the company did exceedingly well, as no less than nineteen marriages were solemnized on board; of these five couples were English, one Swiss and thirteen Scandinavian. Every day during the voyage the people were called together for prayers morning and evening a 8 o'clock. On Sundays, three meetings were usually held on deck, and fellowship meetings in each ward two nights a week. The monotony of the voyage was also relieved with singing, instrumental music, dancing games, etc., in which, as a matter of course, the young people took a prominent part, while the more sedate enjoyed themselves in witnessing and hearing the happifying recreations. Elder Neslen writes that he felt it quite a task, when he was appointed to take charge of a company composed of people from so many countries, speaking nine different languages, and having different manners, customs, and peculiar). ties, and thrown together under such close circumstances; but through the faithfulness and diligence of the Saints, which was universally manifested, he soon found the load far easier than he had anticipated, and upon the arrival of the company in New York, it was pronounced by doctors and government officers to be the best disciplined and most agreeable company that ever arrived at that port. Arriving safely in New York harbor, the emigrants were landed in Castle Garden on Saturday, May 14th.

0n the same day, in the evening, most of them continued the journey by steamboat up the Hudson River to Albany; whence they traveled by rail via Niagara, Windsor in Canada Detroit in Michigan, and Quincy, Ill., St. Joseph, Missouri, where they arrived on the 21st. In the afternoon of that day they boarded the steamboat "St. Mary," which brought them up the Missouri River to Florence, Nebraska, where they arrived on the 25th in the morning. The whole route through the States was one which no former company of emigrating Saints had ever taken. Brother George Q. Cannon and those who assisted him in the emigration business that year, were quite successful in making arrangements for their transportation by rail direct to St. Joseph, instead of, as first contemplated, shipping them to Iowa City. On their arrival at Florence the Saints were organized into temporary districts and branches, with presiding officers over each, whose duty it was to look after the comfort and welfare of the people while encamped at or near that place. Prayer meetings were held regularly twice a week in most of the temporary branches. About fifty of the Saints who crossed the Atlantic in the "William Tapscott" stopped temporarily in New York and other parts of the United States.

On the 1st of June the Scandinavian handcart emigrants were organized into three companies with Hans O. Magleby, Jens Jensen and Mathias B. Nilsson as captains, and, together with the English Saints, they commenced their journey from Florence on the 9th of June. The whole company consisted of 235 souls with 60 handcarts, under the leadership of Capt. George Rowley. For each handcart there were from 4 to 6 persons, with 20 pounds of baggage and some provisions for each. Eight wagons hauled by oxen followed the handcarts with the rest of the provisions and were expected also to give the tired and sick an opportunity to ride in case of necessity. After a successful journey, the company reached Salt Lake City on Sunday, Sept. 4th.

As soon as it became known in the Valley that the handcart company was approaching, thousands of the inhabitants of the City went out to meet them, and, led by two bands of music, the brave wanderers marched through the streets of the City, which were filled with people, to Union Square, where they were greeted by the multitude, and Apostle Ezra T. Benson gave a short speech of welcome. A bounteous supply of all kinds of food was brought the emigrants, agreeable to arrangements made by the Bishops of the different Wards of the city. The reception was very touching and full-hearted, and many tears of joy were seen trickling down the cheeks of the new arrivals and their friends who received them. The emigrants were soon settled and treated in a most hospitable and kind way by their relatives, friends and acquaintances.

An ox train, consisting of about 56 wagons, was organized at Florence with nearly 380 Scandinavian Saints, segregated into five divisions, for each of which a captain was appointed, while Elder Robert F. Neslen was appointed captain of the whole. The five captains of Ten were George D. Keaton, C. Kidgell, Soren P. Guhl, Lars Nilsson, and Christian Jeppesen. The company left Florence June 26, 1859, and arrived after a successful journey, in Salt Lake City, Sept. 15th. Six deaths and three births took place on the journey and 24 of the animals died en route by sickness and poisoning. Among the brethren who died was Elder Peter A. Fjeldsted who, prior to emigrating, had presided over the Vendsyssel Conference. In 1859, the Saints in the Scandinavian Mission were advised by the Elders to do all within their power to save means for their emigration to Zion. This counsel was followed with great willingness, so much so that Pres. Carl Widerborg in his report, dated June 30, 1859, could state, that he had already placed in the bank the sum of 3,029 rigsdaler, which the Saints in Scandinavia had saved for emigration purposes. Since that time the poor Saints in Den. mark, Sweden and Norway were repeatedly urged to practice economy, and by a wise expenditure of their earnings, hundreds of Saints were enabled by their own effort to emigrate to Zion.

1860 (p. 148-150)

On Wednesday, May 2, 1860, 301 emigrating Saints, viz., 182 Danish, 80 Swedish and 39 Norwegian, sailed from Copenhagen, Denmark, on board the new Prussian steamship "Pauline," under the leader. ship of Carl Widerborg, who now emigrated to Zion. The voyage over the Cattegat and North Sea being stormy, a number of the emigrants suffered with seasickness, but the company arrived safe and well in Grimsby, England, May 5th. From Grimsby, the emigrants continued the journey to Liverpool, where they arrival Sunday afternoon, May 6th, and secured lodgings in a hotel on Paradise Street. On Monday, May 7th, they boarded the "William Tapscott" a freight ship, which the previous year had brought a large company of emigrating Saints across the Atlantic. Besides the Scandinavian Saints, 85 Swiss and a large company of Welsh and English Saints went on board the same ship bound for America. Among the English were Elders Asa Calkin, who had presided over the European Mission, and Thomas Williams, both accompanied by their families. When all were on board, the emigrating Saints numbered 730 souls. Asa Calkin was appointed president of the company, with Elders William Budge and Carl Widerborg as counselors. The company was divided in. to nine districts, each with a district president. The district presidents of the Scandinavian contingent were Lars Eriksen, assisted by Hans Jensen; Mads Poulsen from Copenhagen, assisted by Carl J. E. Fjeld from Norway; Elder Christensen (Dannebrogsmand), assisted by Paul Stark from Sweden, Jons Jonsson from Malmo, assisted by Soren Moller, and Ingvardt Hansen from Aarhus, assisted by Hans M. Nisson from Lolland. Swen Lovendahl was appointed captain of the guard and Nils Larson from Skane, Sweden, cook.

The "William Tapscott sailed from Liverpool, May 11, 1860. It was a fine ship and a splendid sailer, but, owing to contrary winds, the voyage consumed 35 days. Union and good order prevailed during the whole voyage. Prayer was held every morning and evening, an on Sundays religious services were held on the deck. Owing to cold and a change of diet, considerable sickness prevailed among. the emigrants, and ten deaths occurred, most of them among the Scandinavian Saints. Four children were born on board and nine couples married, among whom were Hans Christian Heiselt and Larsine Larsen from the Vendsyssel Conference, Denmark. On the 3rd of June, the smallpox showed itself among the emigrants, seven cases of this disease were reported, none of which, however, proved fatal. On Friday evening, June 15th, the ship arrived at the quarantine dock in New York harbor. The next day two doctors came on board and vaccinated, with but very few exceptions, all of the steerage passengers, a part of the cabin passengers, and the ship's crew. This was done to prevent a further outbreak of the disease, though all the sick had nearly recovered by this time. On the 20th, after being detained in quarantine five or six days, the passengers were landed at Castle Garden, New York. The smallpox cases had previously been taken ashore and placed in a hospital. On the 21st the emigrants left New York per steamboat "Isaac Newton" and sailed up the Hudson River to Albany, where they arrived on the 22nd. From Albany the journey was continued via Rochester to Niagara Falls, where the train stopped about seven hours in order to give the emigrants the pleasure of seeing the great waterfall and the grand suspension bridge. The journey was continued through Canada along the north shore of Lake Erie to Windsor, where the river was crossed to Detroit in Michigan. Thence to Chicago, which city was reached June 25th. From Chicago, the emigrants traveled by railroad to Quincy, Ill., whence they crossed the Mississippi River to Hannibal in Missouri, and thence traveled by railroad to St. Joseph, Mo. Here 13 persons were placed in a hospital, but upon close examination they were found to be well enough to join the company the following day on the trip up the Missouri River, to Florence, Neb., where the company arrived in the night between June 30th and July 1st. Elder George Q. Cannon, who this year acted as Church emigration agent, made splendid arrangements for the journey across the Plains. It was deemed wisdom to send the emigrants as far as possible by steam and avoid the toilsome and harassing part of the team journey from Iowa City to Florence, a distance of nearly 300 miles, which in former years had required from 15 to 20 days travel. It had been learned by experience that the distance between Iowa City and Florence, at the season of the year when the emigrants had to travel it, was, in point of toil and hardship, by far the worst part of the journey, owing to its being a low, wet country, which in the opening of the year was subject to heavy and continued rains. These storms, owing to the nature of the soil (being clay most of the distance), rendered the roads almost impassable. Arriving at Florence, the emigrants found shelter in a number of empty houses while they made the necessary preparations for crossing the Plains.

A handcart company consisting of 126 souls, traveling with 22 handcarts and 6 wagons, left Florence on their westward journey July 6th, under the leadership of Capt. Oscar O. Stoddard. The company was divided into three parts under Elders D. Fischer, Anders Christensen and Carl J. E. Fjeld, respectively. After a journey of 81 days, the company arrived in Salt Lake City, Sept. 24, 1859, having suffered the ordinary hardships and difficulties incident to all handcart travel. Considerable sickness prevailed among the emigrants during the journey, and a number of animals died, which made the latter part of the journey particularly difficult. The last ox-train of the season, with which a number of the Scandinavian emigrants crossed the plains, left Florence soon after the handcart company and arrived in Salt Lake City, Oct. 5th. This company consisted of about 400 souls, traveling with 55 wagons, 215 oxen and 77 cows, all under the leadership of Elder William Budge, but the Scandinavian and Swiss contingent traveled under the immediate direction of Elder Carl Widerborg part of the way separate from the rest of the company. Four deaths and four births took place on the journey. A company of English and Scandinavian Saints, who had been temporarily located at different places in the United States, principally in Iowa and Nebraska, left Florence for the West July 3rd. This company, which consisted of 123 souls, was led by Elder John Taylor, assisted in the Scandinavian division by Elder Jens Peter Christensen, who had spent about five years in the States and presided for one year over a Danish branch of the Church at Alton, Ill.

After a successful journey across the plains this company arrived in Salt Lake City, Sept. 17, 1860.

1861 (p. 154-156)

On Thursday, May 9,1861, a company of 565 Scandinavian Saints ( 373 Danish, 128 Swedish and 6-l Norwegian ) sailed from Copenagen by steamer "Waldemar." Pres. John Van Cott, who accompanied them to England, joined the emigrants at Kiel. Elders Hans Olin Hansen, Niels Wilhelmsen, Jens Nielsen, Gustaf A. Ohlson, Saamund Gudmundsen, Carl W. J. Hecker, Anders Frantzen and others returned home or emigrated with this company, after having labored faithfully as missionaries in the Scandinavian Mission. After a successful voyage the company arrived at Kiel in the morning of May 10th, and were a: once forwarded by special train to Altona, where they arrived about noon. In Altona the company was divided in two parts, of which one (about 200 Saints) immediately boarded the steamer "Brittania" and departed for Hull, England, about 3 p. m. the same day. They arrived at Hull May 12th. The second division (169 souls), having been quartered in a large hall over night, left Hamburg May 11, 1861, at about 3 p. m. by steamer "Eugenia," which, after a pleasant voyage, arrived at Grimsby, England, on the morning of May 13th. The captain of this vessel treated the emigrants with all due respect and kindness, while the Opposite was the case on the steamer "Brittania." The two companies joined together again at Grimsby, where they were comfortably cared for until the morning of May 14th, when they proceeded by special train to Liverpool, arriving, in that city about 2 p. m. Two hours later they were placed on board the ship "The Monarch of the Sea," the largest vessel that had carried Latter-day Saint emigrants across the Atlantic up to that date.

This company of Saints was also until then the largest to cross the Ocean on one ship. Or. May 16th, the company was organized by Presidents Amasa M. Lyman, Chas. C. Rich and Geo. Q. Cannon, who appointed Elder Jabez Woodard from Switzerland, president, with Hans Olin Hansen and Niels Wilhelmsen as his counselors. At 11 a. m. the great vessel lifted anchor, and, amid great cheers of parting friends, the ship left the wharf and began its long voyage. Later the large company was divided into districts, the Scandinavian in seven and the English and Germans into three or four, each under a president. The names of these presidents were: Edward Read, John J. P. Wallace, Horace Pegg. Peter Nielsen, Saamund Gudmundsen, Gustaf A. Ohlson, Aaron G. Oman, Lars C. Geertsen, Johan Fagerberg and Rasmus Nielsen; the latter also acted as marshal for the Scandinavians. Elias L. T. Harrison was appointed chief secretary, while Lars C. Geertsen was chosen to act as clerk for the Scandinavians. The emigrants were kindly treated by both officers and crew on shipboard and the provisions were good and sufficient. Some inconvenience was experienced in getting the food cooked on the ranges, on account of the great number of pots and kettles to be served in the kitchen, and on this account each family could only cook five times each week. The sick were treated to wine and beer; the adults received boiled sago and the children had milk. On the voyage from Copenhagen to New York nine persons, most of whom were children, died; 14 couples were married and four births took place on board. Of the marriages 11couples were Scandinavians. Among them were Anders Frantzen of the Aarhus Conference and Maren Mortensen of the Copenhagen Conference. Saamund Gudmundsen and Ellen Maria Mork of the Brevig Conference, and Carl W. J. Hecker and Karen Marie Madsen of the Vendsyssel Conference.

The weather was favorable most of the time during the voyage; the ship, however, had to battle against the wind a couple of days. Large icebergs were passed among which was one judged to tower 200 feet high above water. On June 19th the "Monarch of the Sea" arrived in New York, where the company was met by Elders Jones and Williams and lodged at Castle Garden. Apostle Erastus Snow, who also happened to be in New York at the time, spoke to the Scandinavians in the Danish language. From New York the company traveled by rail and steamboat (part of the way in two divisions) to Florence, Neb., the first division arriving at Florence July 1st, and the second July 2nd. The route taken was about the same as the year before (via Dunkirk, Cleveland, Chicago, Quincy, St. Joseph, etc.). Preparations for the journey across the Plains were at once made and all who had not the means to fit themselves out for the long journey were assisted by teams from Utah, which this year for the first time were sent in large companies by the Church to the Missouri River to assist the poor Saints in gathering to Zion. Most of the Scandinavians grants assisted in this manner crossed the Plains in Capt. John R. Murdock's company, which left Florence in the beginning of July and arrived in Salt Lake City, Sept. 12th. The rest of the emigrants--those who possessed sufficient means to help themselves—left Florence a few days later under the leadership of Captain Samuel A. Woolley with about 60 ox-teams. After traveling for some distance, the company was divided into two sections, and Elder Porter was appointed captain of the second division. On Sunday, Sept. 22nd, this company arrived safely in Salt Lake dress.

1862 (p. 161-167)

The number of Saints emigrating from Scandinavia in 1862 was greater than in any previous or subsequent year. No less than 1,556 souls, in four different companies, sailed from Hamburg on four chartered vessels destined for Utah. The presidency of the Scandinavian Mission had made a contract with a Mr. Robert M. Sloman of Hamburg to carry the Latter-day Saint emigrants from the port of Hamburg to New York that year, and he seemed to have filled his contract with perfect satisfaction to the representatives of the Church and the emigrating Saints generally. For several months, the preparation for this large emigration had been going on in the different conferences throughout Denmark, Sweden and Norway. The emigrating Saints from the Jutland conferences in Denmark went direct to Hamburg, while most of those from the other conferences first gathered in Copenhagen and thence made their way to Hamburg in different companies. Thus the steamer "Albion" sailed from Aalborg, April 6, 1862, with over 400 Saints from the Aalborg and Vendsyssel conferences. Sailing southward, the ship took up the emigrating Saints from the Aarhus and Skive conferences at Aarhus in the morning of the 7th, and at Fredericia later the same day they picked up the emigrating Saints from the Fredericia and Fyen conferences at Fredericia; the ship reached Kiel in Holstein on the eve of the 7th. Here they were joined by a small contingent from Copenhagen, and the journey was then continued the same day (April 8th) to Altona and Hamburg; in the evening the emigrants went on board the ships "Humboldt" and "Franklin," which were anchored in the Elbe.

The steamer "Albion" sailed from Copenhagen April 14, 1862, with about 500 emigrating Saints on board, and, after a successful voyage, arrived at Kiel at 8 o'clock a. m. of April 15th. After spending about two hours in transferring the baggage of the emigrants to the rail. way cars, the company left Kiel on an extra train for Altona, where they arrived at 1:30 p. m. Pres. John Van Cott, assisted by other brethren, proceeded immediately to read the list of the emigrants and bring them on board the ships "Electric" and "Athenia" which, like the "Humbolt" and "Franklin," were anchored in the Elbe off Hamburg.

The last of the Latter-day Saint Scandinavian emigrants of that sea. son sailed from Copenhagen, April 17, 1862, on board the steamer "Aurora," which arrived at Kiel in the morning of the 18th and late, the same day continued the journey by rail to Altona, where the emigrants spent a few hours attending to their baggage, and were then taken by a tender to the ship "Athenia," which lay at anchor down the Elbe near Gluckstadt.

On Wednesday, April 9th, the ship "Humbolt," Capt. H. B. Boysen, sailed from Hamburg with 323 emigrating Saints, in care of Elder Hans C. Hansen, who now, after laboring as a missionary in Scandinavia, was returning to his home in Zion. After a successful voyage this company of emigrants arrived in New York May 20th, thence the journey westward was continued by railroad and steamboat to Florence, Neb., which was the outfitting place for the journey across the Plains this year, and where the emigrants of that company arrived in the be ginning of June. Fourteen persons died on sea and land up to the date of the company's arrival at Florence On Tuesday, April 15th, the ship "Franklin" (Capt. Robt. Murray) sailed from Hamburg with 413 emigrating Saints, nearly all from the Aalborg and Vendsyssel Conferences. They were in charge of Chr. A. Madsen, an Elder returning home. He chose Jens C. A. Weibye and Lauritz Larsen as his counselors. On board the ship the company was organized into eight districts wit] the following brethren as presidents Jens C. Thorpe, Jens Christensen Kornum, Niels Mortensen (Lynge) Lars P. Fjeldsted, C. P. Borregaard Jens C. S. Frost, Thomas Larsen and Jens Andersen. Jens F. Mortensen was appointed baggage master, Anthon H. Lund, interpreter, and Chr Andersen captain of the guard.

Elder Jens C. A. Weibye give the following account of the voyage across the Atlantic:

"We went on board the "Franklin" in the evening of Tuesday (April 8th) and was appointed to-locate the emigrants in their bunks below deck. These bunks, 160 in number, were so wide that three persons easily could have room in one of them side by side. After getting our baggage in order. we received our ration of provisions. These consisted of beef pork, peas, beans. potatoes, pearl barley rice, prunes, syrup. vinegar, pepper. coffee, tea, sugar, butter, rye bread, sea biscuits, water flour, salted herring, salt, and oil (for tee lamps). We lighted 11 lanterns every night, 6 of which belonged to the ship and 5 to the emigrants. We hired an extra cook in Hamburg for 90 rigsdaler, and besides him two of our brethren served as assistant cooks. We thus had our dinners nicely cooked in about the following routine, viz., Sunday we had sweet soup, Monday pea soup; Tuesday and Wednesday, rice, Thursday pea soup; Friday, barley mush, and Saturday herring and potatoes."

"Some of the emigrants carried the measles with them from home and the disease soon spread to all parts of the ship, so that no less than 40 persons mostly children, were attacked at once. Many of the emigrants were also suffering with diarrhea, which caused very much weakness of body. We lost the appetite for sea biscuits, but learned to soak them in water or tea from 8 to 12 hours, which softened them so that they could become more palatable. The sick were served twice a day with porridge made from barley, rice or sago and almost every day pancakes could be had by the hundreds for the sick who could not eat the "hard tack" (sea biscuits). Wheat bread was also baked for some of the old people. We held a council meeting every night, and the sanitary conditions of the ship's apartments were attended with great care. Three times a week the decks were washed and twice a week the ship was thoroughly fumigated by burning tar. A spirit of peace prevailed and very few difficulties occurred. The captain and crew were good-natured and obliging, and so were the cooks, who even served the sick when they were not on duty,.

"We held at times meetings of worship on the upper or lower decks, and every morning at 5 o'clock the signal for rising was given by the clarionet, or accordeon. At 7 a. m. and 9 p. m. a similar signal was sounded calling the Saints to assemble in their several districts for prayer Most every day we amused ourselves a short time by dancing on the deck to music played by some of our brethren or members of the crew. We could thus have had an enjoyable time, had it not been for the sorrow occasioned by the many sick and dying among us, on account of the measles. Up to this date (May 27th) 3 adults and 43 children have died, nearly all from measles. During the last few days the chicken pox has also broken out among us and four cases have already developed. We have had head winds most of the time, otherwise we could have been in New York before now, for the "Franklin" is a first-class ship. We have been very little troubled with sea sickness."

On Thursday, May 29th, in the forenoon, the "Franklin" arrived at New York. The emigrants were placed on a transport steamer to be landed at Castle Garden, but on arriving at the wharf, they were not permitted to go ashore, because of some cases of measles yet existing among them. After 18 of the sick had been taken into the hospital, the rest were returned to the "Franklin" and there remained on board two more nights and a day. Finally, on May 31st, they were landed at Castle Garden, where they were met by Elders Chas. C. Rich, John Van Cott and other brethren.

A part of the emigrants did not have means to carry them further on their way to Zion than New York, but through the generosity of some of the Saints who were more fortunate, a sufficient sum was raised to take all these poor Saints along, and with rejoicing the journey was then resumed, leaving New York May 31st, at 9 p. m., by extra railway train to Albany, where they . rived the next morning (June 1st) From there the journey was continued by train via Syracuse, Rochester, Niagara, Windsor, Detroit and Chicago to Quincy, Ill., and thence by steamboat across the Mississippi River to Hannibal, Mo., and again by train to St. Joseph, Mo., where they arrived June 6th. The following day they boarded the steamboat "Westwind" and left St. Joseph at 10 p. m., after having spent the "Day of Pentecost" in a way that was anything but pleas. ant (as there was very poor and crowded accommodation for so many people on this comparatively small vessel). The company arrived at Florence, Neb., on Monday, June 9th, at 10 o'clock p. m.

Hans C. Hansen's company, which crossed the ocean in the "Humboldt," arrived there a week before. Among the 48 persons who died in the "Franklin" company during the voyage on the sea was Bro. Jens Andersen from Veddum (Aalborg Conference), Den. mark, who with his own means had assisted 60 or 70 poor Saints to emigrate. He died on the North Sea on the 25th of April, soon after the ship had left Cuxhaven. On the way from New York to Florence, two children died, of whom one was the 15 months old daughter of Jens C. A. Weibye. Eleven persons (4 adults and 7 children) died while staying at Florence and a young girl died on the Plains, making in all 62 of the "Franklin" company who died between Hamburg and Salt Lake City.

On Tuesday, June 10th, the emigrants pitched their tents a short fortunate, a sufficient sum distance north of Florence, and the necessary purchases of oxen, wagons, cows etc. were attended to. Those who crossed the Plains by the Church teams were organized into messes to receive their provisions from the commissary of the company. A few of the emigrants had become apostles on the way and remained in the States. Among these were a blacksmith, J. P. Jacobsen, and Lauritz Larsen from Hojen, Christopher Thomsen from Gaardsholt, Vendsyssel, Denmark, and others with their families. The rest of the emigrants remained in camp for several weeks before beginning the journey across the Plains. A few days before the company left camp, Florence and vicinity was visited by a terrible tornado, accompanied by rain, thunder and lightning, by which two of the brethren were killed and Elder Jos. W. Young received severe wounds from a wagon-box which blew down upon him; after the accident, he was carried to a place of safety in an unconscious condition, but recovered after awhile. The tents and wagon covers of the company were badly torn and shattered on that occasion. On Friday, April 18th, the ship "Electric" (Capt. H. J. Johansen) sailed from Hamburg with 336 emigrating Saints bound for Utah, in charge of Elder Soren Christoffersen. The emigrants were from the Lolland and other conferences in Denmark, and from Norrkoping Conference in Sweden. The original plan was that the Norrkoping Conference contingent should have sailed on the ``Athenia," but this arrangement was changed so that some of them sailed on the "Electric" instead.

The "Electric" sailed down the Elbe to Gluckstadt Roads, arriving there about noon Here anchor WAS cast near the ship "Athenia," which had another company of emigrating Saints on board. At this time there were 335 emigrants on board the "Electric" and 486 on the "Athenia." The "Electric" lifted anchor April 22nd and sailed to a point off the coast of Hanover, where anchor was again dropped and the ship waited for the wind to change. Favored at last with a good wind the "Electric" made the final start for America, April 25th, sailing out into the North Sea. Before sailing, Pres. John Van Cott came on board and assisted in organizing the emigrating Saints, who were divided into nine districts, in each of which there were from 25 to 40 persons.

During the voyage a number of the emigrants died. Following is a partial list of the dead: A woman from Lolland, Denmark, who was sick before she left her home, died May 2, leaving her husband and a child; a 15-year old girl died of throat disease May 3rd; a little girl from Lolland died May 5th; Sophia Maria Sorensen, the 2-year old daughter of Knud Sorensen, from Jutland, died May 8th; Hilma Anderson, a daughter of Sister Susanna Anderson, of Sweden, died May 14th; Jorgen Lydersen from Jutland, Denmark, 48 years old, died May 17th, leaving a wife and one child; on the same day, Augusta Caroline Johanson, the one-year old daughter of August Johanson of Sweden, died; also a little girl named Sophia Katrine Johansen from Denmark died; Lars Petter Pehrsson died May 19th; he was from Vesterplano, Sweden. Pauline Mortensen, a daughter of Carl Fred Mortensen, died in the evening of May 25th; she was the third of the Mortensen family to die on board the "Electric." At least one marriage took place on board, that of Frederik Bernhardt Thyberg and Sister Mathea Josephine Nordfors; they were married May 10th. On the 31st of May, one of the sisters gave birth to a child who received the name of Electric Sophia Sorensen. A number of meetings were held on board during the voyage and union and harmony existed among the emigrants during the entire journey.

The ship arrived safely in New York and the emigrants landed at Castle Garden on Friday, June 6, 1862. Here the company met the Saints who had crossed the Atlantic in the ship "Athenia" and who landed on the 7th. Both companies left New York June 9th and arrived at Florence, Neb., June 19. On Monday, April 21, 1862, the ship "Athenia" (Capt. D. Schilling) sailed from Hamburg with 484 emigrating Saints on board in charge of Elder Ola N. Liljenquist, and before noon the ship was on the broad face of the North Sea.

Elder Ola N. Liljenquist, in giving a report of the voyage, writes:

"We steered to the North of Scotland had fine weather, doubling a cape of Scotland on the 29th in the afternoon passing the light tower in the evening Before midnight we were sailing on the Atlantic Ocean. We had favorable winds for several days with considerable motion of the sea, and therefore many suffered with sea sickness. Two weeks after leaving Gluckstadt we had covered about half of the distance to New York, but from that time the wheel of fortune rather turned against us While we hitherto had been favored with good winds, these now turned, and then at other times we had a perfect calm. The captain steered towards the southwest until we reached the Gulf Stream about 300 miles south of Newfoundland Banks. After that we had such a calm for a whole week that not even a feather stirred and the temperature of the water and air varied between 70 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit. This sudden change from the cool north, together with the bad water, which becomes stagnant from the heat, caused the sickness, which already had a hold among us, to increase rapidly. The measles, which had been brought on board and already had claimed severe victims, took away 33 of the little ones, and several of the adults also suffered with bowel complaints and diarrhea. The first winds that blew the captain utilized to take us farther north into a cooler climate Now we are all well, thanks to Him, who holds our destiny in his hands. Five adults have died, namely Ole Nielsen, 37 years old; Christine Poulsen, 29 years old; Hans Niels from Amager, 52 years old; Ane Nielsen, 70 years old, and Kaisa Jensen, 65 years of age. The captain ordered the cook to make oat meal porridge for the sick in the morning, rice at noon and sago porridge in the afternoon."

On the 7th of June, the "Athenia " arrived in New York, where Elder Soren Christoffersen's company was met, it having arrived the day before Both companies left New York June by train for Florence, where they arrived safely on the 19th.

The emigrants who sailed across the Atlantic in the four ships mentioned came together in Florence from which place those who had not the means wherewith to equip themselves for the journey across the Plains were assisted by the teams sent there from the Valley by the Church, while those who had means wherewith to help themselves were organized into two independent companies. One of these was placed in charge of Elder Chr. A. Madsen and was composed of 264 persons, 40 wagons, 14 horses, 174 oxen. 99 cows, 37 heifers, 7 calves, 6 dogs and 10 chickens, and brought along 22 tents, 32 cooking stoves, 5 revolvers and 37 rifles. Hans C. Hansen was captain of the guard and Jens C. A. Weibye secretary for the company which was divided into six divisors with the following brethren as captains: Soren Larsen, Jens C. A. Weibye, Niels Mortensen (Lyuge), Thomas Lund, Lauritz Larsen and Chr. H. Gron. The first mentioned had charge of five horse teams and the others eight ox teams each.

The other company, which also counted about 40 wagons, with its quota of persons, animals, etc., was in charge of Elder Ola N. Liljenquist, and Elder John Van Cott was placed as general leader of both companies, which broke camp at Florence, July 14, 1862. The first few days some difficulty was experienced, as the oxen, who were not used to Scandinavian orders and management, would often follow their own inclination to leave the road and run away with the wagons, but after some practice on the part of their inexperienced teamsters, the difficulty somewhat disappeared. The journey from Florence was via Elkhorn River, Loup Fork, Wood River, Willow Lake, Rattlesnake Creek, Fort Laramie, Upper Platte Bridge, Devil's Gate, South Pass, Green River, etc., to Salt Lake City, where the company safely arrived Sept. 23, 1862.

Elder Jens C. A. Weibye, from whose journal most of the information in regard to the journey across the Plains was obtained, gives tile following details:

"Capt. Chr. A. Madsen advised us to take along several needful articles, which we did, and we were well organized when we began the journey from Florence. To begin with, we traveled only a few miles each day, which was a good thing for us, who were unaccustomed to drive oxen. We generally had good camp grounds and only occasionally we had to camp where we could not obtain water. As a rule there was an abundance of grass for the oxen, and at times also sufficient fuel to be found, but a great part of the way the Sisters had to content themselves with cooking over fires made from sunflower stems and 'buffalo chips.' Nearly all able-bodied men and women had to walk most of the way; some of the women rode in the wagons only across the larger rivers while they would wade across the smaller streams like the men. Sometimes the women and children were carried across the streams by the men when it was feared the oxen could not pull the wagons with their heavy loads. We did exactly what our leaders told us to do, and consequently everything went well with us, for we could not read in books how and what to do either on the voyage across the ocean (which took 51 days) or on the journey across the Plains (which lasted 71 days). On the journey across the Plains, the weather was generally fair and a good spirit prevailed among us. The health of the company was also good as a rule, and only one death occurred on the Plains. We always kept up a guard and lost but a few head of cattle."

Concerning the arrival in Salt Lake City of this company, the "Deseret News" of Sept. 24, 1862, published a short sketch:

"Of the Scandinavian Saints who crossed the Plains with the Church teams 384 souls went with Capt. John R. Murdock's company, which left Florence July 24th and arrived in Salt Lake City, Sept. 27th. The whole company consisted of about 700 souls and 65 teams. On the journey 14 persons died, 2 couples were married and 2 children born."

"Another division of the Scandinavian emigrants crossed the Plains in Capt. Joseph Home's company (the 3rd company of the Church teams) containing 570 souls and 52 ox-teams, which left Florence July 29th and arrived in Salt Lake City Oct.. 1st. A third division crossed the Plains in the 4th company of the Church teams under Capt. Ansel P. Harmon, arriving in Salt Lake City on the 5th of October. This latter company was from the start infested with measles from which about 15 children died on the Plains. Two children were killed by the overturning of a wagon".

The Church sent in all six companies (262 wagons, 293 men, 2,880 oxen, 143,315 rounds of flour, etc.) to the Missouri River in 1862, to assist poor Saints immigrating to the Valley.

1863 (p. 174-179)

About four hundred Saints, emigrating to Utah, sailed from Copenhagen, Denmark, April 20, 1863. This was the first division of a large emigrant company of Scandinavian Saints left Copenhagen that spring. The emigrants, after a pleasant voyage on the Baltic, landed at Kiel, Holstein, whence they traveled by railroad to Altona and there boarded the steamer "Tiger," bound for Hull, and the steamer "Lord Cardigan," bound for Grimsby, England, and sailed the same evening. President N. Smith and the mission clerk (Carl Larsen) left Copenhagen by rail in the evening of the 20th for Korsor and thence traveled by steamer to Kiel, where they joined the emigrants and then accompanied them to Altona. Brothers Smith and Larsen went on board the "Tiger" at Altona in order to accompany the larger company of the two to England. Stormy weather caused delay of 36 hours at Cuxhaven, at the mouth of the Elbe, but at last the ship put to sea. The magnificent vessel fought bravely against the strong contrary wind and the angry sea, and, though the voyage was long and unpleasant, the emigrants arrived safely in Hull in the morning of April 26th. At the landing the emigrants were met by Elder John M. Kay, who was awaiting them with a small steamer, which after an hour's sailing landed the passengers from the "Tiger" at Grimsby, where a large and convenient house had been hired for the use of the emigrants during their brie] stay in Grimsby. The emigrants who had sailed from Altona on the steamer "Lord Cardigan" arrived in Grimsby April 27th. On both steamers the officers and crews treated the emigrants with all due courtesy. From Grimsby the journey was continued by rail to Liverpool, where the company arrived April 28th, and there joined the second division of Scandinavian Saints which left Copenhagen April 23rd.

A second company of emigrating Saints (about 200 souls), bound for the gathering places of the Saints in the Rocky Mountains, sailed from Copenhagen, April 23, 1863, per steamship "Aurora." This was the second division of a large company of emigrating Saints who left Scandinavia that spring for Utah. The steamer "Aurora" arrived in Kiel in the morning of April 24th, and the same day the Saints went by special railway train to Hamburg where lodgings were secured for them m a large emigrant building, while their baggage was being transferred to the large and beautiful steamer "Grimsby," on which they went on board in the evening. This steamer sailed from Hamburg on the 25th and after a successful voyage of two days on the North Sea arrived at Grimsby, England, Monday morning, April 27th. Here the emigrants spent the night in a freight house. The following day (April 28th) the company went by train to Liverpool, where the Scandinavian emigrants and 113 English Saints boarded the ship "John J. Boyd," the total number of souls now being 766. The company was organized; by President George Q. Cannon, who appointed Wm. W. Cluff leader, with Elders Knud H. Bruun and William S. Baxter as his counselors. Later the company was divided into seven districts. The ship sailed from Liverpool on the evening of April 30th, but anchored out in the river until the next morning (May 1st), when the "John J. Boyd" lifted anchor and started On its voyage across the Atlantic. The voyage proved a pleasant one and lasted only 29 days. On board, the emigrants received good food in abundance Every seventh day a ration for each person was issued consisting of one and one-half pounds of rice, two pounds of peas, one pound Of pork, two pounds of beef, three pounds of potatoes, three pounds of oatmeal, one-fourth pound of tea, two ounces of pepper, two ounces of mustard, one-half pint of vinegar and a quantity of English sea biscuits. Besides this the sick obtained wine, milk, sago, sugar and soup from the captain's kitchen. Elder Peter O. Thomassen writes that Brother Wm. W. Cluff won for himself the admiration of the Saints and gave perfect satisfaction in performing his difficult duties as leader of the company. The sanitary condition on board was very good; only four or five persons died on the sea. The monotony of the voyage was one day (May 21st) broken by seeing eight mighty icebergs swaying in majestic grandeur upon the shining billows, glittering in forms of purest crystal. They were accompanied by a wintry degree of cold, and to make the illusion of the polar seas more effective five whales were seen playing about the ship, sending the water like springing fountains high in the air. The "John J. Boyd" arrived safely with its precious cargo of souls in New York harbor, and on Sunday June 1st, the emigrants were landed at Castle Garden. In the evening of the same day the journey was continued to Albany, New York, and on to Florence, Nebraska. Peter O. Thomassen writes:

"The journey by railroad was more pleasant than we had expected to find it as the train stopped often and at some length at some of the principal cities we Passed through, giving us opportunities to straighten our legs and move about see some of the country and satisfy our ever increasing appetite for sightseeing. An old conductor, who claimed to have been acquainted with Joseph, the Prophet, was clever enough to stop the train when we arrived at Palmyra, N. Y., where the Prophet first entered upon his remark. able career. He showed us the house in which the Prophet resided, the woods in which he received heavenly visions and the hill Cumorah, where he obtained the Book of Mormon plates. This information went like wildfire from car to car and all who possibly could do so got out to have a view of these dear historic places and to pluck a flower or blade of grass from the locality as a memento to carry away with them. A few moments later after the whistle of the engine had signalled for 'all aboard,'. the train again glided onward towards the object of our journey." The emigrants arrived in Florence June 11th, all well. Here some of them remained about six weeks Soon after their arrival in Florence they w-ere joined by the emigrants who had sailed from Copenhagen April 30, 1863. About two hundred emigrating Saints from the Christiania, Lolland and Bornholm conferences sailed from Copenhagen per steamer "Aurora," April 30, 1863, bound for Utah, under the leadership of Elders Carl C. N. Dorius, Johan F. F. Dorius and Hans Peter Lund.

Some of the Norwegians emigrating in this company (28 souls) had sailed from Christiania April 13, 1863, per steamer "Excellensen Toll." A strong and contrary wind on the Skagerak and Cattegat made the voyage very uncomfortable, but the emigrants were safely landed in Copenhagen April 15th. Another company of emigrating Saints (about one hundred souls) left Christiania, Norway, April 28th, under the direction of Elder Johan F. F. Dorius and arrived in Copenhagen, April 29th, where the Norwegians joined the emigrants from other parts of the mission. About a dozen Saints emigrating to Zion went direct from Stavanger to Hull where they joined those who had sailed from Copenhagen.

When the emigrating Saints left Copenhagen April 30th the weather was fine, and a great number of people congregated on the wharf to see the Saints leave, but there were no disturbances, as a number of police had been detailed on special duty to keep order. The emigrants made themselves as comfortable as they could on the deck and in the second cabin of the "Aurora," which on the morning of Friday, May 1st, arrived at Kiel, where the emigrants walked to the railway station and left at 11 o'clock a.m. by railroad for Altona, where they arrived at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. From Altona to Hamburg, the emigrants walked in about half an hour to the ship "Roland", on which they went on board, together with about four hundred emigrating Saints from Jutland and Fyen (or the Saints from the Vendsyssel, Aalborg Skive, Aarhus, Fredericia and Fyen conferences) who, on June 30, 1863 had boarded a steamer at Aalborg Aarhus and Fredericia, and like those who commenced the voyage from Copenhagen, landed in Kiel, whence they traveled by rail to Altona. After the emigrants, numbering nearly six hundred souls, had gone on board together with about forty steers and several hundred sheep(which made the atmosphere on board anything but comfortable for the emigrants), the ship "Roland" sailed from Hamburg May 1st about midnight. The weather was very fine, but the emigrants, in their crowded quarters, nevertheless, were uncomfortable. Early on Sun day morning, May 3rd, the "Roland" cast anchor off Grimsby, and a little later sailed to the wharf, where most of the emigrants landed, with some of their baggage; the balance of the baggage, together with forty of the brethren, remained on board, as the ship went to Hull, where they arrived at 6 o'clock in the evening and remained on board all night. The next morning (May 4th) a small steamer ran up to the side of the "Roland" and took the rest of the baggage, be longing to the emigrants, back to Grimsby, while the forty brethren went to the same place by rail. Elder Carl C. N. Dorius, however, remained in Hull where he, about 1 o'clock the same day, received Some emigrants (seven adults and six children) who arrived direct from Statanger, Norway, per steamer "Skandinavien." In the afternoon, after settling with the captain of the steamer for their passage, Brother Dorius led these emigrants by steamer and train to Grimsby, where they were united with the other emigrants. At Grimsby the emigrating Saints were made quite comfortable in a large building erected for the use of emigrants On the 6th all the emigrants, except the Norwegians, made themselves ready for the journey to Liverpool. They left, nearly seven hundred strong, by rail for that city at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. A young Danish sister who was sick ; as carried in a chair into the cars.

The exact number of emigrants who arrived in Liverpool May 6, 1863, was 681. At this port 644 Scandinavian and 13 English Saints were taken on board the ship "B. S. Kimball" (Capt. H. Dearborn), while thirty-seven Scandinavians were placed on board the ship "Consigment." Elder Anders Christensen was placed in charge of this little band.

President George Q. Cannon organized the company on the "B. S. Kimball," with Elder Hans Peter Lund as president, Elder Peter Beckstrom and Christoffer S. Winge were chosen as his counselors. Elder P. Wilhelm Poulsen was appointed secretary for the company, which was divided into seven districts with a president and a captain of guard over each. Other helps were also appointed. Both ships sailed from Liverpool on the 9th of May. Four deaths occurred on board the "B. S. Kimball", during the voyage; two children were born and the following couples were married: Christoffer S. Winge and Anna Marie Salvesen, John Ness and Christine Andersen, Jorgen Dinesen and Christine Christiasen, Soren Petersen and Ane Nielsen, Soren Mikkelsen and Christine Weibel J. H. Hendricksen and Karen Rasmussen, Rasmus Nielsen and -Maren Sorensen, Lars Gustaf Bergstrom and Johanna Engstrom, Peter Christian Steffensen and Mariane Berthelsen, S. J. Christensen and Ane M. Nielsen, Niels Larsen and Wilhelmine Hovinghoff.

The "B. S. Kimball" cast anchor in the harbor of New York in the evening of Saturday, June 13th, and on the 15th the passengers were permitted to go ashore. In the evening of the same day the emigrants continued by train to Albany. There a fine boy was born. The company then proceeded to Florence, Neb., from which place-the journey across the plains was commenced in connection with the other company from Scandinavia.

The ship "Consignment", having on board 37 Scandinavian Saints, arrived (after a successful voyage) in New York on the 20th of June, having spent one month and 12 days on the ocean. These emigrants were at once forwarded to Florence by train.

Elder Anders Christensen, who returned to his, home in Zion with this emigration, had labored diligently and with good success in Aalborg and Vendsyssel Conferences under the direction of Elder Christian A. Madsen. Later, he succeeded Elder Madsen as traveling missionary in the two conferences named. While most of the missionaries laboring in Scandinavia had been rather slow and indifferent about reporting their labors and experiences in the missionary field, Elder Christensen had shown himself as an exemplary servant of God in this respect. He wrote a number of letters for publication to "Skandinavians Stjerne", "Millennial Star" and other periodicals in relation to the progress and happenings in his field of labor.

While the majority of the emigrants left Grimsby for Liverpool, May 6, 1863, the Norwegians remained in Grimsby in charge of Elder Carl C. N. Dorius until May 20th, when they also traveled by rail to Liverpool, and on the same day went on board the ship "Antarctic," on which also 60 passengers from Switzerland and many English emigrants went on board, making a company of 450 passengers. The "Antarctic," which was a fine ship and well equipped for the voyage, sailed from Liverpool May 23rd. Before leaving Liverpool, President Geo. Q. Cannon and other Elders came on board and organized the company, appointing Elder John Needham president, with Philip De La Mare and Samuel H. B. Smith as his counselors. Carl C. N. Dorius was appointed steward, and together with his brother Johan F. F. Dorius given charge of the Norwegian Saints. Several deaths occurred on board, and several couples were married. The ship arrived in New York July 10, 1863, and the same day the journey was continued via Albany, Niagara, Detroit, Chicago and Quincy to St. Joseph, Mo., and thence by steamer to Florence, Neb. A child (Jensen) died on the steamer and was buried in Holt County, Missouri. Sister Anneken Larsen's child died as the emigrants landed; it was buried at Florence. The greater part of the Scandinavian emigrants journeyed across the Plains in three of the ox-team companies sent out by the Church that season to the Missouri River after immigrants. The first of these left Florence June 29, 1863. led by Capt. John R. Murdock, and arrived in Salt Lake City, Aug. 29th. The second company, led by Capt. John F. Sanders, left Florence July 6th and arrived in Salt Lake City Sept. 5th. The third company, led by Capt. Wm. B. Preston, left Florence July 10th and arrived in Salt Lake City Sept. 9th. The Church sent altogether 10 ox-trains from the Valley that year to bring the poor Saints home to Zion and haul freight from the Missouri River.

The Norwegian emigrants crossed the Plains in Captain Peter Nebeker’s company consisting of 50 wagons This company arrived in Salt Lake City, Aug. 24, 1863. On the journey across the Plains, 2 adults and 7 children died and were buried by the wayside.

The Scandinavian Saints who crossed the Plains with their own teams, left Florence in Capt. John R. Young's company July 7th and arrived in Salt Lake City, Sept. 12, 1863. This company experienced a terrible stampeded all their oxen speeding over the prairies in full fright. Some of the emigrants we killed and several severely injured. Elder Anders Christensen, in a letter written at Salt Lake City to Pres. Jesse N. Smith under date of Sept. 18, 1863, gives the following, account of Capt. Preston's company:

"Of the company which numbered souls, besides the teamsters, only three children died and these were sickly fore starting out on the Plains. Seven were run over by the stampeding teams because they were not careful enough get out of the way, and their death seemed evident; but through faith and prayer all were saved except a Swedish girl, who suffered a broken leg a few days before reaching Salt Lake City. The hot a dry weather caused the waters of the Platte and Sweetwater rivers to dry up in many places. The cattle were kept in good condition all the way, but a sudden disease killed about 25 of them, when we came the Sweetwater. With these few exceptions, the journey across the Plains a success. Besides our 55 wagons, heavily laden with passengers, baggage freight, there were 12 independent tea traveling with our company. Union a brotherly love prevailed, especially among the Scandinavian Saints. teamsters were kind and generous will to assist the emigrants all they could."

Elder Peter 0. Thomassen, who after having remained in Florence weeks, started with other Scandinavian and English emigrants across the Plains in Capt. Nebeker's company July 25, 1863, gives the following report of the journey across the Plains: "The company I traveled with counted no less than 70 wagons, nearly all of which were drawn by eight oxen each. It is remarkable to see how easy the teamsters guide these heavily loaded wagons and long strings of oxen without reins or harness, using only a long whip and the three words 'Haw,' 'Gee' and 'Whoa' (which the oxen, through serious lessons, have learned to understand).

"The journey across the Plains was successful, but somewhat monotonous, and most of the travelers were glad to see the wagons drawn up to form the corral and rest their weary feet; but the young people, as a rule, were bent on having their lively sports before retiring at the call Or the horn. Then all sang, music and dancing ceased, and the utmost quiet prevailed throughout the camp, while one of the Elders offered up a prayer and thanksgiving to tile Almighty for his Fatherly guidance.

"On the 16th of August, we found a buffalo skull, * * * having the information written thereupon that a company of more than 50 wagons had experienced a frightful stampede resulting in three per sons being killed and several injured. The names of these, all Scandinavians, I have been unable to learn.

"The same day on which we found the skull, an extended prairie fire. which had started from one of our camp fires, spread with great rapidity, fanned by a high wind It was a great sight to see this mighty mass of flames travel over hill and dale to the extent of many miles, while a herd of antelope, frightened by the blazing fires, sought refuge among our cattle, where they scarcely were discovered before every one who possessed a gun or pistol was ready to shoot down these pretty animals. Most of them, however, escaped unharmed—thanks to their swift On August 21st a German sister was struck by lightning and fell to the ground dead A small bundle of keys, which she carried on a string around her neck could not be found, and this, no doubt had attracted the lightning which killed her. With the exception of a small hole in the head and a little mark under one foot no marks of injury to the body were found wherefore it was supposed that the electric current had passed directly through her body. The same stroke of lightning felled seven of the oxen to the ground, although without serious damage to them. The company lost 50 oxen on the journey.

"With weary feet but glad hearts we arrived at the pleasant homes of the Saints in Zion, September 24th, 1863, after the long tramp over the wide deserts of America. It was a pleasant and delightful sight to see the beautiful city spread out before us when we passed out of Parley's Canyon, a rough pass about 12 miles in length. The city far exceeded my expectations, both as to extent and beauty; the streets are wide and bordered with shade trees, which already have reached a considerable size, the houses, which are of course all new, are built in a nice, and in many cases elegant style."

The total number of Saints who emigrated from Scandinavia in 1863 were 1,458, besides eight returning missionaries, namely, Wm. W. Cluff Hans Peter Lund. Johan F. F. Dorius and Hans C. Hansen. These Elders had all labored faithfully as missionaries in Scandinavia. Elder Peter 0. Thomassen, who for several years had labored in the mission office in Copenhagen as writer for "Skandinaviens Stjerne", also emigrated with his family that year, and so also did Elders P. Wilhelm Poulsen, Nils Rosengren and Christoffer S. Winge, who had acted as presidents of conferences.

1864 (p. 181-182)

On April 10th, at 5 p.m., the Swedish steamer "L. J. Bager" sailed from Copenhagen, carrying 350 emigrants from Sweden and Norway and some from the Fredericia Conference, Denmark, in charge of Johan P. R. Johansen. This company of Saints went by steamer to Lubeck, thence by rail to Hamburg, thence by steamer to Hull, in England, and thence by rail to Liverpool, where the emigrants joined another company of emigrating Saints which sailed from Copenhagen three days later.

On April 13, 1864, the English steamer "Sultana" sailed from Copenhagen, Denmark, with 353 emigrants from the different conferences in Denmark, excepting a few from Fredericia, who, on account of the war, had to go direct to Hamburg. This company was in charge of Pres. Jesse N. Smith, who returned home from a successful mission to Scandinavia. Elder John Smith, who on account of poor health had labored in the mission office in Copenhagen, and Christoffer Holberg, who had labored in Sweden, also left with this company' returning to their homes in Zion. The following Elders, who had presided over conferences, were among the emigrants: Niels C. Edlefsen, Peter C. Geertsen, Peter C. Carstensen, Nils C. Flygare, Anders Swedlund, Jens Hansen, Lars Nilsson, Anders Pontus Soderborg and Jens C. Olsen. A number of the traveling Elders, who had diligently labored in the ministry, also emigrated with this company, which, like the preceding one, went by way of Lubeck, Hamburg and Grimsby to Liverpool, where they were joined by the company that sailed from Copenhagen, April 10th. On Tuesday, April 26th, the ship "Monarch of the Sea" cleared for sailing, and on Thursday, April 28th, sailed from Liverpool, England, with 973 souls on board. Patriarch John Smith was chosen president of the company with Elders John D. Chase, Johan P. R. Johansen and Parley P. Pratt, Jun., as his counselors. Elders were also appointed to take charge of the different divisions of the company. During the voyage there was considerable sickness and some deaths, mostly of children. In the morning of June 3rd the "Monarch of the Sea" At New York where the landing of the emigrants at Castle Garden at once took place. In the evening they boarded a steamer for Albany, N. Y., and from there they traveled by train to St. Joseph, Missouri; thence by steamer up the Missouri River to Wyoming, Neb., from which place most of the Scandinavian Saints were taken to the Valley by Church teams, of which 170 were sent out by the Church that season. Thus about four hundred Scandinavian emigrating Saints crossed the Plains in Capt. Wm. B. Preston's company of about 50 Church teams, that left Wyoming, Neb., in the beginning of June, and arrived in Salt Lake City, Sept. 15, 1864.

1865 (p. 183-187)

A company of emigrating Saints, numbering 557 souls, left Copenhagen by the steamer "Aurora," May 4, 1865, accompanied by Anders W. Winberg (who was returning to his home in Utah) and Johan Swenson. President Carl Widerborg went with the emigrants to Hamburg. The company arrived at Kiel the next morning (May 5th). In the afternoon the journey was continued by train to Altona, whence the emigrants went up the Elbe on a small steamboat to a place off Hamburg, where the company was at once placed on board the double-decked ship "B. S. Kimball," an American vessel (Capt. Dearborn). On their arrival in Altona, the company was met by President Daniel H. Wells and Elder George Reynolds from England, who were both present when the company boarded the vessel. On Sunday, the 7th, a meeting was held on deck, on which occasion President Wells dedicated the ship with its captain, crew and passengers to the Lord and gave instructions and admonition to the Saints. Elder Anders W. Winberg was appointed leader of the company with Johan Swenson and Hans C. Hogsted as his counselors. The ship was divided into eight districts, each with a president. Among the emigrants were the following Elders who had acted as presidents of conferences in Scandinavia: Hans C. Hogsted from the Copenhagen, Soren Jensen from the Aalborg, Gustaf Pegau from the Fredericia, P. O. Holmgren from the Stockholm, John C. Sandberg from the Goteborg, and Swen Nilsson from the Skane Conferences. Among a number of other Elders who had labored as missionaries in Scandinavia and who as emigrants crossed the ocean in the "B. L. Kimball," was the late Martin Lundwall. On Monday, May 8th, about noon, the ship lifted anchor and was drawn by a tender down to Gluckstadt, where President Carl Widerborg and Elders Samuel L. Sprague and Geo. M. Brown (who had accompanied the emigrants from Copenhagen), took leave of the emigrants and returned to Copenhagen, accompanied by President Daniel S. Wells and Elder Geo. Reynolds.

On Wednesday, May 10th, the ship with its precious cargo, sailed from Gluckstadt, and as the captain thought the colder climate would be better for the passengers, he chose the route north of Scotland. With the exception of one single day's storm the weather was very fair and favorable during the entire voyage. The captain was kind to the emigrants and the sick received good treatment. Three meals of warm food each day were served to all. Three adults died on the sea and about twenty-five children died of measles and scarlet fever. Besides the Scandinavian Saints, a number of other emigrants crossed the Atlantic on that ship. "While peace and good will reigned among the Saints," writes Elder Christoffer J. Kempe, "the others, who were Lutherans, Baptists and Methodists, lived more like cats and dogs together; some had disputes and engaged in fights, others played cards and swore, while some preached, and altogether there was a real pandemonium. On June 14th the ship arrived in New York harbor, and the following day the emigrants landed at Castle Garden. In the afternoon most of them continued the journey by train and then traveled via Albany, Niagara, Detroit and Chicago to Quincy, Ill., where they arrived on the 20th. Here they were ferried across the Mississippi River and then spent two days and nights in the woods on the Missouri side without tents or other shelter, while the rain poured down in torrents. They had in a hurry fixed some small huts of brush, which, however, afforded them but very little shelter. The unpleasant delay was caused by the bridges on the railway being washed away, so the trains could not proceed. Finally the traveling was resumed on the 22nd, the cars conveying the company being very commonplace and dirty. The emigrants reached St. Joseph the following day. On the 25th they started by steamboat up the Missouri River and arrived at Wyoming, Neb., June 26th, bringing with them the corpses of three persons who had died on the steamer. Four others had died between New York and St. Joseph.

Several of the emigrants had only paid their fare to New York and therefore had to remain in that city for the time being. Elder Thos. Taylor, who was emigration agent for the Church, however, subsequently succeeded at a considerable sacrifice to complete arrangements so that all could proceed to Wyoming. But as the Church did not send any teams to the Missouri River that season to assist the poor Saints to reach Utah, and the price of oxen was much higher than in past years, some of the emigrants had to remain on the frontiers until the following year. Elder Taylor arranged matters as well as he could by purchasing oxen and loading each wagon with 1000 pounds of freight and 2000 pounds for the Saints, three yoke of oxen being provided for each wagon. In this way about 150 persons were taken across the Plains who otherwise would have been left on the frontiers. The price of a wagon at the outfitting place that year was $200 in greenbacks ($100 in gold), and a yoke of average oxen cost $150. It took about five weeks before everything was in order for starting the journey across the Plains. During this time the emigrants at Wyoming suffered much on account of the excessive heat and a few of them died. Danish brother, Lars Petersen, about 30 years of age, who had assisted about twenty poor Saints to emigrate, was accidentally drowned in the Weeping Water, a stream near Wyoming, where he, together with others, went to bathe. He was buried June 29th, with much expression of sorrow by the sympathizing Saints.

On the 31st of July most of the Scandinavian emigrants left Wyoming in a company consisting of forty-five ox-teams. The company was organized Aug. 1st by appointing Miner G. Atwood, captain; Charles B. Taylor, assistant captain; Anders W. Winberg chaplain and interpreter, Johan Swenson commissary and assistant to Winberg, and John Gindrup secretary. The following were appointed captains of ten: Hans C. Hogsted, Hans. Hansen, Christoffer Jensen Kempe and John Everett. At first the traveling was slow, as the reads were bad on account of the great amount of rain that had fallen.

On Sept. 19th the company passed Fort Laramie, and three days later, when stopping at noon for lunch and rest, and while some of the brethren were driving the oxen to the watering places, fourteen or sixteen well-armed Indians suddenly sprang forth from their ambush in the woods and tried to take the cattle, but when the brethren opened fire upon them and the frightened oxen ran back to the camp, the theft was prevented. Seven of the brethren, however, were wounded by bullets and arrows, and a woman by the name of Grundtvig (an emigrant from Copenhagen, Denmark), who was lingering some distance behind the train, was taken captive and carried off by the Indians. Her fate has never become known. The wounded brethren all recovered from their wounds. Some days previous to this affray, the Indians, who this year were very host tile and had killed a number of travelers, stampeded the oxen of the company grazing at night, but after two days search the animals were al found, except three head. Elder Thomas Taylor, having meanwhile completed all arrange meets in Wyoming for the outfitting of the emigrants, passed by all the companies on his way to the Valley where he secured forty-four mule teams, loaded with provisions, and with these went back to assist the emigrants. Capt. Atwood's company which arrived in Salt Lake City all well, did not receive any assistance from that source, except some provisions. Elder Hans C. Hogsted, who emigrated to Zion in this company and who kept a journal of the doings or the way, states that it took the company 190 days to travel from Copenhagen, Denmark, to Salt Lake City, Utah, namely, 42 days from Copenhagen to New York, 12 days from New York to Wyoming, 36 days preparing for the journey across the Plains, and 100 days travel from Wyoming to Salt Lake City. "Or board the ship," writes Elder Hogsted, "I earned the title of Doctor as I distributed medicine to the sic} and very frequently administered to them by virtue of the Priesthood President Carl Widerborg had also appointed me second counselor to our president, Anders W. Winberg who was a good man and much be loved by the Saints." Elder Peter A. Nielsen, another of the emigrants, gives the following account of the journey: "We left Gluckstadt, Germany, May 10 1855, on the sailing ship "B. S. Kimball" Our company consisted of 557 souls. Three adults and 25 children died and were buried in the ocean. One day a fire started on the vessel, which created a panic among the passengers, but the fire was soon put out.

"Meeting a ship going east from America, we were informed of the victory of the Union Army. We were all ordered on deck and gave many cheers for the Red White and Blue. "Capt. Dearborn gave us many privileges in the way of amusements, dancing and theater-playing. But, best of all, he gave us leave to put our own cook, the best we could find, in the kitchen to prepare food for the sick. In the latter part of the journey the drinking water got so bad that we had to mix it with vinegar in order to swallow it, and many were sick on this account.

"What I called the worst trouble on the ocean was the fact that we had no air pipes, all the air had to come through the stairways. The stench coming from below was very bad indeed, and the place was so infested with vermin that we could not rest. * * * At Wyoming we stopped five weeks before continuing our journey across the Plains. At this place wagons cost $200 in greenbacks and oxen $50 per yoke. Of these, at least 80 per cent had never borne a yoke upon their necks, which was the cause of our slow travel.

"On July 31st we started to cross the Plains with 45 wagons (ox teams), under Capt. Miner G. Atwood, with Charles B. Taylor as his assistant, Johan Swenson, commissary, and John Gindrup, secretary On September 19th, the company arrived at Fort Laramie. Here we were called together in a meeting and warned by the U. S. officers at the Fort that the Indians were on the war path, and that we had better not go further; a free passage was offered us to any part of the United States where we wished to go. This announcement was made in three different languages. After all of us had been made aware of conditions and of the offer made by the U. S. officers, a vote was called by Elder Anders W. Winberg, but we all voted to refuse the kind offer of the U. S. officials. preparing to take a chance of reaching Zion in safety. On September 22nd. then about three days journey from Fort Laramie (at a place called Cottonwood Hollow, where we had camped for noon), while the men were driving the teams to a watering place about three" quarters of a mile from camp, the Indians came upon us from their hiding place and seven of our company were badly wounded. Thus Johan Swenson came into camp with two arrows in his left arm and Peter "Doctor" with one arrow in his cheek and one clear through his neck. A Swedish brother came in with an arrow in the small of his back and was not able to walk again on the journey. All we could do to relieve the sufferers was to let them sit down on a wagon hub with their backs against the spokes while we. using as surgical instruments common blacksmith's pincers or nippers, extracted the arrows from all except Peter "Doctor". The arrow in his neck could not be moved until we found a pair of pincers with extra long handles. Then laying the man on the ground with his head resting upon an ox yoke, two men sat upon him while Albert W. Davis, with one strong jerk, managed to pull the arrow out. Bro. Holmgren, later of Corinne, was shot by a bullet and taken up for dead, but he recovered. A man named Anderson was shot by a bullet which took off a little bit of his cheek and a piece of his nose. These two men lay. as dead while we cared for the others John Holmgren, later of Bear River City, divas then a new-born baby lying in a wagon with his mother. Bro. Frederick Gruntvig came into camp with an arrow fastened in his right hip. His wife had been carried off by the Indians.

At Sweetwater, a relief train, consisting of 44 mule-teams, met us, laden with provisions to relieve us of our sick and invalids. Some of the company then went forward to shovel the snow before we could put up our tents. We reached Green River one day at noon and decided to cross at once, and it took until after dark, and even then one wagon with a husband, wife and children, was left on a sandbank in the middle of the river all night, the kingbolt of their wagon having come out or was broken. At daylight the captain asked me to go and bring the family in, which I did. I found them all well, but they had passed a very restless night in their lonely position. We had to swim our teams over the river and many a teamster had to hold on to the oxen, or to the wagon, to keep from drowning.

"On the 8th of November we arrived on the Eighth Ward Square, Salt Lake City where the City and County Building now stands. Pres. Brigham Young and Elder Wm. W. Riter came and shook hands with us. Besides our company of emigrants with 45 wagons, a company of 10 more wagons, carrying freight, joined us on the journey on account of the Indians being on the war path. This company was in charge of Albert W. Davis (later Bishop of Center Ward, Salt Lake City), with Lewis Romney as his assistant."

1866 (p. 191-195)

As the transportation of the emigrants in 1865 from Hamburg direct to New York had proved a success, it was decided by the presidency of the European Mission in Liverpool that the larger emigration from Scandinavia in 1866 also should embark at Hamburg and sail direct to New York, and with this object in view President Brigham Young. jun., and Elder John W. Young personally went to Hamburg in the month of May to assist President Carl Widerborg to make the necessary arrangements to that end. A company of emigrating, Saints the first of the year's emigration) left Copenhagen by steamer "Aurora", May 17, 1866, and arrived early on the following day (May 18th) in Kiel, from which city the company went by train to Altona. From there the women and children continued in a small steamer to Hamburg, while the men walked to the same place. 0n their arrival in Hamburg, the emigrants were lodged for the night in a large emigrant building, and the following day went on board the double-decked ship "Kenilworth" (caps. Brown ) . On Tuesday, May 22nd more emigrants (who had left Copenhagen the preceding day) together with Elders Carl Widerborg, Niels Wilhelmsen, Geo. M. Brown and Chr. Christiansen, arrived in Hamburg, and on the 23rd the ship sailed a few miles down the river Elbe, where it anchored. On the 24th President Carl Widerborg, accompanied by Elders Niels Wilhelmsen and Christian Christiansen, came on board and organized the company, appointing Samuel L. Sprague president with Elder Morten Lund as his assistant Fred R. E. Berthelsen was appointed secretary and Elder Ole H. Berg captain of the guard. The emigrants were divided into forty-two messes, each containing from twelve to seventeen persons, and a president appointed over each mess.

The ship "Kenilworth" lifted anchor in the River Elbe at Hamburg May 25, 1866, and commenced its long voyage across the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean, with its precious cargo of 684 souls on board; of these 583 were from Denmark, 23 from Norway, 73 from Sweden and five from Germany. The route around the north of Scotland was chosen and one day the ship, driven by contrary winds out of its course, got so close to the west coast of Norway that its rocky cliffs were plainly seen. The Shetland and Orkney Islands were soon passed and the winds were favorable for about three weeks. After that there was continuous headwinds and fog for five weeks, which made the voyage both long and dreary. Capt. Brown and the ship's crew treated the passengers in a kind and generous manner, allowing them all the privileges that could reasonably be expected. The provisions were satisfactory and the sick received good attention. Eleven or twelve persons died during the voyage. Among these was a man who willfully jumped overboard on July 15th, just as land was in sight. A boat was launched in an endeavor to save him, but with. out success. The following night the ship anchored off Staten Island, and on the 17th of July the emigrants were landed at Castle Garden, the weather being exceedingly hot. Elder Thos. Taylor, who again acted as emigration agent for the Church in 1866, had experienced much trouble in making the necessary arrangements for transporting the emigrants from New York to Wyoming, Neb. The railroad companies, whose lines went out from New York, had apparently planned to speculate at the expense of the "Mormons", and hence asked an unusual high price for conveying the emigrants westward. At length, after making a trip to Boston, Elder Taylor succeeded in closing a satisfactory contract for their conveyance, by an entirely new route, which was several hundred miles longer, but much cheaper than the more direct route used to be. On the evening of the same day that the passengers of the "Kenilworth" were landed at Castle Garden, the emigrants proceeded on their journey on a large freight steamer to New Haven, Conn., where they arrived on the morning of July 18th. After staying there a few hours, the journey northward by train was begun, passing through the States of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to Montreal in Canada. Here the emigrants had to accept passage in some very uncomfortable and dirty freight and cattle cars, in which they traveled through Canada, the route of travel being along the north bank of the St. Lawrence River and the shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, to the St. Clair River. On the evening of July 20th, a part of the train jumped the track near Port Hope on the banks of Lake Ontario, but through the interposition of a kind Providence no one was hurt. The emigrants were ferried over the St. Clair River to Port; Huron in the State of Michigan, where better cars were obtained, and they wended their way via Chicago to Quincy, Ill. A steamer took them across the Mississippi River to the Missouri side, where they found temporary shelter from the burning sun in a nearby grove. While stopping there, a young toy who ventured too far out while bathing was drowned in the river. After a very disagreeable ride through the State of Missouri, where the inhabitants at nearly every station did all they could to insult the emigrants, the company arrived at St. Joseph July 27th. From this place they sailed two days on a steamboat up the Missouri River.

On this most unendurable passage up the river they suffered all kinds of insults and abuses from a wicked crew. Finally, the company reached Wyoming, Neb., Sunday morning, July 29th, and in the afternoon camped on the heights in and near the town. The 450 teams sent by the Church in 1866 to the Missouri River to assist the poor had already waited some time for the arrival of the emigrants in Wyoming, wherefore the necessary preparations were hurriedly attended to in order to begin the journey across the Plains as soon as possible. Another company of emigrating Saints, bound for Utah, sailed from Copenhagen at 1 o'clock p.m. on May 28, 1866, on the steamship "Aurora". The weather was fine and continued thus during the following night. On the morning of the 29th the emigrants arrived at Kiel (Holstein), where a stop of about three hours was made in order to bring their luggage to the railway station. The journey was then continued to Altona, where the emigrants arrived at 1 p. m. The Norwegians and others went on board the ship "Humboldt" three hours later, while others boarded the ship "Cavour". Of the large company of Saints which had sailed from Copenhagen, May 28th, 201 souls, who boarded) the Norwegian ship "Cavour" sailed from Hamburg June 1, 1866. The "Cavour" was commanded by Capt. Floyn, and Elder Niels Nielsen, a Utah Elder, was appointed president of the company with Jens Gregorsen and Carl Fred. Rundquist as his assistants. This ship had, on account of head winds, calm and for a long voyage, notwithstanding the vessel took the shortest route, viz., through the English Channel. The emigrants were organized into four districts in charge of Elders Jens Gregorsen, Carl F. Rundquist, a Bro. Jacobsen and Ole Nielsen. Two old sisters, who had been sick for several years, and two children died during the voyage.

The "Cavour" arrived in New York July 31st, and the emigrants were at once conveyed over the same route as the one taken previously by the "Kenilworth" company, they arrived at Wyoming, Aug. 11, 1866. Already, on board the "Cavour", cholera had broken out among the emigrants. It made its first appearance in Brother L. Larsen's family, of whom most of the members died later. But on the travel by railway that terrible malady raged fiercely among the emigrants, claiming its victims one by one. The rough treatment the emigrants received was in part responsible for the heavy death rate. Just before the train arrived at St. Joseph, Mo., one of the passenger cars took fire, and it was with great exertion that the sick were removed from it to escape from being burned to death. At St. Joseph a number of sick and dying had to be left in the hands of wicked people. Their friends obtained no further knowledge as to their fate, and never learned whether they were buried alive, or killed by force, for the people there were seemingly so hateful, that they actually thirsted for the blood of the Saints. On the voyage by steamer up the Missouri River nine of the emigrants died, four of them being buried one night and five of them the nest.

The ship "Humboldt" (Capt. Boyson) sailed from Hamburg, June 2, 1866, with another company of Saints bound for Utah. This was the third division of the emigration of Scandinavian Saints that year and numbered 328 souls, who were organized with George M. Brown, Sven S. Jonasson and Christian Hansen as leaders. The company was organized into four districts, which were subdivided into nine lesser divisions with a president appointed for each of them.

Besides the Saints, sixty or seventy other passengers were on board. The "Humboldt" was tugged down the River Elbe to the North Sea by a steam-tug boat. Taking the route north of Scotland, the ship passed the Shetland Islands on the 6th of June with Cape Telsit on the right and the small island Fair on the left. In the beginning of the voyage much seasickness prevailed among the passengers. Passing the New Foundland Banks the fog was intense, and with the exception of the first ten days, the ship encountered headwinds most of the time. The captain, who was very kind to the Saints, admitted that he had never witnessed so good and orderly a company of emigrants crossing the Atlantic before, and he was very kind and sympathetic to the sick, sending them extra food from his kitchen. Five persons, two adults and three children, died during the voyage. On July 18th the "Humboldt" arrived safely in New York, and the emigrants were at once started westward by steamer and railway to Wyoming, Neb., arriving there on Aug. 1st.

A part of the Scandinavian emigrants crossing the ocean that year in the ships "Kenilworth" and "Humboldt" crossed the Plains in Capt. Jos. S. Rawling's ox train, which left Wyoming Aug. 2nd and arrived in Salt Lake City Oct. 1st. Another part of them left Wyoming with Capt. Peter Nebeker's ox train, Aug. 4th and arrived in Salt Lake City Sept. 29th. A third division left Wyoming with Capt. Andrew H. Scott's company, Aug. 8th, and arrived in Salt Lake City Oct. 8th.

When the "Cavour" company arrived at Wyoming there was no time to rest, as the last train of the Church teams had already waited a long time for the arrival of these emigrants, and it was now so late in the season that the start across the Plains could be postponed no longer, with any hope of getting across the mountains that year. Consequently, this cholera-infested company had to get ready in the greatest haste for the long and wearisome journey, and on Aug. 13th the emigrants left Wyoming with sixty ox-teams, in charge of Capt. Abner Lowry.

If the details of the journey across the Plains of this company were written, it would probably present one of the most pitiable and heartrending chapters in the history of the Church, but it is perhaps better to close the episode and not revive the memory of something so touching and sorrowful. At some future day undoubtedly, more details will be published about the experience of that ill-fated company, and in the great hereafter those who laid down their lives on the way will have an opportunity to give an accurate and truthful account of their sufferings. The survivors of Captain Lowry's company arrived in Salt Lake City Oct. 22, 1866.

Only a few of the Scandinavian Saints crossed the Plains this year with their own teams, nearly all going with the Church trains. The death list among all companies was quite heavy, the cause being, chiefly. cholera. Thus ten persons died in Capt. Rawlings' company, about thirty in Capt. Nebeker's company and about the same number in Capt. Scott's company. It was the last year that emigrants traveled all the way from the Missouri River to Great Salt Lake City with ox-teams, as the Union Pacific Railroad was being built from Omaha westward, and the following year ( 1867) was opened for several hundred miles west of the Missouri River.

1867 (p. 198-199)

Inasmuch as the Church did no send teams for emigrants in 1867 only such of the Saints as could help themselves with means had opportunity to emigrate that year. For this reason the whole year's emigration from Scandinavia was only 290 souls, who left Copenhagen June 13, 1867, by the steamer "Waldemar", accompanied by the following returning Elders from Zion: Niels Wilhelmsen, Christian Christiansen, Lars Peter Edholm, Anders Nielsen, Hans Hansen Soren Iversen, Jens Hansen, Frederik C. Sorensen, Gustaf A. Ohlson and Svend Larsen who had labored as missionaries in Scandinavia since their arrival in August, 1865.

After a successful voyage across the North Sea, the "Waldemar" arrived in Hull, England, June 16th. Thence the journey was continued by railway to Liver. pool, from which city the Scandinavian emigrants, together with 190 English Saints, sailed June 21st on board the beautiful steamer "Manhattan", a vessel of 2000 tons, equipped to carry one thousand passengers. Elder Archibald N. Hill was appointed to preside over the company with Elders Niels Wilhelmson, James Ure and Francis Platt as his assistants. The Saints were located from midship to stern by themselves and were divided into seven divisions, over which Elders Christian Christiansen, Anders Nielsen, Lars Peter Edholm, Stephen Hales, Gustaf A. Ohlson, Jens Hansen and Henry Cooper were placed to preside. Robert R. Anderson from the mission office in Liver pool was appointed secretary. About seven hundred other emigrants were on board. This was the first Scandinavian emigrant company which crossed the Atlantic in a steamship. After a voyage of twelve and one-half days, the "Manhattan" arrived in New York July 4th. The next day (July 5th) the emigrants landed at Castle Garden and continued the journey by steamer up the Hudson River to Albany. From there they were conveyed by railway via Niagara, where they stayed over night and thus were afforded a splendid opportunity to view the great Niagara Falls They then proceeded westward. via Detroit and Chicago, to St. Joseph, Mo., and from that city up the Missouri River by steamer to Omaha. Three Scandinavian children died on the way. From Omaha the emigrants traveled on the Union Pacific Railroad 291 miles westward to North Platte, from which place, after a stay of four weeks, the journey across the Plains was begun with an ox-train, in charge of Capt. Leonard G. Rice, and arrived in Salt Lake City Oct. 5th, after a successful journey.

1868 (204-205)

In 1868 a strong effort was made in Zion to gather means to assist the poor Saints who wished to emigrate and large sums of money were sent to the British Islands to assist members of the Church to this end, especially faithful Saints of many years standing. Besides this, the Church sent for the last time teams out to the terminus of the Union Pacific Railroad to bring them thence across the deserts and mountains. Although scarcely any of the means collected was applied to assist the poor from Scandinavia, goodly number (820) souls emigrated from the Scandinavian countries in 1868, viz: 544 Danes, 209 Swede and 63 Norwegians; also 4 German emigrants. Of the above-named number 10 Swedish Saints sailed from Goteborg May 29, 1868, by the steamer "Hero" in charge of Elder Christoffer C. Folkmann, arriving in Hull, England, May 31st. Here they were joined by a small company of Danish Saints in charge of Elder Carl Widerborg and along with these continued the journey to Liverpool by railroad. On the evening of the next day (June 1st) Elder Carl C. A. Christensen arrived in Liverpool with some emigrating Saints from Nor. way, about 50 in number. They had sailed from Christiania by steamer for England, where they joined the main body of emigrating Saints from Scandinavia. On June 3rd all went on board the ship "John Bright" (Capt. John Towart). Elder James McGaw was appointed president of the company, of which 17 were Scandinavian and more than five hundred British Saints. Christoffer O. Folkmann and Fred C. Anderson were chosen for assistant presidents. The Scandinavian Saints, who were located on the lower deck, were placed under Elder Carl C. A. Christensen's special charge. The "John Bright" sailed from Liverpool June 4th. It was intended that the emigrants this year should have crossed the Atlantic by steamers, but on account of the high price demanded for steamship passage, the voyage had to be made by sailing vessels as in previous years, so that those of only limited means could be accommodated. During the voyage there was very little sickness, and only an aged sister from England, who was sick when she went on board, died. A Swedish couple were married during the voyage. The captain was very kind and obliging towards the Saints. The company arrived safely in New York July 13th and on the following day was conveyed by railroad westward. The emigrants traveled via Chicago and Omaha, and on the Union Pacific Railroad to Laramie City. The fare from New York to Omaha was $14 and to the terminus on the Plains $35, but those who would stop to labor on the Union Pacific Railroad were conveyed all the way for $14 The company arrived at Laramie, 579 miles from Omaha, July 23rd. A, that time, Laramie City was the western terminus of the Union Pacific Railroad, and also, temporarily, the outfitting place for the journey across the mountains with teams. Here the emigrants met the Church teams and most of the Scandinavian Saints went with Captain Horton D. Haight's company, which left Laramie July 27th, and arrived in Salt Lake City August 24, 1868.

Elder Folkmann acted as leader of the Scandinavians in this company and also as chaplain for the whole company. Two Swedish emigrants died on the journey across the mountains. Elder Carl C. A. Christensen, together with some Norwegian Saints crossed the Plains with Captain John R. Murdock's company, which left Laramie a little before Captain Haight's company and arrived in Salt Lake City August 19th. The fare by the Church teams from the railroad terminus to Salt Lake Cit. was $29, which the emigrants were required to pay later.

About 630 emigrants left Copenhagen by the steamer "Hansia," June 13, 1868. On the departure the brethren had considerable trouble with the police authorities in Copenhagen. After a successful voyage across the North Sea, the company arrived in Hull, England, on Tuesday, June 16th, and in the evening of the same day they went by train to Liverpool. Here they found accommodations in seven different hotels, where they, with the exception of one place, received anything but decent treatment; and when they on the 19th went on board the ship "Emerald Isle," they were insulted most every imaginable way. On the 20th the ship sailed from Liverpool, carrying a company of emigrants consisting of 877 souls, of whom 627 were Scandinavians, all in charge of Elders Hans Jensen (Hals) as president with James Smith and John Fagerberg as assistants. Elder Peter Hansen was appointed commissary for the Scandinavians, and Elder Mons Pedersen who had labored faithfully for four years in the mission office in Copenhagen, was chosen as secretary. Eighteen other Scandinavian emigrants sailed this year by other ships, some of them from Hamburg and some from Norway.

On June 26th the "Emerald Isle" sailed into the harbor of Queenstown to take fresh water on board, as a certain machine on the vessel used to distill seawater for culinary purposes was out of commission and could not speedily be repaired. While the ship waited at Queenstown Elders Hans Jensen (Hale) and James Smith had an excellent opportunity to accompany the captain on a railway trip to Cork. On the 29th the ship left Queenstown, but the voyage after that was anything but pleasant. The emigrants received very rough and harsh treatment, both from officers and crew, and only by the strong protest of Elder Hans Jensen (Hale) in their behalf did they succeed in getting a part of their rights according to the contract made. On one occasion, when one of the ship's mates attacked a sister by the name of Sander, Brother Jensen took hold of the mate and pulled him away, while sharply reproving him for his conduct. Soon a lot of sailors came up ready for a fight, but the incident ended when the offender got a severe reprimand from the captain, whom Brother Jensen reminded of the promises made. No other company of emigrating Saints from Scandinavia are known to have met with such bad treatment as this on board any ship in crossing the Atlantic Ocean. Fortunately it was the last company of Scandinavian Saints which crossed the Atlantic in a sailing vessel. From that time on only steamers were employed in the transportation of the Saints. It was not alone the rough treatment which the emigrants received from the ship's crew that made the voyage so unpleasant, but the water taken on board at Queenstown soon became stagnant and unfit for use, causing much sickness among the passengers, and no less than 37 deaths occurred on the voyage. Many of these, however, were caused by measles among the children, but the stagnant water which all the passengers had to use was undoubtedly the real cause of the heavy death rate.

On August 11th the ship arrived at the entrance of New York harbor and 30 of the sick were taken ashore on Staten Island. The following day, (August 12th) eight other sick people were landed, and finally, alter being held in quarantine three days, the rest of the emigrants were landed at Castle Garden, August 14th. On the same day a steamer conveyed the emigrants a few miles up the Hudson River, where they, found shelter in a warehouse for couple of days, while their baggage was being weighed. While staying there a boy belonging to the company died. On the 17th the journey was resumed by railway from New York and the emigrants traveled via Niagara, Detroit and Chicago to Council Bluffs, where they arrived on the 21st. The following day, (August 22nd) they were taken across the Missouri River by a steam boat and thence they traveled by the Union Pacific Railroad to Benton seven hundred miles west of Omaha arriving there in the morning of August 25th. Here the Church team; met the emigrants and took them to their camp on the Platte River, about six miles from Benton, where they remained till August 31st, when the Scandinavian Saints took up the journey across the- mountains by ox train led by Captain John G. Holman, while the English emigrant; about the same time left by mule teams. Elder Hiram B. Clawson acted this year as emigration agent for the Church. The English Saints traveling with mule teams could ride while the Scandinavians traveling with slow ox-teams, walked most of the way to Salt Lake City. Sickness continuing to rage among the, Scandinavian emigrants, about thirty died between New York and Salt Lake City, where the surviving part of this, the 28th, company of emigrating Saints from Scandinavia arrived on the 25th of September, 1868.

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