© 1999 by H. Michael Marquardt. All rights reserved.
Father: Joseph Smith (Jr.)
born 23 December 1805 at Sharon, Vermont
Parents: Joseph [Sr.] and Lucy Smith
married 18 January 1827 at (South) Bainbridge, Chenango County, New York
died 27 June 1844 at Carthage, Illinois
Mother: Emma Hale
born 10 July 1804 at Harmony, Pennsylvania
Parents: Isaac and Elizabeth Hale
died 30 April 1879 at Nauvoo, Illinois
The Children of Joseph Smith and Emma Hale Smith
|Children||Birth/Death Date||Location of Birth|
|male child||15 June 1828
15 June 1828
|male child||30 April 1831
30 April 1831
|female child||30 April 1831
30 April 1831
|Joseph Smith III||6 November 1832
10 December 1914
|Frederick Granger William Smith||20 June 1836
13 April 1862
|Alexander Hale Smith||2 June 1838
12 August 1909
|Far West, Missouri|
|Don Carlos Smith||13 June 1840
15 August 1841
|male child||6 February 1842
6 February 1842
|David Hyrum Smith||17 November 1844
29 August 1904
|Joseph Murdock||30 April 1831
29 March 1832
|Julia Murdock||30 April 1831
12 September 1880
Texts of Revelations on Marriage received by Joseph Smith at Nauvoo, Illionis
1. 27 July 1842
Wednesday 27th July 1842
Verily thus saith the Lord unto my se[r]vant N[ewel]. K. Whitney the thing that my se[r]vant Joseph Smith has made known unto you and your Famely [Family] and which you have agreed upon is right in mine eyes and shall be crowned upon your heads with honor and immortality and eternal life to all your house both old & young because of the lineage of my Preast [Priest] Hood saith the Lord it shall be upon you and upon your children after you from generation to generation By virtue of the Holy promise which I now make unto you saith the Lord.
these are the words which you shall pronounce upon my se[r]vant Joseph [Smith] and your Daughter S. A. [Sarah Ann] Whitney they shall take each other by the hand and you shall say
you both mutu[al]ly agree calling them by name to be each others companion so long as you both shall live preser[v]ing yourselv[es] for each other and from all others and also through [o]ut all eternity reserving only those rights which have been given to my servant Joseph [Smith] by revelation and commandment and by legal Authority in times passed [past]
If you both agree to covenant and do this then I give you S. A. [Sarah Ann] Whitney my Daughter to Joseph Smith to be his wife to observe all the rights betwe[e]n you both that belong to that condition I do it in my own name and in the name of my wife your mother and in the name of my Holy Progenitors by the right of birth which is of Priest Hood vested in me by revelation and commandment and promise of the liveing God obtained by the Holy Melchesdick Gethrow [Jethro and other of the Holy Fathers commanding in the name of the Lord all those Powers to concentrate in you and through [you] to your po[s]terity for ever
all these things I do in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ that through this order he may be gloryfied [glorified] and [that] through the power of anointing Davied [David] may reign King over Iseral [Israel] which shall hereafter be revealed let immortality and eternal life henc[e]forth be sealed upon your heads forever and ever.
Further notes are added at the end of the manuscript. See H. Michael Marquardt, The Joseph Smith Revelations: Text and Commentary (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1999), 316.
2. 12 July 1843
William Clayton, who was a clerk for Joseph Smith, recorded in his journal for 12 July 1843: "This A.M. I wrote a Revelation consisting of 10 pages on the order of the priesthood, showing the designs in Moses, Abraham, David and Solomon having many wives & concubines &c. After it was wrote [written] Prests. [Presidents] Joseph & Hyrum [Smith] presented it and read it to E. [Emma Smith] who said she did not believe a word of it and appeared very rebellious. J[oseph] told me to Deed all the unincumbered lots to E[mma]. & the children He appears much troubled about E[mma]" (William Clayton Journal, typed copy, LDS archives). Willard Richards wrote on this day: "Received a Revelation in the office in presence of Hyrum [Smith] & Wm Clayton" (Joseph Smith Journal, 12 July 1843, LDS archives). This revelation was first printed in Deseret News Extra, 14 Sept. 1852, 25-27, Great Salt Lake City, Utah Territory; published in the 1876 LDS D&C. Punctuation marks added to the manuscript are included.
Joseph C. Kingsbury wrote an eight-page manuscript copy of the revelatory document in July 1843. The handwriting on a microfilm copy of page 3 of Kingsbury's copy was difficult to read. Kingsbury described copying from the original dictated manuscript written by William Clayton: "Bishop Newel K. Whitney handed me the revelation above referred to on either the day it was written or the day following, and stating that it was asked me to take a copy of it. I did so, and then read my copy of it to Bishop Whitney, who compared it with the original which he held in his hand while I read to him" (Joseph C. Kingsbury Affidavit, 22 May 1886, published in Historical Record 6 [May 1887]: 226).
Nauvoo; July 12th 1843
Verily thus Saith the Lord, unto you my Servant Joseph [Smith], that inasmuch as you have inquired of my hand to know and understand wherein I the Lord justified my Servants, Abraham Isaac and Jacob; as also Moses, David and Solomon, my Servants, as touching the principle and doctrin[e] of their having many wives and concubines: Behold and lo, I am the Lord thy God, and will answer thee as touching this matter:
Therefore, prepare thy heart to receive and obey the instructions which I am about to give unto you, for all those, who have this law revealed unto them, must obey the Same; for behold I reveal unto you a new and an everlasting covenant, and if ye abide not that covenant, then are ye damned; for no one can reject this covenant and be permitted to enter into my glory; for all who will have a blessing at my hands, shall abide the law which was appointed for that blessing and the conditions thereof, as was instituted from before the foundation of the world: and as pertaining to the new and everlasting covenant, it was instituted for the fulness of my glory; and he that receiveth a fulness thereof, must and shall abide the law, or he shall be damned, saith the Lord God.
And verily I say unto you, that the conditions of this law are these: All covenants; contracts; bonds; obligations, oaths, vows, performances, connexions [connections], associations or expectations that are not made and entered into and Sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise of him who is anointed both as well for time and for all eternity, and that too most holy, by Revelation and commandment, through the medium of mine anointed whom I have appointed on the earth to hold this power, (and I have appointed unto my Servant Joseph [Smith] to hold this power in the last days, and there is never but one on the earth at a time on whom this power and the keys of this priesthood is confer[r]ed) are of no efficacy, virtue or force, in and after the resurrection from the dead for all contracts that are not made unto this end, have an end when men are dead.
Behold, mine house is a house of order, Saith the Lord God, and not a house of confusion. Will I accept of an offering Saith the Lord, that is not made in my name[?] or, will I receive at your hands, that which I have not appointed[?] and will I appoint unto you, Saith the Lord, except it be by law, even as I and my Father ordained unto you, before the world was[?] I am the Lord thy God, and I give unto you this commandment, that no man shall come unto the Father but by me, or by my word, which is my law, Saith the Lord; and every thing that is in the world, whether it be ordained of men, by thrones, or principalities, or powers, or things of name whatsoever they may be that are not by me or by my word, Saith the Lord, Shall be thrown down, and shall not remain after men are dead, neither in nor after the resurrection Saith the Lord your God:
For whatsoever things remaineth are by me; and whatsoever things are not by me, Shall be Shaken and destroyed Therefore, if a man marry him a wife in the world and he marry her not by me, nor by my word; and he covenant with her So long as he is in the world, and She with him, their covenant and marriage is not of force when they are dead and when they are out of the world; therefore, they are not bound by any law when they are out of the world; therefore, when they are out of the world, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are appointed angels in heaven, which angels are ministering Servants to minister for those who are worthy of a far more, and an exceeding, and an eternal weight of glory; for these angels did not abide my law, therefore they cannot be enlarged, but remain Separately and Singly without exaltation in their Saved condition to all eternity, and from henceforth are not Gods but are angels of God for ever and ever.
And again, verily I say unto you if a man marry a wife, and make a covenant with her for time and for all eternity, if that covenant is not by me, or by my word, which is my law, and is not Sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise, through him whom I have anointed and appointed unto this power, then it is not valid neither of force when they are out of the world, because they are not joined by me, saith the Lord, neither by my word; when they are out of the world, it cannot be received there, because the angels and the Gods are appointed there, by whom they cannot pass; they cannot, therefore, inherit my glory, for my house is a house of order, saith the Lord God.
And again, verily I say unto you, if a man marry a wife by my word, which is my law, and by the new and everlasting covenant, and it is sealed unto them by the Holy Spirit of promise, by him who is anointed, unto whom I have appointed this power, and the keys of this priesthood, and it shall be said unto them, ye shall come forth in the first resurrection; and if it be after the first resurrection, in the next resurrection; and shall inherit thrones, kingdoms, principalities, and powers, dominions, all heights, and depths, then shall it be written in the Lamb's Book of Life, that he shall commit no murder, whereby to shed innocent blood; and if ye abide in my covenant, and commit no murder whereby to shed innocent blood, it shall be done unto them in all things whatsoever my Servant hath put upon them, in time, and through all eternity; and shall be of full force when they are out of the world, and they shall pass by the angels, and the Gods, which are set there, to their exaltation and Glory in all things, as hath been sealed upon their heads, which glory shall be a fulness and a continuation of the seeds for ever and ever.
Then shall they be Gods, because they have no end; therefore shall they be from everlasting to everlasting, because they continue; then shall they be above all, because all things are subject unto them. Then shall they be Gods, because they have all power, and the angels are subject unto them.
Verily, verily I say unto you, except ye abide my Law, ye cannot attain to this glory; for strait is the Gate and narrow the way that leadeth unto the exaltation and continuation of the lives, and few there be that find it, because ye receive me not in the world, neither do ye know me. But if ye receive me in the world, then shall ye know me, and shall receive your exaltation, that where I am, ye shall be also. This is eternal lives to know the only wise and true God, and Jesus Christ whom he hath sent. I am he. Receive ye, therefore, my law. Broad is the gate and wide the way that leadeth to the deaths, and many there are that go in thereat, because they receive me not, neither do they abide in my law.
Verily, verily I say unto you, if a man marry a wife according to my word, and they are Sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise according to mine appointment, and he or She Shall Commit any Sin or transgression of the new and everlasting covenant whatever, and all manner of blasphemies, and if they commit no murder wherein they Shed innocent blood, yet they Shall come forth in the first resurrection, and enter into their exaltation; but they Shall be destroyed in the flesh, and Shall be delivered unto the buffetings of Satan unto the day of redemption, saith the Lord God.
The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost which Shall not be forgiven in the world, nor out of the world is in that ye Commit murder, wherein ye Shed innocent blood, and assent unto my death, after ye have received my new and everlasting covenant, Saith the Lord God; and he that abideth not this law, can in no wise enter into my glory, but Shall be damned, Saith the Lord.
I am the Lord thy God and will give unto thee the law of my Holy priesthood, as was ordained by me and my Father before the world was, Abraham received all things, whatsoever he received, by Revelation and Commandment, by my word, Saith the Lord, and hath entered into his exaltation, and Sitteth upon his throne.
Abraham received promises concerning his Seed and of the fruit of his loines [loins], from whose loins ye are, viz. my Servant Joseph [Smith], which were to continue So long as they were in the world; and as touching Abraham and his Seed out of the world, they Should continue, both in the world and out of the world Should they Continue as innumerable as the Stars; or if ye were to count the Sand upon the Sea Shore, ye Could not number them.
This promise is yours also, because ye are of Abraham, and the promise was made unto Abraham, and by this law are the Continuation of the works of my Father where in he glorifieth himself. Go ye, therefore, and do the works of Abraham; enter ye into my law, and ye Shall be Saved. But if ye enter not into my law, ye Cannot receive the promises of my Father, which he made unto Abraham.
God commanded Abraham, and Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham to wife. and why did She do it? Because this was the law, and from Hagar Sprang many people. This Therefore, was fulfilling among other things the promises. Was Abraham, therefore, under condemnation? Verily, I say unto you, Nay, for I the Lord Commanded it. Abraham was Commanded to offer his Son Isaac; nevertheless, it was written you shalt not kill; Abraham however, did not refuse, and it was accounted unto him for righteousness.
Abraham received concubines, and they bare him Children, and it was accounted unto him for righteousness, because they were given unto him, and he abode in my law: as Isaac also, and Jacob did none other things than that which they were commanded; and because they did none other thing than that which they were commanded, they have entered into their exaltation according to the promises, and sit upon thrones, and are not angels, but are Gods.
David also received many wives and concubines, as also Solomon, and Moses my Servant; as also many others of my Servants from the beginning of Creation untill this time; and in nothing did they Sin, Save in those things which they received not of me.
David's wives and Concubines were given unto him, of me, by the hand of Nathan my Servant, and others of the prophets who had the keys of this power, and in none of these things did he Sin against me, Save in the case of Uriah and his wife, and therefore, he hath fallen from his exaltation, and received his portion; and he Shall not inherit them out of the world; for I gave them unto another, saith the Lord.
I am the Lord thy God, and I Gave unto thee, my Servant Joseph [Smith], an appointment, and restore all things; ask what ye will and it Shall be given unto you, according to my word; and as ye have asked Concerning adultery; Verily, verily I say unto you, if a man receiveth a wife in the new and Everlasting Covenant, and if She be with another man, and I have not appointed unto her by the holy anointing, She hath Committed adultery, and Shall be destroyed.
If She be not in the new and everlasting Covenant, and She be with another man, she has Committed adultery; and if her husband be with another woman, and he was under a vow, he hath broken his vow, and hath committed adultery; and if She hath not committed adultery, but is innocent, and hath not broken her vow, and She knoweth it, and I reveal it unto you, my Servant Joseph [Smith], then Shall you have power by the power of my Holy priesthood to take her, and give her unto him that hath not Committed adultery, but hath been faithful; for he Shall be made ruler over many; for I have conferred upon you the Keys and power of the priesthood, wherein I restore all things, and make known unto you all things in due time.
And Verily, verily I say unto you, that whatsoever you Seal on Earth Shall be Sealed in heaven, and whatsoever you bind on earth in my name, and by my word, Saith the Lord, it Shall be eternally bound in the heavens; and Whosesoever Sins you remit on earth, Shall be remitted eternally in the heavens; and Whosesoever Sins you retain on earth, Shall be retained in heaven.
And again, Verily I say, Whomsoever you bless, I will bless; and whomsoever you Curse, I will curse; Saith the Lord, for I the Lord am thy God.
And again, Verily I say unto you, my Servant Joseph [Smith], that whatsoever you give on earth, and to whomsoever you give any one on earth, by my word, and according to my law, it Shall be visited with blessings, and not cursings, and with my power Saith the Lord, and Shall be without condemnation on earth and in heaven; for I am the Lord thy God, and will be with thee even unto the end of the world and through all Eternity.
For Verily, I seal upon you, your exaltation, and prepare a throne for you in the Kingdom of my Father, with Abraham your Father. Behold, I have seen your Sacrifices, and will forgive all your Sins; I have seen your Sacrifices in obedience to that which I have told you: Go, therefore, and I make a way for your escape, as I accepted the offering of Abraham, of his Son Isaac.
Verily I say unto you, a commandment I give unto mine handmaid, Emma Smith, your wife, whom I have given unto you, that She Stay herself and partake not of that which I Commanded you to offer unto her.
For I did it, saith the Lord, to prove you all, as I did Abraham, and that I might require an offering at your hand by covenant and Sacrifice: and let mine handmaid, Emma Smith, receive all those that have been given unto my Servent Joseph [Smith], and who are virtuous and pure before me; and those who are not pure, and have Said they ware [were] pure Shall be destroyed, Saith the Lord God.
For I am the Lord thy God: and ye shall obey my voice; and I give unto my Servent Joseph [Smith], that he Shall be made ruler over many things, for he hath been faithfull over a few things and from henceforth I will Strengthen him.
and I command mine handmaid, Emma Smith, to abide and cleave unto my Servent Joseph [Smith], and to none else. But if She will not abide this commandment; She Shall be destroyed, saith the Lord; for I am the Lord thy God, and will destroy her, if She abide not in my law; but if She will not abide this Commandment, then Shall my Servent Joseph [Smith], do all things for her, even as he hath said, and I will bless him, and multiply him, and give unto him an hundred fold in this world, of fathers and mothers, brothers and Sisters, houses and lands, wives and children, and crowns of eternal lives in the eternal worlds.
And again, Verily I say, let mine handmaid forgive my Servant Joseph [Smith] his trespasses, and then Shall She be forgiven her trespasses, wherein She hath trespas[s]eth against me, and I the Lord thy God will bless her, and multiply her; and make her heart to rejoice.
and again I Say let not my Servant Joseph [Smith] put his property out of his hands, lest an enemy come and distroy [destroy] him, for Satan seeketh to distroy [destroy]; For I am the Lord thy God, and he is my Servent; and behold! and lo, I am with him as I was with Abraham, thy Father, even unto his exaltation and glory.
Now as t[o]uching the law of the priesthood, there are many things perta[i]ning thereunto. Verily, if a man be called of my Father, as was aaron, by mine own voice, and by the voice of him that Sent me, and I have endowed him with the Keys of the power of this priesthood, if he do any thing in my name, and according to my law, and by my word, he will not Commit Sin, and I will justify him. Let no one, therefore Set on my Servant Joseph [Smith] for I will justify him, for he Shall do the Sacrifice which I require at his hands for his transgressions, saith the Lord, your God.
& again, as pertaining to the Law of the priesthood; if any man espouse a virgin, & desire to espouse another, & the first give her consent, & if he espouse the second, & they are virgins & have vowed to no other man, then is he justified; he cannot Commit adultery, for they are given unto him; for he Cannot Commit adultery with that, that belongeth unto him, & to none else; & if he have ten virgins given unto him by this Law, he Cannot Commit adultery, for they belong to him, & they are given unto him, therefore is he justified.
But if one, or either of the ten virgins, after she is espoused, Shall be with another man, she has Committed adultery, & Shall be distroyed [destroyed]; for they are given unto him to multiply & replenish the Earth, according to my Commandment, & to fulfill the promise which was given by my father before the foundation of the world, & for thine exaltation in the eternal worlds, that they may bear the Souls of men, for herein is the work of my father Continued, that he may be Glorified.
And again, Verily, verily I say unto you, if any man have a wife who holds the Keys of this power, & he teaches unto her the Law of my priesthood as pertaining to these things, then Shall She believe & administer unto him; or She Shall be distroy [destroyed], Saith the Lord your God; for I will distroy [destroy] her, for I will magnify my name, upon all those who receive & abide in my law.
Therefore, it Shall be lawful in me, if She receive not this law, for him to receive all things, whatsoever I the lord, his God, will give unto him, because She did not believe & administer unto him according to my word; & She then becomes the transgresser, & he is exempt from the law of Sarah, who administered unto Abraham according to the law, when I Commanded Abraham to take Hagar to wife.
And now, as pertaining to this law, Verily, verily I say unto you, I will reveal more unto you hereafter; therefore, let this Suffice for the present. Behold, I am Alpha & Omega: Amen.
Full text of the above revelation is in H. Michael Marquardt, The Joseph Smith Revelations: Text and Commentary (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1999), 323-28.
|Name||Date Sealed||By Whom Performed|
|Louisa Beaman||5 Apr. 1841||Joseph B. Noble|
|Mrs. Zina D. Huntington Jacobs||27 Oct. 1841||Dimick Huntington|
|Mrs. Presendia L. Huntington Buell||11 Dec. 1841||Dimick Huntington|
|Agnes M. Coolbrith||6 Jan. 1842||Brigham Young|
|Mrs. Mary E. Rollins Lightner||Feb. 1842||Brigham Young|
|Mrs. Patty Bartlett Sessions||9 Mar. 1842||Willard Richards|
|Eliza Roxy Snow||29 June 1842||Brigham Young|
|Sarah Ann Whitney||27 July 1842||Newel K. Whitney|
|Martha McBride Knight||Aug. 1842||Heber C. Kimball|
|Emily Dow Partridge||4 Mar. 1843||Heber C. Kimball|
|Emily Dow Partridge|| May 1843||James Adams (2nd time)|
|Eliza Maria Partridge||8 Mar. 1843||1843 Heber C. Kimball|
|Eliza Maria Partridge|| May 1843||James Adams (2nd time)|
|Lucy Walker||1 May 1843||William Clayton|
|Helen Mar Kimball||May 1843|
|Almera W. Johnson||May-June 1843||Hyrum Smith|
|Sarah Lawrence||May-June 1843|
|Maria Lawrence||May-June 1843|
|Mrs. Nancy Marinda Johnson Hyde||May 1843|
|Mrs. Elvira Annie Cowles Holmes||1 June 1843||Heber C. Kimball|
|Rhoda Richards||12 June 1843||Willard Richards|
|Hannah S. Ells||1843|
|Melissa Lot||20 Sept. 1843||Hyrum Smith|
|Fanny Young Carr Murray||2 Nov. 1843||Brigham Young|
|Mrs. Ruth Vose Sayers||1843-44||Hyrum Smith|
NOTE: Plural marriages or sealings were performed in Nauvoo. If a sealing of an additional wife was for time it would be in violation of Illinois state law and church policy as outlined in the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants (Article on Marriage). In August 1852 at Great Salt Lake City, Utah Territory, it was announced that plural marriage (celestial marriage) was an accepted practice in the church. The 12 July 1843 revelation of Joseph Smith was included in the 1876 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants and the article on Marriage was omitted. In September 1890 a Manifesto was issued claiming that plural marriages would be stopped. The practiced continued another twenty years until at least 1910 (see B. Carmon Hardy, Solemn Covenant: The Mormon Polygamous Passage [Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992], 328-29). The Manifesto was included in printings of the Doctrine and Covenants in 1908.
Publications on plural marriage include:
Todd Compton, Sacred Loneliness: The Plural Wives of Joseph Smith. Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1998.
B. Carmon Hardy, Solemn Covenant: The Mormon Polygamous Passage. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992.
Newell, Linda King and Valeen Tippets Avery, Mormon Enigma: Emma Hale Smith. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2nd ed., 1994.
George D. Smith, "Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841-46: A Preliminary Demographic Report," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 27 (Spring 1994):1-72.
Richard S. Van Wagoner, Mormon Polygamy: A History. Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2nd ed., 1989.