There were a number of periods when Joseph Smith dictated or wrote the text of what became the Book of Mormon.
1. ca. January - April 1828
Emma Hale Smith (wife of Joseph Smith Jr.)
Reuben Hale (brother of Emma Hale Smith)
2. ca. 12 April - 14 June 1828
Martin Harris (farmer)
Note: About 116 manuscript pages were lost (ca. June - July 1828)
3. ca. September 1828 - March 1829
Emma Hale Smith (wife of Joseph Smith Jr.)
Samuel H. Smith (brother of Joseph Smith Jr.) (farmer)
Note: Not known how many manuscript pages were written
4. ca. 7 April - 26 June 1829
Oliver Cowdery (school teacher, printer assistant)
Unknown Scribe - Scribe 1
Unknown Scribe - Scribe 2
original manuscript pages (LDS archives and Wilford Wood Collection)
Areas of scholarly interest:
1. English grammar in Original Manuscript (LDS archives)
2.Transcription errors from Original Manuscript when copied onto the Printer's Manuscript (RLDS archives)
Manuscripts used for setting up type for the first edition (LDS versification used):
1. Printer's Manuscript (P MS) used to set up 1 Nephi 1 to Helaman 12.
2. Original Manuscript (O MS) used to set up Helaman 13 to Mormon 9.
3. Printer's Manuscript (P MS) used to set up Ether 1 to Moroni 10.
Percentage of manuscript used and page numbers of pages set in type:
85% of P MS; 1830 ed., pp. 5-441; 538-588.
15% of O MS; 1830 ed., pp. 441-538
The words written on the O MS was that of the particular scribe. In LDS 1 Nephi 7:3-17, for example, changes in capitalization and spelling were done when the P MS was prepared. See Richard P. Howard, Restoration Scriptures: A Study of Their Textual Development (Independence, MO: Herald Publishing House, 1995), 11-25.
Changes in grammar were made for the 1837 edition of the Book of Mormon of about 3,000 copies. It was published in Kirtland, Ohio. The reason for changes in English grammar is because, for example, Joseph Smith used a plural word such as "were" when the singular word "was" should have been in the sentence. There were places in the first edition where a plural word was used and it should have been singular. Other grammatical errors appear throughout the 1830 edition of the Book of Mormon. It appears that the language is that of Joseph Smith whether his poor English usage was because he was dictating the text rather than writing it or the actual state of his education.
Peter Crawley wrote about the 1837 second edition:
The preface further explains that in preparation for the new edition, the first edition was "carefully re-examined and compared with the original manuscripts" by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery. Richard Howard has found more than two thousand changes which were written into the Printer's Manuscript of the 1830 Book of Mormon and incorporated in the second edition, and over one thousand other changes not indicated in the manuscript. It would seem, therefore, that the 1837 Book of Mormon was printed from the corrected Printer's Manuscript, and additional changes were made-by Cowdery?-as the book was set in type. Most of the changes are grammatical and stylistic. A few, however, are significant, for example, where "God" or "Eternal Father" on p. 25, lines 4 and 11; p. 26, line 9; and p. 32, line 11 are changed to "Son of God" or "Son of the Eternal Father." Thus the 1837 edition is an important progenitor in the genealogy of the Book of Mormon: from it was printed the first of a sequence of British and American editions culminating in the edition now in use by the LDS Church (see items 83, 98). (A Descriptive Bibliography of the Mormon Church Volume One 1830-1847 [Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 1997 (1998)], 67).
John H. Gilbert, who set up the majority of the type for the Book of Mormon, prepared a statement in preparation for the World's Fair held in Chicago, Illinois, in 1892. The following transcript was published by Wilford C. Wood in Joseph Smith Begins His Work, Vol. 1, introductory pages, (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1958).
I am a practical printer by trade. I have been a resident of Palmyra, N.Y., since about the year 1824, and during all that time have done some type-setting each year. I was aged ninety years on the 13th day of April 1892, and on that day I went to the office of the Palmyra Courier and set a stick-ful of type.
My recollection of past events, and especially of the matter connected with the printing of the "Mormon Bible," is very accurate and faithful, and I have made the following memorandum at request, to accompany the photographs of "Mormon Hill," which have been made for the purpose of exhibits at the World's Fair in 1893.
In the forepart of June 1829, Mr. E. B. Grandin, the printer of the "Wayne Sentinel," came to me and said he wanted I should assist him in estimating the cost of printing 5000 copies of a book that Martin Harris wanted to get printed, which he called the "Mormon Bible."
It was the second application of Harris to Grandin to do the job,--Harris assuring Grandin that the book would be printed in Rochester if he declined the job again.
Harris proposed to have Grandin do the job, if he would, as it would be quite expensive to keep a man in Rochester during the printing of the book, who would have to visit Palmyra two or three times a week for manuscript, &c. Mr. Grandin consented to do the job if his terms were accepted.
A few pages of the manuscript were submitted as a specimen of the whole, and it was said there would be about 500 pages.
The size of the page was agreed upon, and an estimate of the number of ems in a page, which would be 1000, and that a page of manuscript would make more than a page of printed matter, which proved to be correct.
The contract was to print and bind with leather, 5000 copies for $3,000. Mr. Grandin got a new font of Small Pica, on which the body of the work was printed. When the printer was ready to commence work, Harris was notified, and Hyrum Smith brought the first installment of manuscript, of 24 pages, closely written on common foolscap paper--he had it under his vest, and vest and coat closely buttoned over it. At night Smith came and got the manuscript, and with the same precaution carried it away. The next morning with the same watchfulness, he brought it again, and at night took it away. This was kept up for several days. The title page was first set up, and after proof was read and corrected, several copies were printed for Harris and his friends. On the second day--Harris and Smith being in the office--I called their attention to a grammatical error, and asked whether I should correct it? Harris consulted with Smith a short time, and turned to me and said: "The Old Testament is ungrammatical, set it as it is written."
After working a few days, I said to Smith on his handing me the manuscript in the morning; "Mr. Smith, if you would leave this manuscript with me, I would take it home with me at night and read and punctuate it." His reply was, "We are commanded not to leave it." A few mornings after this, when Smith handed me the manuscript, he said to me:--"If you will give your word that this manuscript shall be returned to us when you get through with it, I will leave it with you." I assured Smith that it should be returned all right when I got through with it. For two or three nights I took it home with me and read it, and punctuated it with a lead pencil. This will account for the punctuation marks in pencil, which is referred to in the Mormon Report, an extract from which will be found below.
Martin Harris, Hyrum Smith and Oliver Cowdery were very frequent visitors to the office during the printing of the Mormon Bible. The manuscript was supposed to be in the handwriting of Cowdery. Every Chapter, if I remember correctly, was one solid paragraph, without a punctuation mark, from beginning to end.
Names of persons and places were generally capitalized, but sentences had no end. The character or short &, was used almost invariably where the word and, occurred, except at the end of a chapter. I punctuated it to make it read as I supposed the Author intended, and but very little punctuation was altered in proof-reading. The Bible was printed 16 pages at a time, so that one sheet of paper made two copies of 16 pages each, requiring 2500 sheets of paper for each form of 16 pages. There were 37 forms of 16 pages each,--570 pages in all.
The work was commenced in August 1829, and finished in March 1830,--seven months. Mr. J. H. Bortles and myself done the press work until December taking nearly three days to each form.
In December Mr. Grandin hired a journeyman pressman, Thomas McAuley, or "Whistling Tom," as he was called in the office, and he and Bortles did the balance of the press-work. The Bible was printed on a "Smith" Press, single pull, and old fashioned "Balls" or "Niggerheads" were used--composition rollers not having come into use in small printing offices.
The printing was done in the third story of the west end of "Exchange Row," and the binding by Mr. Howard, in the second story the lower story being used as a book store, by Mr. Grandin, and now--1892--by Mr. M. Story as a dry-goods store.
Cowdery held and looked over the manuscript when most of the proofs were read. Martin Harris once or twice, and Hyrum Smith once, Grandin supposing these men could read their own writing as well, if not better, than any one else; and if there are any discrepancies between the Palmyra edition and the manuscript these men should be held responsible.
Joseph Smith, Jr. had nothing to do whatever with the printing or furnishing copy for the printers, being but once in the office during the printing of the Bible, and then not over 15 or 20 minutes.
Hyrum Smith was a common laborer, and worked for any one as he was called on.
Cowdery taught school winters--so it was said--but what he done summers, I do not know.
Martin Harris was a farmer, owning a good farm, of about 150 acres, about a mile north of Palmyra village, and had money at interest. Martin,--as every body called him,--was considered by his neighbors a very honest man; but on the subject of Mormonism, he was said to be crazy. Martin was the main spoke in the wheel of Mormonism in its start in Palmyra, and I may say, the only spoke. In the fall of 1827, he told us what wonderful discoveries Jo Smith had made, and of his finding plates in a hill in the town of Manchester, (three miles south of Palmyra,)--also found with the plates a large pair of spectacles, by putting which on his nose and looking at the plates, the spectacles turned the hyroglyphics into good English. The question might be asked here whether Jo or the spectacles was the translator?
Sometime in 1828, Martin Harris, who had been furnished by someone with what he said was a fac-simile of the hyroglyphics of one of the plates, started for New York. On his way he stopped at Albany and called on Lt. Gov. Bradish,--with what success I do not know. He proceeded to New York, and called on Prof. C. Anthon, made known his business and presented his hyroglyphics.
This is what the Professor said in regard to them--1834--
"The paper in question was, in fact, a singular scroll. It consisted of all kinds of singular characters, disposed in columns, and had evidently been prepared by some person who had before him at the time a book containing various alphabets; Greek and Hebrew letters, crosses and flourishes, Roman letters inverted or placed sidewise [sideways], arranged and placed in perpendicular columns, and the whole ended in a rude delineation of a circle, divided into various compartments, arched with various strange marks, and evidently copied after the Mexican Calendar, given by Humboldt, but copied in such a way as not to betray the source whence it was derived. I am thus particular as to the contents of the paper, inasmuch as I have frequently conversed with my friends on the subject since the Mormon excitement began, and well remembered that the paper contained anything else but 'Egyptian Hyroglyphics.'["]
Martin returned from his trip east satisfied that "Joseph" was a "little smarter than Prof. Anthon."
Martin was something of a prophet:--He frequently said that "Jackson would be the last president that we would have; and that all persons who did not embrace Mormonism in two years would be stricken off the face of the earth." He said that Palmyra was to be the New Jerusalem, and that her streets were to be paved with gold.
Martin was in the office when I finished setting up the testimony of the three witnesses,--(Harris--Cowdery and Whitmer) I said to him,--"Martin, did you see those plates with your naked eyes?" Martin looked down for an instant, raised his eyes up, and said, "No, I saw them with a spiritual eye."
The Book of Mormon was published in Palmyra, New York in 1830. The printing was done by E. B. Grandin publisher of the Wayne Sentinel newspaper. The cost of printing 5,000 copies of the first edition was three thousand dollars. It was eventually paid by one of the witnesses to the book, Martin Harris.
The second edition was published in Kirtland, Ohio in 1837 and contained correction of grammatical errors and word changes. A number of Restoration churches publish their own editions of the Book of Mormon. The edition published by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah) has been titled since 1982: The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ.