Sailing Vessels and Steamboats

From Our Pioneer Heritage Vol. 12, p.421-492

This article has an introduction followed by a year by year summary of each ship used for emigration. Some entries have accounts from the Church Chronology by Andrew Jenson, the Millenial Star or the Times and Seasons.

1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869

Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. —Matt. 11:28

When the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was organized in the early part of the Nineteenth Centuy through the instrumentality of Joseph Smith, the command was given that the gospel should reach every nation, kindred, tongue, and people or, as Matthew records it, in the language of the Savior, "This gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world, for a witness unto all nations, and then shall the end come." Earlier, Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, while engaged in translating the Book of Mormon, commenced to expound the newly revealed religion in Harmony, Pennsylvania, in Seneca and Broome counties, New York, and other places. After the ordination of a number of brethren to the ministry, the gospel was preached by these first elders in many of the states in the Union, also to a number of Indian tribes. Oliver Cowdery, Parley P. Pratt and three other elders proclaimed its principles to the people in western Missouri and to the Delaware Indians "over the boundary." This was about nine months after the Church came into existence, and the field of labor covered by these early missionaries extended about 1200 miles west from Fayette, New York.

Up to 1837, proselyting was confined to the United States and the British provinces of America, but in that year Apostles Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde, together with five other missionaries, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and began missionary work in Great Britain. Before long, thousands were baptized in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

The early Mormons were convinced that their Heavenly Father had a great work for them to do. They accepted, as an assignment, the responsibility of gathering scattered Israel and building the Latter-day kingdom on the American continent preparatory to the coming of the Savior. The Doctrine and Covenants held the authoritative message that would start the great flood of converts to Zion:

Send forth the elders of my church unto the nations which are afar off; unto the islands of the sea; send forth unto foreign lands; call upon all nations, first upon the Gentiles and then upon the Jews.

Behold, and lo, this shall be their cry and the voice of the Lord unto all people: Go ye forth unto the land of Zion, that the borders of my people may be enlarged, and that her stakes may be strengthened, and that Zion may go forth unto the regions round about ... Let them, therefore, who are among the Gentiles flee unto Zion.

After the missionary labors of Apostles Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde, response from the converts in Great Britain was almost immediately forthcoming, and in 1840 nearly 300 emigrants made their way to America. By the following year, it was deemed advisable to establish an agent in England to carry out the tremendous task of organizing the growing emigration. James Linforth, in his book From Liverpool to Salt Lake, acquaints us with the early function of this important office:

In an Epistle of the Twelve Apostles, dated Manchester, (Eng.) April 15, 1841, and signed by eight members of that body, Elder Amos Fielding was appointed an agent of the Church, to superintend the fitting out of the companies of emigrants from Liverpool, and to protect them from being victimized while waiting in port to sail. Elder Fielding being a man of much experience and good judgment, no doubt performed, with every satisfaction, the duties assigned to him. He acted in concert with Elder P. P. Pratt, until the departure of the latter from this country, Oct. 29, 1842, when the business was conducted by himself and Hyrum Clark, who left Nauvoo for that purpose, on the 23rd of June, 1842, under instructions from the Church authorities. We believe the details of the emigration effected by the last two agencies are nearly complete.

The next person who had the charge of the emigration was Elder Reuben Hedlock, who was appointed in Nauvoo, by the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, on the 23rd of May, 1843. The details during his agency are not complete, but again we are fortunate in having a statement made by himself, in February, 1846, to the effect that he had shipped 990 persons, 113 of whom were allowed to pay their passage in Nauvoo; the amount of which was £466 12s....

The Kenilworth

Up to the time of Elder Hedlock's agency, and during a part of it, nearly the whole tide of emigration poured into Nauvoo, but still some of the emigrants settled in other towns and villages of Illinois, and in the then territory of Iowa, the south-west corner of which had been very favourably reported upon in July, 1840, by George Miller and John A. Mikesell, a committee appointed to examine it and report its advantages, and the facilities it offered for settlers. The main object, however—that of building up Nauvoo—was never lost sight of, and the authorities, Joseph Smith and the Twelve Apostles, constantly exhorted the immigrating Saints who had capital, to establish manufactories in that city, that employment might be given to the labouring classes as they arrived, and the interests of all be enhanced; but the continual law-suits which the Saints in Nauvoo were engaged in to defend the Prophet Joseph; and the effects of speculation in land, by some monied men from without, who bought lands at a low rate, and sold them again at enormous prices, exhausted the pockets of the Saints, crippled all manufacturing interests, and left the city, after the Prophet's assassination, in an almost helpless condition, in a pecuniary point of view. The Twelve Apostles, nevertheless, still desired that Nauvoo should be built up, and that employment should be given within the city to artizans, and recommended that every lawful means be used to bring it about; but, in the meantime, the Saints emigrating from Great Britain, who were wholly dependent upon their labour for support, were advised to emigrate to New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Salem, Boston, and other large towns in the eastern states, where branches of the Church existed, and where employment could be procured, which would give the emigrants the means to go west, when the way should open.

In February, 1846, the exodus of the Saints from Nauvoo commenced, and as they had no permanent location, until their arrival at Council Bluffs, in the June following, the emigration from Great Britain was suspended. The ultimate destination of the exterminated Saints was from the first intended to be beyond the Rocky Mountains, and, in the meantime, the Saints from Great Britain, were directed to make for the bay, or port of San Francisco. Elder Hedlock, in an address, in February, 1846, intimated that a company would leave in the following September for California; and in another address, in April, stated that, following the instructions given by Elder Woodruff, previous to his departure, and the voice of the General Conference, held in Manchester, he should submit to the next General Conference, the formation of the first company of emigrants, that all things might be prepared to send out a vessel on the 10th of September. These arrangements, however, were never carried into effect; but on the arrival of Elders O. Hyde and John Taylor, on the 3rd of October, and P. P. Pratt, on the 14th, the emigration was further suspended. Having been appointed to come to England, these three Apostles left Council Bluffs in the previous summer, and on their arrival took charge of the British Mission. (End of quote.)

The following elders were in charge of the mission during the remaining years of Pioneer Period: Franklin D. Richards, 1851–52; Samuel W. Richards, 1852–54; Franklin D. Richards, 1854–56; Orson Pratt, 1856–57; Samuel W. Richards, 1857–58; Asa Calkin, 1858–60; Nathaniel V. Jones, pro tem., 1860; Amasa M. Lyman and Charles C. Rich, 1860–62; George Q. Cannon, 1862–64; Daniel H. Wells, 1864–65; Brigham Young, Jr. 1865–67; Franklin D. Richards, 1867–68; Albert Carrington, 1868–70.

Before leaving Nauvoo, the Latter-day Saints entered into a solemn covenant in the temple that they would not cease their exertions until every individual who desired to follow the Saints, but was unable to furnish the means, would be brought to the gathering place, wherever it might be. In the October 1849 conference in Salt Lake City it was voted unanimously that sufficient funds be raised for the fulfillment of that promise. Five thousand dollars were pledged that same fall. In a letter from President Young to Orson Hyde and Orson Pratt the objects of the fund, to be known as the Emigrating Fund Company, were made known, one of which was that not only the poor in the states should be eligible for help, but those in the British Isles as well.

In England, the Church was growing rapidly, and converts were eager to answer the call of The Gathering. An article appearing in the Millennial Star of February 1842 gave further impetus to the movement:

"In the midst of the general distress which prevails in this country, on account of want of employment, the high price of provisions, the oppression, priestcraft, and iniquity of the land, it is pleasing to the household of faith to contemplate a country reserved by the Almighty as a sure asylum for the poor and the oppressed, a country every way adapted to their wants and conditions, and still more pleasing to think that thousands of the Saints have already made their escape from this country, from all its abuses and distress and that they have found a home where by preserving industry, they may enjoy the blessings of liberty, peace and plenty. Several of our ships have been chartered by the Saints during the present fall and winter, and have been filled with emigrants who have gone forth with songs of joy. Some of them have already arrived safely in the Promised Land, while others are doubtlessly still tossing upon the ocean. Who that has a heart to feel or soul to rejoice will not be glad at so glorious a plan of deliverance. Who will not hail the messengers of the Latter-day Saints as the friends of humanity—the benefactors of mankind?"

During the period of the expulsion from Nauvoo and the year spent by the Saints on the Indian lands of Iowa, emigration was suspended until such time as a permanent home could be located. The distress prevailing among the poor in Britain, however, was of great concern to Elders Hyde, Pratt and Taylor, and in February of 1847 they suggested to these Saints that they present a memorial to Queen Victoria asking her assistance in their emigration to Oregon or Vancouver Island. But sentiment among the British was against such emigration of the poor, and the memorial was unfruitful.

By 1850 Franklin D. Richards, who replaced Orson Pratt as mission president, was able to present the Church's solution to the problem, the Perpetual Emigrating Fund. Contributions soon began to pour in from English Saints, opening the way for long awaited emigration of thousands of British, Scandinavian and other converts. And while the great majority of the emigrants were hastening toward Zion in full belief of the gospel and the latter-day kingdom, there were some whose underlying purpose in reaching American shores was purely materialistic. These became impatient when financial aid was not immediately forthcoming, and apostatized. It was a period of frustration for Church authorities in Britain, culminating in the adoption of a policy of screening these individuals by excommunication.

In preparing the material for this chapter, Andrew Jenson's chronology of sailing schedules between the years of 1840–69 has been followed. In addition, through research in manuscripts and records of pioneers, several ships listed among the "miscellaneous" groups are named. The text following the chronology is representative of the material available on the subject, and seeks to present all phases of the huge and interesting task of transporting thousands of men, women and children across the great waters of the world. A significant sidelight is the change from the slow-traveling sailships to the fast, efficient steam propelled vessels of 1868–69.

The First Ships—1840–1849

1840. June 6th. Forty-one Saints sailed from Liverpool, England, on the Britannia for the United States, being the first Saints that gathered from a foreign land. John Moon was leader of the company. July 20th, John Moon's company of British emigrants arrived at New York.

September 8th. The North America sailed from Liverpool, England, with about two hundred Saints, under the presidency of Theodore Turley, bound for Nauvoo, Ill. Elder Wm. Clayton, late of Manchester, writes from Nauvoo, Illinois, under date of Dec. 10th. He informs us of the safe arrival of the colony who sailed from Liverpool with him last fall on board North America. This company divided at Buffalo, New York; part of them went to Kirtland, Ohio, to settle in one of the towns of the Saints, and the rest continued their journey up the lake to Illinois, and stopped at Nauvoo. They were all in good health and spirits, and much pleased both with the country and with the society there....

October 15th. The Isaac Newton with fifty Saints aboard under the direction of Samuel Mulliner sailed from Liverpool. They arrived safely in New Orleans.

From the diary of Hugh Moon, we quote the following:

Brother Heber C. Kimball told me to write everything that transpired down in my journal from the time we left our homes.

We left Penworthem to go to Liverpool and take shipping for America on the 30th day of May in the year 1840. We got all our luggage on board that night, bought some more provisions the following day. We bought my oldest brother Richard, 36 yards of linen for a tent. When we returned to the ship, (Britannia) we found Elders Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball aboard. They had stretched a curtain across our cabin, and commenced blessing the company. They bid us walk in, they laid their hands on our heads and blessed us in the name of Jesus Christ. They showed us a map and gave us directions about the route we should take to Commerce (Nauvoo).

June 6, 1840, we were let loose in the River and set sail. The next few days there was sea sickness and a strong boisterous wind this kept up for about two weeks.

On June 19th the passengers were aroused to much excitement by the sailors beating the old cook; the captain and first and second mates were called. They laid hold of the sailor who began the fight, to put him in irons; but all the balance of the people took sides with him. After quite a stir they got the sailor quieted down again. There was still sickness aboard.

July 22nd, we arrived to the banks of Newfoundland; saw a fishing craft and bought some fish etc. On July 17 we cast anchor in sight of the City of New York. We stayed in the river for two days and then in the city for the next eight days. I took a bad cold on the banks of Newfoundland, the glands of both of my ears fell. I could neither eat nor speak, nor drink anything. They carried me to Brother Addison Everett's room. William W. Rust gave me some medicine which opened my throat. Sister Everett nursed me with all the care of a mother till I could be moved again.

On July 28th we took a steamboat for Philadelphia, sailed 2 hours and 15 min. Then took a railway 2 hours and 22 minutes; then steamboat again and reached Philadelphia at 3 o'clock. Two days later we left for Pittsburgh. By August 21 we crossed the Allegheny River and rented a house in Allegheny.

Thomas Moon died at 10:25 P M on the night of October 2nd, 1840. He died of a bilious fever. After that we moved out into the country about 15 miles and rented a log house in Pine Township. The waters were low so that we had to wait until spring before we could continue our journey.

On January 19, 1841, Henry Moon, my uncle died at the age of 71 years.

On April the 3 we went to Pittsburgh, put our things on a boat by the name of William Penn. We started up the river and arrived at Montrose on April the 16th. Here I saw my Aunt Lydia and Brother William Clayton. He helped us to move our luggage to a log cabin half mile from the river.

1841. February 7th. The Sheffield sailed from Liverpool, England, with 235 Saints, under the leadership of Hiram Clark.

February 16th. The Echo sailed from Liverpool, England, with 109 Saints, under the direction of Daniel Browett.

March 17th. The Uleste sailed from Liverpool, England, with 54 Saints, under the direction of Thomas Smith and Wm. Moss, bound for America.

April 21st. Apostles Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Pratt, Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, Geo. A. Smith and Willard Richards sailed from Liverpool, England, on the Rochester accompanied by 130 Saints. They arrived at New York May 20th.

September 21st. The ship Tyrean sailed from Liverpool, for New Orleans with 204 Saints, under the direction of Joseph Fielding bound for Nauvoo. On November 24th, the Tyrean company of British Saints arrived at Warsaw, intending to settle Warren, a new town site one mile south of Warsaw, which had been selected for a settlement of the Saints, but they soon afterwards removed to Nauvoo, because of oppression on the part of anti-Mormons.

November 8th. The Chaos sailed from Liverpool with 170 Saints, under the direction of Peter Melling, bound for Nauvoo.

This year, the Saints had received instructions which were followed for several years: Mr. Amos Field who chartered the Tyrean with Captain Jackson as master, said, "She is a large, new, convenient ship, and well calculated for comfort, speed and safety. Passengers should be all on board by the 18th of September.

"N.B.—By the present plan of emigration entered into by the Saints, from 1 10s. to 2 will be saved on each passenger in the price of passage and provisions to New Orleans to Nauvoo. The Saints and others who wish to avail themselves of this advantage should apply to A. Fielding, No. 1 Grenville Street, Liverpool, or to P. P. Pratt, Star Office, Manchester, some weeks beforehand, or at least ten days before the time of the sailing of each vessel. If needed, another vessel will be chartered the fore part of October. We are now ready to receive names and money for the same.—Pratt and Fielding, Agents"

From a history prepared by Nina F. Moss we learn of a young couple who sailed in 1841 on the ship Uleste:

William Moss, son of Robert and Margret Kelsall Moss, was born September 27, 1796, at Barton, Lancashire, England. According to family history, William and Elizabeth Cottam were married and living at the Old Waddington Mill Farm, which he managed, as early as 1826 or 1827. William and Elizabeth joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Waddington, Yorkshire, England, upon the first introduction of the gospel into that country by Heber C. Kimball. They emigrated to America in 1841 on the Uleste, which carried 54 Saints under the direction of William Moss and Thomas Smith. On January 31, 1845, William was appointed to help collect tithing for the construction of the Nauvoo Temple. He took part in the Battle of Nauvoo and was with the Saints who had remained and were expelled in September 1846 after the battle.

William and his wife journeyed to Winter Quarters, and while here he was sent to England on a mission. Elizabeth left Winter Quarters with one of the first companies going west after his departure. On January 6, 1851, James Cummings, Crandall Dunn and William Moss left Liverpool with 200 English Saints. Crossing the ocean on the Ellen, they landed at New Orleans and traveled thence to Kanesville, Iowa, on the river boat Sacramento. Many of these Saints left almost immediately for the Salt Lake Valley, but some remained and settled in Pottawattamie.

It is not known in which group William finally completed his journey to Utah, but it is known that on February 24, 1856, he answered the call to go to Las Vegas to help settle that part of the country.

1842. January 12th. The ship Tremont sailed from Liverpool with 143 Saints bound for Nauvoo via New Orleans.

February 5th. The Hope sailed from Liverpool for New Orleans with 270 Saints.

February 20th. The John Cummings sailed from Liverpool with about 200 Saints.

March 12th. The Hanover sailed from Liverpool with about 200 Saints, under the direction of Amos Fielding. April 13th, about 200 Saints arrived at Nauvoo from Great Britain.

September 17th. The Sydney sailed from Liverpool with 180 Saints; it arrived at New Orleans Nov. 11th.

September 25th. The Medford sailed from Liverpool with 214 Saints, under the presidency of Apostle Orson Hyde; it arrived at New Orleans Nov. 13th.

September 29th. The Henry sailed from Liverpool for New Orleans with 127 Saints, under the direction of John Snider.

October 29th. The Emerald sailed from Liverpool with 250 Saints under the leadership of Apostle Parley P. Pratt. Because of ice in the Mississippi River the company was detained during the winter in St. Louis, Alton, Chester and other places, and did not arrive in Nauvoo until April 12, 1843.

President Parley P. Pratt, who was released from his mission at this time, wrote: "I next chartered the Emerald on which I placed about two hundred and fifty passengers, including myself and family. Having finished my present mission in England and taken an affectionate leave of the Saints and friends there, I embarked on the Emerald and sailed on the 29th of October. We had a tedious passage of ten weeks and some difficulties, murmurings, and rebellions, but the Saints on board were called together and chastened and reproved sharply, which brought them to repentance. We then humbled ourselves and called on the Lord, and he sent a fair wind, and brought us into port in time to save us from starvation.

"We landed in New Orleans early in January, 1843. Here I chartered a steamer called the Goddess of Liberty and took passage with the company for St. Louis. Running up the river for about a week, I landed with my family in Chester, Illinois—eighty miles below St. Louis. The company continued on to St. Louis. My reason for landing here was, that I would not venture into Missouri after the abuses I had experienced there in former times.... ."

The Millennial Star, Vol. 2, gave the cost of passage for this year: "Immediate application should be made by those who wish a passage. Passage costs from 3 15s to 4, including provisions. Passengers find their own bedding and cooking utensils; and all their luggage goes free. On arriving in New Orleans, a passage can be obtained up the Mississippi River, fifteen hundred miles by steamer, for fifteen shillings, and freight free, as we have learned by letter from Elder Joseph Fielding, who sailed with two hundred passengers in the Tyrean, last Sept. From Nauvoo, letters have been received from several of the Saints, who emigrated from Manchester in Sept. last. All agree in giving a very favourable account of both the temporal and spiritual affairs of the society there."

We present a letter written by John Greenhow:

To the Editor of the Times and Seasons,

Dear Brother Taylor,—I send you a few lines, thinking that you might wish to hear some particulars of your old friends on the other side of the Atlantic, and the progress of the work of God throughout England. But, in the first place, allow me to express my joy at again seeing the Servants of God, whom I had so often listened to with joy, while they laid open to me the principles of eternal truth, which the Lord has again revealed for the salvation of man. And next my perfect satisfaction with Nauvoo, as far as I can judge after a fortnight's residence. It is altogether needless for me to make any illusions to Joseph Smith, for I had not been long in the church before I knew that he was a prophet of God, and had received the holy priesthood by dreams, by visions, by healings, and, in fact, by the signs following, which has caused me to rejoice in having an existence in this momentous age.

It is now nearly three years since I first saw you, and I came armed with all my Wesleyan zeal to drive these Philistines from our coast; but when you commenced laying the truth before us, I felt like Samson deprived of his locks—my strength was gone, and but one desire filled my soul—that what you were stating might be true; and I did not leave the house till I had the promise of a servant of God to pray for me, that, if it was the truth, the Lord would make it manifest to me, which he shortly after did by an open vision. I have no doubt but you still remember our first interview, and how the work spread while you remained in England. It is rapidly spreading over all the face of that island; and very soon there will scarcely be a village or hamlet where the gospel is not planted for the honest in heart to flock unto. In Liverpool the work has been going on steadily, since the time you left, and the hearers both numerous and respectable. At the time you left, I believe the Liverpool conference numbered about two hundred and fifty; and when I left, in September last, over seven hundred. We have had peace and good order throughout, and have had but seldom indeed to resort to the expedient of cutting off. In the last twelve weeks of my presidency over the Liverpool conference we baptized ninety-eight.

On the 17th of September we left Liverpool in the Sydney, and set our faces towa rd Zion, and after a passage of eight weeks we landed at New Orleans. There were six deaths during the voyage, viz. four children, one sailor, who fell from the yard arm and sister Cannon. She had been unwell for some time previous to our leaving Liverpool, and continued getting worse. She died without a struggle or a murmur, and was perfectly reconciled. She requested to be buried in the sea, if she died previous to reaching New Orleans, but if coming up the river, that she might be buried on land. Captain Cowan is one of the most kind-hearted humane men that ever crossed the Atlantic. After tarrying three days at New Orleans we again embarked on board the Alex. Scott, and made rapid progress till we passed the mouth of the Ohio, when we soon after run aground and remained there three days; on our deliverance we got to within ninety miles of St. Louis, where she had to remain three weeks for want of water. When we arrived at St. Louis we had to look out for houses, as it was at this time about the depth of winter, and the river was frozen up above St. Louis; yet all got houses to shelter in, and provisions in abundance. We had honey at two cents a pound, beef from seven to ten pounds for five cents, and the finest geese in the market for fifteen cents each, butter five cents a pound, and everything in the same proportion. The brethren were mainly well when I left St. Louis, and anxiously waiting for a general break up of the river that they might make another start for Nauvoo. I believe, sir, that the abominable lies, which are in circulation, over the whole land, would turn any man but a Latter-day Saint, and we know we have not followed cunningly devised fables, and therefore are not to be carried away with the cunning craft of men whereby they lie in wait to deceive. But I must now conclude at present, for I had neither pen, ink, or paper when I begun this letter, so just took my stick to give you the news in the best way I could. And I thank God that, after a journey of more than nineteen weeks, I am safe in Nauvoo, and feel myself out of the reach of oppression, and my mind in perfect peace.

I remain your affectionate brother, in the covenant of peace,

Letter written by Elder Wm. Clayton to Wm. Hardman:

Dear William:

My heart rejoices while I write to inform you that, on Sunday evening last, the steamer Ariel landed at Nauvoo, loaded with Saints from England. About five o'clock the boat was seen coming up the river, the whole deck crowded with Saints. I went to the landing place along with Elder John Taylor, his wife, and others.

As we went along, we were delighted and astonished to see the number of Saints on their way to meet the boat. When we arrived, the scene was affecting; I could not refrain from weeping. I looked around, and I suppose there was not less than from two to three thousand Saints on the shore, all anxiously interested in the scene. Many were there who wanted to give the strangers (yet brothers) a hearty welcome; others panting betwixt doubt and hope, lest their friends should not be there; others waiting to ascertain if any former acquaintance was in the company—myself amongst the number; and many, whose hearts throbbed with joy, and their eyes wept tears, expecting to see their mothers, their fathers, their children, and other relatives, etc. While all this bustle was going on on shore, the boat was now within three hundred yards, coming directly for the shore; the confusion was so great I could but faintly hear those on the boat singing a hymn (I believe, "The Latter-Day Glory.")

At this period my heart almost melted, the boat moving majestically, every head stretched out, and all eyes gazing with intensity. A few moments more and the boat was landed, and the joyful acclamations and responding welcomes would have made a heart of stone acknowledge, that whether there was any religion or not, there was a great quantity of love—the purest essence of religion. I soon recognized sister Davies, from Cookson-street, Manchester, and a sister Martha who lived with them; also James Burgess and family, Richard Hardman and family, Rbt. Williams and wife, and several others whom I knew. They soon discovered me, and we quickly felt each other's hand, and had a time of rejoicing together. Teams were soon in waiting to carry their luggage to houses until arrangements could be made for their final accommodation. The company were in good health and spirits.

Amongst the number who went to see them land, I may mention, President Joseph Smith, B. Young, Willard Richards, John Taylor, of the twelve; and many others in high standing, although the distance was nearly two miles.

1843. January 16th. The Swanton sailed from Liverpool with 212 Saints for New Orleans led by Lorenzo. Snow. The emigrants arrived at Nauvoo April 12th.

March 8th. The Yorkshire sailed from Liverpool, England, with 82 Saints aboard, led by Thomas Bullock; the emigrants arrived at Nauvoo May 31st via New Orleans.

March 21st. The Claiborne sailed from Liverpool with 106 Saints.

September 5th. The Metoka sailed from Liverpool with 280 Saints, bound for Nauvoo.

September 21st. The Champion sailed from Liverpool with 91 Saints, bound for Nauvoo.

During February 1843 Thomas Bullock, one of the Church's foremost workers for many years, resigned his commission as excise officer in England and by March 8, 1843, was on the ship Yorkshire, en route to his new home in America. He was chosen to supervise the company of Saints on board the ship, with his father-in-law, Richard Rushton, as his assistant. They were responsible for 83 persons, including themselves. Thomas personally paid for the emigration of several families so that they, too, might "gather" in Zion.

The following excerpts are quoted from History of the Church, Vol. 5:

Tues., May 2, 1843. About one p.m. the mate of the ship Yorkshire opened The Testament at the 27th chapter of Acts and asked the passengers how they would feel to be shipwrecked like Paul. Elder Thomas Bullock replied instantly, "It is very likely we shall be shipwrecked; but the hull of this old vessel has got to carry us safe into New Orleans." The mate was then called away to hoist the fore-top-royal sail.

Between one and two the next morning, when off Cape St. Antonio, Cuba, there was much vivid lightning, when a white squall caught the fore-top-royal sail, which careened the vessel. When the foremast, mainmast and mizzenmast snapped asunder with an awful crash, the whole of the mast above, with the jib and spanker, and sixteen sails and studding poles were carried overboard with a tremendous splash and surf when the vessel righted. Daybreak found the deck all in confusion and a complete wreck. During the day a sail was hoisted from the stump of the mainmast to the bow of the vessel, thus leaving nothing but the hull of the vessel to carry the Saints into New Orleans.

The Millennial Star published a letter written by Joseph Quail who sponsored one of the independent companies:

Liverpool, 20th July 1843.

Dear Brethren,—I wish to inform you that I have determined on going to "Navo" on the 1st September, with my family, Brother James Thomson, Elder Glasgow, and a few others of the Brethren, and would be happy to know how many of our Brethren would accompany us.

I have arranged with Messrs. John William Shaw and Co. of Liverpool, for a First-Class American Packet Ship to sail from that port on the 1st September to New Orleans, to be taken for 3 10s each, and half price for children under fourteen years of age, to be found in Provisions according to the under-mentioned scale during the voyage, and to include any charge for pass-up, Head Money and Provisions; and also to be taken free from Broomielaw to Liverpool, and luggage to be put on board the Vessel free of every expense, only the passengers to find themselves from their arrival in Liverpool until the ship goes into the river—the time not to exceed forty-eight hours, and to be allowed to sleep on board. As I went out with Brother Pratt, in the ship Emerald, and was appointed by him to serve out the Provisions and Water to all the passengers, I flatter myself that I can still do justice to the Brethren in that particular.

It is arranged with Messrs. Shaw, and Co., that by paying 1 each of a deposit to Messrs. Hamilton Brothers and Co., Broomielaw, Glasgow, they will grant a ticket securing a berth and the remaining 2 10s to be paid to J. W. Shaw and Co. on arrival at Liverpool, and as a great many have already paid their deposit, early application is recommended as above.

I am, dear brethren, yours truly,

Note: Packet ship, one employed by government to convey dispatches or mails; hence a vessel conveying dispatches, mails, passengers and goods, and having fixed sailing days.

1844. January 23rd. The Fanny sailed from Liverpool, England, with 210 Saints under the direction of Wm. Kay, bound for Nauvoo. It arrived in Nauvoo. April 13, 1844.

February 6th. The Isaac Allerton sailed from Liverpool with 60 Saints aboard for New Orleans.

February 11th. The Swanton sailed from Liverpool with 81 Saints, bound for Nauvoo, where they arrived April 18th.

March 5th. The Glasgow sailed from Liverpool with 150 Saints, led by Hiram Clark, bound for Nauvoo, where they arrived April 26th.

September 19th. The fine ship Norfolk, under Captain Elliot, sailed from this port under very favourable circumstances, at a quarter past three p.m., have on board about 143 souls put on by us. We rejoice to see so practical an illustration of faith of the Saints being unshaken by the late tragical events in the west and that the Saints are not living according to the precepts of men, but the word of the Lord.

An extract from Wm. Adams' story follows:

On December 31, 1843, I left home (Hillsborough County, Down, Ireland) with a light heart, bidding my father and mother, brothers and sisters and friends farewell. We, my wife, Mary Ann Leach Adams, and baby son, Charles, arrived in Belfast ten miles from Hillsborough the same day and took passage on a steamer for Liverpool the next day. Reuben Hedlock and Thomas Ward presided over the British Mission. I learned from the President that a vessel had been chartered and was now fitting up berths, for the emigrants and would be ready to sail in about ten days for New Orleans. Through the kindness of Walter McAllister, I and my family were invited to go to his home and remain until the bark Fanny, of Boston, would sail. We accepted and were kindly treated by this family. All was bustle, making ready for the emigrants as they arrived every day. The majority were from England and Wales, a few from Scotland and fifteen from Ireland. All were busy getting food, water and baggage aboard for 210 men, women and children. We were towed out of Liverpool January 20, 1844, the steamer returned after taking us into the Irish Channel.

The company had been organized before sailing, with William Kay as President and Thomas Hall and Henry Auerdam as counselors, and a committee of twelve men to take charge of the provisions and distribute them to the company, and to take a general supervision for the benefit and health of the company. I was chosen one of these and acted as such the whole journey.

We had rough seas for three days in the Irish Channel with head winds. The ship could not keep her course, but had to be taken to the Isle of Man and then changed toward the coast of Wales. The passengers became alarmed and the captain said if the wind did not change we were in danger of being wrecked. But on the third day the wind changed and we rounded the Welch Coast and entered the Atlantic Ocean. The passage across the Atlantic was pleasant, with the exception of a few days' storm, when we were tossed about. The storm became so furious that the waves swept over the ship; hatches were closed and no one was allowed on deck except the crew of the vessel. Many were alarmed, fearing that we were all going to the bottom of the sea.

We had prayer meetings daily and preaching meetings on Sundays, regular as when on land. We now had fair winds and were making ten to twelve knots per hour. We first saw the West Indian Islands, having been three weeks out from Liverpool. We were detained by calms opposite the Island of Jamaica, also in the Gulf of Mexico. We were driven back 100 miles by head winds. After all these difficulties, which is the lot of all mariners, we landed in New Orleans about March 1, being a little over five weeks out from Liverpool.

The Maid of Iowa, a small steamboat owned by Joseph Smith, the Prophet, and Dan Jones, who commanded the boat, was chartered to take the company to Nauvoo. It took two or three days to load the baggage into the steamboat, with other improvements and supplies, which had to be attended to. On Sunday morning, I believe March 3, 1844, the boat left New Orleans for Nauvoo, Illinois, loaded down to the guards. The passage was very tedious, sailing against the current, which was very strong, the Mississippi River being swollen and very muddy. The pilot would run the boat up sloughs or bays, running aground and taking many hours of hard work to get her going again. Two shafts were broken and we had to wait for new ones to come from New Orleans. These accidents were very unpleasant as we were very anxious to get to Nauvoo for Conference the 6th of April.

We were annoyed and persecuted in the towns along the river. News went ahead that a boat filled with Mormons was on its way to Nauvoo. Necessity caused the boat to stop for supplies. Men would rush on to the boat, calling us foul names; "Joe's rats" was a common salutation we received. At Natchez, a town on the east side of the river, the boat was set on fire; it was not discovered until we had left the place over half an hour and the side of the boat was all ablaze, also several beds and bedding. It was a narrow escape for the boat, the crew, and the passengers.

At another town where we landed late in the evening, Captain Jones ordered that no person be allowed to board the boat, but men came rushing aboard, not to be held back. Brother James Haslam went on to the hurricane deck and fired off a gun in hopes it would be a warning to the mob that we would not be run over by them. But instead of making them run, they fired several shots. Things looked serious. Steam was got up as speedily as possible and boat shoved off, landing three miles up the river, as it was unsafe to proceed in the heavy wind and rain. A strong guard was kept on duty until next morning, but we were not molested.

The boat proceeded on her trip as best she could, until we arrived in St. Louis, when the pilot was dismissed and another engaged. The rest of our trip was pleasant, making good time. We arrived in Nauvoo on the 10th of April.

I cannot express the joy and pleasant time we enjoyed, in first beholding the City of Nauvoo, where we could behold the Prophet of God, and we were not disappointed for he and his brother, Hyrum, with about 200 Saints, were at the landing to meet us.

I will tell one incident where the company was in eminent danger of losing their lives and sinking the boat, as it shows the hatred against the Latter-day Saints. The lower Mississippi had quite a number of first-class steamboats running between St. Louis and New Orleans. Each time they passed The Maid of Iowa we could see their grand salute of cheering, laughing and calling us bad names. One of the boats tried to run us down and would have if Captain Jones had not been on the hurricane deck, as he always was on duty, and made them shove off by threatening to shoot their pilot. This took place at night when most of the company were in bed.

I arrived in Nauvoo with my wife and baby with ten cents in my pocket and so sick I was unable to work. My brother-in-law, John Harper, who was working as a stonecutter on the Temple, offered me some tools and taught me the trade, so I went to work on the Nauvoo Temple for produce. —Louella Adams Dalton

1845. January 17th. The Palmyra sailed from Liverpool with a company of Saints under the direction of Amos Fielding, bound for Nauvoo.

July 3rd. Noah Rogers sailed from Tahiti, Society Islands, per ship Three Brothers, on his return to Nauvoo, Illinois, where he arrived Dec. 29, 1845. He was the first Latter-day Saint elder who circumnavigated the globe as a missionary.

Sept. The Oregon sailed from Liverpool, England, with a company of Saints bound for Nauvoo.

Ann Pitchforth, a passenger on the Palmyra, wrote this famous letter:

To the Saints in the Isle of Man: Dear brothers and sisters,—I greatly rejoice that our brother Mr. Joseph Cain is going to England, and will have the pleasure of visiting you; and as he is respected and esteemed here, and thought worthy of confidence and trust, you will be much edified by his testimony; but beware of other spirits who may even come from this place, and whom it would not be prudent to name, "By their fruits ye shall know them;" they will not bear a straightforward testimony to the work of the Lord. Believe them not. If my testimony and brother Cain's goes hand in hand, you then have two witnesses, and I will only simply state what I have seen and heard, and my own conclusions thereon, believing I have a right to think and judge for myself. I am no enthusiastic girl in her teens, but have seen a good deal of the world, and am accustomed to be extremely cautious, and weigh well all circumstances and things ere I jump to a conclusion. A statement of simple facts will enable you to judge for yourselves; truth needs no ornament. I shall endeavour to use the most plain and simple language, for the express purpose that I may be understood by everyone.

From a child I had studied the scriptures, and in secret poured out my heart to the Lord. Mr. Taylor and others providentially came to our house on the North Quay, and boarded with us. In spite of my Jewish unbelieving heart, I could not deny baptism and at the same time believe the New Testament; however, I was so resolved not to be deluded, that I thought I would just get baptized, and only go so far as I could see was right. Slow and cautious ever, I received the truth; many ran before me, while I crept slowly along. I soon felt, in common with many of my brethren, a spirit of gathering pervading my bosom, and a strong desire to be enabled to visit Nauvoo, to see and judge for myself; at the same time there seemed to be no possible chance for me ever to go; however, by faith I believed I should go, though so very unlikely, and frequently testified the same in the meetings. To be short, the Lord opened my way, I knew beforehand by prophecy that it would be so.

I sailed in the ship Palmyra, and left a kind father and friends. When the farewell hymn was sung on ship-board, I felt what it was to leave all for the truth; I had before gone through much persecution as many of you know. Unkindness in all its forms I could cheerfully bear, but to leave a kind and aged parent was almost more than I could endure. Well did St. John say, "These are they who have come through great tribulation." We had soon something else to think of than farewells, friends, or anything else, for the winds arose, and our fears with them; wave dashed on wave, and storm on storm, every hour increasing; all unsecured boxes, tins, bottles, pans, &c., danced in wild confusion, cracking, clashing, jumbling, rolling, while the vessel pitched, and tossed, and bounced till people flew out of their berths on the floor, while others held on with difficulty; thus we continued for eight days—no fires made—nothing cooked—biscuits and cold water; the waves dashed down the hold into the interior of the vessel, hatchway then closed, all in utter darkness and terror, not knowing whether the vessel was sinking or not; none could tell—all prayed—and awful silence prevailed—sharks and sins presenting themselves, and doubts and fears; one awful hour after another passing, we found we were not yet drowned; some took courage and lit the lamps; we met in prayer, we pleaded the promises of our God—faith prevailed; the winds abated, the sky cleared, the fires were again lit, then the luxury of a cup of tea and a little gruel.

Oh! how ungrateful are we for our mercies, because they are so common. We soon sailed joyfully and pleasantly along, rescued a sinking vessel with nine human beings from a watery grave; they had been seventeen days up to their waists in water, sleeping by turns, held up by the others. Oh! we wept for joy to be the means of saving them, remembering our own perilous condition. We arrived at New Orleans. The sight of land caused every face to smile, though on a foreign shore. Refreshed, we started up the noble Mississippi; the beauty of the scenery would take me too much time to describe; orange trees, houses, plantations, villages, pass in quick succession. We arrived at St. Louis—the great emporium of the west, all bustle, animation, and full of interest; leave St. Louis for Nauvoo. Our hearts now begin to feel lively and warm with emotions, as the Captain from time to time proclaims our near approach to Nauvoo. It was a beautiful moonlight night, our vessel glided silently and gracefully over the moon-lit waters. Spontaneously we sang a hymn, and never before or since has music seemed so sweet—it was from the heart; we had surmounted every difficulty, had braced every danger, and now were nearing our desired port. The bell rang—the vessel stayed—we were at Nauvoo. Soon friends welcomed friends. We seemed alone. I thought I knew no one there, when we heard a voice, "Is any here from the Isle of Man," we gladly responded "yes," when our two kind brothers, Mr. Joseph Cain and Mr. James Cowley gave us a right Mormon welcome. It is impossible to describe our sensations, when seven thousand miles from our natural home, on being received with such brotherly kindness and attention. It was midnight, but a warm comfortable meal was provided, a conveyance got for us and our goods, a house warm and comfortable found for us—and our joy seemed full.

Brothers Cain and Cowley we shall never forget; they would receive no remuneration for their trouble and unwearied attention; they proved themselves true brethren, and we shall ever feel grateful. The next morning Mr. and Mrs. Taylor called upon us, and evinced the same kindness and hospitality; we found one spirit in all—the spirit of union and love. From that time to this we have ever found them the same. Nauvoo greatly exceeded our expectations—likewise the temple. Soon after we came it was the conference, and to witness such an immense multitude of happy faces was in itself a treat; thousands thronged to the stand (a place erected for the twelve before the temple was completed), and what did we hear at the stand? Some set formal discourse, rightly divided, graced with flowery eloquence? No! But men spoke as they were moved by the spirit. The word, though clothed in nature's simplest language, was as fire—it came from the ear, and went to the heart—conviction followed the words of truth....

Your affectionate sister in the gospel, Ann Pitchforth

1846. January 16th. The Liverpool sailed from Liverpool, England, with 45 Saints, under the direction of Hiram Clark, bound for Nauvoo via New Orleans.

January 23rd. The Ashburton sailed from Liverpool, and arrived in New York March 6th.

February 4th. The Brooklyn sailed from New York with 235 Saints on board. They were well supplied with implements of husbandry, and necessary tools for establishing a new settlement. They also took with them a printing press and materials, which afterwards were used in publishing the first newspaper published or issued in California.

May 25th. The Brooklyn arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on its way to California.

July 29th. The Brooklyn with the Saints from the state of New York, arrived at Yerba Buena (now San Francisco), California.

The following letter was written during the ocean voyage, addressee unknown:

Midship, Ashburton, Atlantic Ocean,

400 Miles east of New York,

March 2d, 1846.

Dear Sir,—Notwithstanding the fury of the waves, winds, storms, gales, hurricanes and tornadoes, and all the prophesying of my enemies, I am neither drowned nor burned, though I have been in danger enough, both from fire and water. We have experienced the roughest passage, such as the mariner seldom sees. The first ten days we spent in the Irish Channel, beating against head winds and gales, in danger of rocks and shoals. When seventeen days at sea we were only about one thousand miles from Liverpool. The second mate was washed overboard with a sea, and lost, on the 3rd of February; his name was William Drummond, twenty-four years of age; it was a most exciting scene. The wind changed when about seventeen days out, and we had fair wind four or five days; we ran one thousand miles in five days, which carried us nearly to the Banks, then the wind changed to the west again, and continued so nearly twenty days, almost constant hurricanes, cold, snow, hail, and frost. Several days we have run under nearly bare poles, some of our jibs and stay sails being blown to ribbons. We shipped seas that broke to pieces the binnacle and wheel; the helm was lashed down part of the time, but the ship being strong we lived through it, though many would have gone to the bottom. We have now been at sea nearly forty days, and have had only about one week fair winds. We have now a fair wind that has lasted forty-eight hours; we are within four hundred miles of New York, running before a fair breeze eleven knots an hour. We were considerably sick for the first ten days, since that time we have had sufficient health to eat up most of our provisions. I never saw half so much rough weather in my life as I have this voyage. Give my respect to elders Ward, Banks, Wilson, and all Saints who inquire after me. Brother Stratton is well. I wish you to write me a long letter in answer to this, and give me all the news with it; direct it to Nauvoo; I shall be anxious to hear it. Until that time I bid you good bye. W. W.

New York, March 7th, 1846.

We arrived in dock last night and I spent the night at brother Beard's, and I felt to thank God for the privilege of treading on terra firma once more. We were forty-three days at sea, but when I came to learn how other ships fared that came out of Liverpool before us, I was perfectly satisfied with our voyage.... . It has indeed been a terrible time at sea.

I have learned since my arrival that the Twelve, with several hundred Saints, had left Nauvoo for the West, expecting the rest to follow in the spring; their lives were sought, but they are all safe, thank God. I shall hasten to Nauvoo as speedily as possible. There were two hundred Saints that went West with Elder Brannan; they were loaded down with freight, some for Touboui, where elder Pratt is. The Saints are expecting to charter or buy two ships in September. All are alive for emigration, most of the Eastern churches are going by water.

Yours, most respectfully,

W. Woodruff.

P. S.—You will hear from me after I get to Nauvoo. It is a hard winter in America, New York is choked up with snow, so that teams cannot get along. The endowments will continue in the wilderness, so I hear.

1847. January 19th. Apostles Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor and a small company of Saints sailed from Liverpool, England, bound for New Orleans but were on account of storms obliged to return to Liverpool, after nine days of rough sailing.

February 1st. Apostles Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor again sailed from Liverpool, bound for New Orleans, where they landed March 10th.

February 3rd. Apostle Orson Hyde sailed from Liverpool, England, returning to America. He arrived at New York April 6th, and at the camps of the Saints, on the Missouri River, May 12th.

March 28th. After nearly three years missionary labors in the Society Islands mission, Elder Addison Pratt sailed from Papeete, Tahiti, per ship Providence on his return to America, leaving Benjamin F. Grouard in charge of the mission.

Joseph Cain and his wife Elizabeth, both of whom were born on the Isle of Man, came to Utah in September 1847 with the John Taylor Company. Their voyage across the ocean was made on one of the numerous miscellaneous ships about which no chronological record is available. However, their marriage is interestingly related, and is typical of the many marriages that took place on board ship:

But not in heaven, neither on the earth, but on board the ship America, hence to New Orleans, in lat. 48 degrees, 29 minutes, north, and long. 17 degrees, 34 minutes, west. Wind fresh on the starboard quarter, under full sail at the rate of ten and a half knots an hour. At the conclusion of the afternoon service, on Sunday, the 24th ult., Mr. Joseph Cain, and Miss Elizabeth Whittaker, were united in the holy ordinance of matrimony, by Elder John Taylor. It was a general time of mirth and hilarity among the guests, and they all joined in singing the following sentimental hymn:

When Adam was created, He dwelt in Eden's shade, As Moses has related, Before the bride was made. Ten thousand times ten thousand, Of creatures swarm'd around, Before that Eve was form'd, Yet man no mate had found.

But finding it unseemly, That man should be alone, Holding so wide dominion, Without twain being one, God caus'd a sleep on Adam, And took from him a rib, Then made of it a woman, and closed up his side.

Great was his elation, When first he saw his bride, Great was his exultation, To find her by his side. He spoke as in a rapture, "I know from whence you came, From my left side extracted, And woman is your name."

This woman was not taken, From Adam's head, we see, So then she must not rule him, The meaning seems to be. Indeed she was not taken, From Adam's feet, we know, So he must not abuse her, 'Tis evidently so.

But truly she was taken, From near to Adam's heart, By which we are instructed, That they should never part. The bride, she is commanded, Her husband to obey, In ev'ry thing that's lawful, Until her dying day.

The bridegroom is required, Always to love his bride, Live as becomes a Saviour, And for his house provide. Go, multiply, replenish, Increase the powers of life, These are the solemn duties, Of both the man and wife.

The way the pigs, chickens, and ducks suffered on Saturday night, preparatory to the celebration of this ever memorable event, (to say nothing of the great quantity of fish that contributed to the richness and variety of the repast) exceeded the suffering of the newly married couple, upon a sudden squall bringing up directly after the ceremony. Wind dead ahead, forced to tack ship, These dear creatures were so sick that they were unable to hold each other's heads, and when our carrier pigeon left the ship, the whole party were so sick that they could eat none of the pig, duck, nor chicken, but all were in a sad mess, and the commencement of the honeymoon, with them, was anything but what it had been represented. But we would say to them, cheer up, there is a calm at hand, followed by a gentle breeze, to waft you safely over the sea of time to the haven of eternal bliss. —Millennial Star

1848. February 20th. The Carnatic sailed from Liverpool, England, with 120 Saints, bound for G. S. L. Valley, under the direction of Franklin D. Richards. It arrived at New Orleans about April 19th, whence the company proceeded up the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers to Winter Quarters, and thence commenced the journey across the plains.

March 9th. The Sailor Prince sailed from Liverpool, England, with 80 Saints, under the direction of Moses Martin.

September 7th. The Erin's Queen sailed from Liverpool, with 232 Saints, under the direction of Simeon Carter, bound for St. Louis, where the emigrants arrived Nov. 6th. Most of them remained there during the winter.

September 24th. The Sailor Prince sailed from Liverpool, England, with 311 Saints aboard, under the direction of L. D. Butler, bound for G. S. L. Valley.

November. The Lord Sandon sailed from Liverpool, bound for New Orleans with 11 Saints aboard.

The instructions below, taken from the Millennial Star, were one phase of the service efficiently provided by the Church agents:

It is now designed to fit out a ship's company of emigrants as soon as possible. It is not well to embark from Liverpool later than about the first of March, un til the warm season is past. In September, again, it may do to commence sending companies as far as Council Bluffs, from whence they can remove over the mountai ns in the following spring. The first company this winter ought to be embarked f rom Liverpool, as early as the 9th of February. The Presidents of Conferences ar e requested to forward to us the number of those who are prepared to emigrate by the 9th of February and also the number that will be ready by the 23rd of February. The persons who wish their names registered to go in the first vessel that sails, are requested to forward their names with an advanced payment of one pound as deposit money. With this sum we shall secure the passage of those whose names and moneys are forwarded to us. The utmost economy cheapness and comfort will be studiously sought out for the passengers. We have no means of certifying definitely the price of passage to Council Bluffs or St. Louis. It would be well to calculate upon 7 pounds passage money to St. Louis; children under 12 years half price, including provisions and stores. The distance from St. Louis to the Bluffs, by the river, may be about 800 miles. The whole expense from Liverpool to the Bluffs, for one person may be 10 pounds. Emigrants going beyond St. Louis by the Missouri River, should be ready to go up that river early enough in the spring to have the benefit of high water, as boats do not often pass as far as the Bluffs in the summer. Those who also intend to cross the mountains will find it desirable to leave Council Bluffs before the summer begins. Those who have adequate means for passing the mountains this season, it is thought will be advised to do so, whilst others may tarry at the Bluffs, until they can furnish the necessary means for pursuing their journey to Salt Lake. Some others may be advised, for want of adequate means, to tarry at St. Louis, until sufficient can be earned to carry them forward. The poor and those who have not adequate means will be assisted as far as practicable, obligating themselves to make remuneration when it is in their power. Our hopes, in regard to the deliverance of the poor, are firm and bright; never have they been more so than at the present moment. Let them wait their day, and watch their opportunity, keeping the commandments with all diligence, and they shall find deliverance sooner and more perfectly than the skeptical apprehend.

But let them and all others work for the Lord and His gospel, in their sphere and station, with contentment. For this is the day of choosing among British Saints to some extent more or less. The murmuring, contentious, and slothful must not expect to eat the bread of the diligent, and be carried to Zion where their example will be sadly pernicious. The faithful, whether rich or poor, that are assiduously endeavouring to build up the kingdom, will not be forgotten. The eyes of the Lord are upon them. Let those who have not been faithful hitherto begin anew and put to with all their might, and mercy and kindness shall be liberally dispensed to them; for the Lord is plenteous in mercy....

Our second ship the Sailor Prince will sail for New Orleans with a load of Saints on the 22nd day of September. All those who have paid in their one pound deposit are requested to be in Liverpool on the 19th of September, without fail, so as to have time to procure their passage tickets and make all other necessary arrangements for the voyage. The fare will be for adults, 3 pounds 12 6; for children under fourteen years, and over one year, 2 pounds 12 6; infants under one year, free. In the above fare will be included about one pound of bread-stuff per day, and ten pounds of pork during the voyage. But this will not be quite sufficient; you will want some extra provisions besides. The following list contains about the amount of the extra articles which each adult, or every two children should have, and also the prices which I shall charge them for each article:

10 lbs. of the best Biscuits, at 3d. (pence) per lb £0 2 6
2 lbs. of Rice, at 3d. per lb 0 0 6
4 lbs. of Sugar, at 3d. per lb 0 1 2
lb. of Tea, at 2 s. Od. per lb 0 0 6
2 lbs. of Coffee, at 6d. per lb 0 1 0
4 lbs. of Treacle, at 2d. per lb 0 0 10
4 lbs. of Raisins, or currants at 4d. per lb 0 1 6
3 lbs. of Butter at 1 s. Od. per lb 0 3 0
3 lbs. of Cheese at 8d. per lb 0 2 0
£0 13 0

The Saints, of course, can please themselves as to the amount which they wish to purchase; they can either get more or less, as they feel disposed. The Saints can lodge on board the ship from the 19th with their luggage; they will find the ship in the Waterloo dock. The Sailor Prince is a fine, large, commodious ship; she carried a company of the Saints last spring under the presidency of Elder Moses Martin. Her lawful number of passengers is 290. Let all the emigrating Saints lay in a good store of patience for it is an article that will be much needed throughout the whole journey; many may suffer for the want of it. A large amount of the Spirit of God will be absolutely essential to their well-being, and every person should have a great supply. Kindness and forbearance one towards another, are two articles indispensably necessary, without which no Saint should venture across the deep. A list of many other essential articles will also be found among the revelations and commandments of God; and we hope that the Saints will be particularly cautious not to omit taking with them everything therein recommended.

1849. January 29. The Zetland sailed from Liverpool with 358 Saints bound for G. S. L. Valley, under the presidency of Orson Spencer. It arrived at New Orleans April 2nd, and the emigrants arrived at Kanesville, Iowa, May 17th, having suffered much from cholera while passing up the Missouri River.

February 6th. The Ashland sailed from Liverpool, England, with 187 Saints, under the direction of John Johnson bound for the G.S.L. Valley.

February 7th. The Henry Ware sailed from Liverpool, England, with 225 Saints on board, bound for G.S.L. Valley, under the direction of Robert Martin.

February 25th. The Buena Vista sailed from Liverpool, England, with 249 Saints aboard, under the direction of Dan Jones. They arrived in New Orleans.

March 5th. The Hartley sailed from Liverpool with 220 Saints bound for G.S.L. Valley under the direction of W. Hulme. It arrived at New Orleans April 28th.

March 12th. The Emblem sailed from Liverpool, England, with about 100 Saints on board, under the direction of Robert Deans, bound for G. S. L. Valley.

September 2nd. The James Pennell sailed from Liverpool, England, with 236 Saints, under the direction of Thomas H. Clark, bound for G. S. L. Valley. It arrived at New Orleans Oct. 22nd.

September 5th. The Berlin sailed from Liverpool with 253 Saints, under James G. Brown's direction. It arrived at New Orleans Oct. 22nd. Twenty-six died on the voyage of cholera.

November 10th. The Zetland sailed from Liverpool, with 250 Saints, under the direction of S. H. Hawkins. It arrived at New Orleans Dec. 24th.

From the Millennial Star we quote this excerpt:

"What a wide difference there is between the emigrating Saints and other emigrants. With the one there is joy, union, harmony and order, with prayer and thanksgiving, and songs of rejoicing; while the other there is disorder and confusion, with cursing and bitterness, and every evil passion that not only renders themselves miserable, but every well-disposed person that perchance may be found among the wretched list. For this reason many respectable emigrants, who are not of our faith, crave the privilege of crossing the ocean with our people."

On board the Hartley, New Orleans, April 28, 1849.

Dear Brother O. Pratt,—with heartfelt gratitude to our Father in heaven, I take the earliest opportunity to inform you that we have this day safely arrived at New Orleans in good health and vivid spirits.

Our voyage has been more like a pleasure excursion than a long journey; for the weather has been so very pleasant, the sea and wind so gentle that we have not seen the first mountain-wave yet; our sails have been reefed on the approach of squalls, but there has not been more than one or two rough days during the voyage.

We passed the great Bahama Banks on the 35th day of our sailing from the River Mersey; and we were obliged to cruise, or stand at anchor six days among the Islands, either on account of calms or contrary winds.

Our voyage since that time has been prosperous. Sister Hall from Liverpool was delivered of a fine boy on April 15th, at half-past seven in the morning. Brother T. Slingers youngest daughter, Elizabeth, died of the croup April 19. She was placed in a tin coffin (which was made of the tea cannisters) and then placed in a wood coffin, so that we have the corpse on board now. I expect we shall inter her in New Orleans. The captain and crew were very kind to us from first to last, several of the sailors have embraced the truth and are waiting to be baptized. About four o'clock this evening we were comfortably berthed at No. 17 on the Levee.

April 20th.—I have this evening baptized four of the sailors whose names are as follows: John Everett, aged 27; Alfred Percy, 21; George Percy, 28; and Davis Wilson, 23; George intends to go to the Bluffs with us.

April 30th.—We have this day got our clearance and expect to set off in the American steamship tomorrow. Elder Scovil was waiting for us when we arrived and intends to go with us up the river.

Accept the love and esteem of your humble brother, —William Hulme.

The Millennial Star reported:

On Tuesday last, Swansea was quite enlivened in consequence of the arrival of se veral wagons loaded with luggage, attended by some scores of the bold peasantry of Carmarthenshire, and almost an equal number of the inhabitants of Merthyr and the surrounding districts, together with their families. The formidable party were nearly all Latter-day Saints and came to this town for the purpose of proceeding to Liverpool in the Troubadour steamer, where a ship is in readiness to transport them next week to the glittering regions of California. This goodly company is under the command of a popular Saint, Captain Dan Jones, a hardy traveller and a brother of the well known John Jones, Llangollen, the disputant on the subject of Baptism. He arrived in the town on Tuesday evening and seems to enjoy the respect and confidence of his faithful band. Amongst the group were many substantial farmers from the neighborhoods of Brechfa and Llanybydder, Carmarthenshire; and although they were well-to-do, they disposed of their possessions to get to California. It is their intention, we are informed, not to visit the gold regions, but the agricultural districts, where they intend, they say, by helping one another, to reside in peace and harmony and to exemplify the truth of brotherly love, not in name but in practice. Amongst the number who came here were several aged men varying from 70 to 90 years of age, and whose hoary locks not only proclaim their lengthened years, but render it very improbable they will live to see America; yet so deluded are the poor and simple Saints that they will believe that every one amongst them, however infirm and old they may be, will as surely land in California safely as they started from Wales. Their faith is most extraordinary. On Wednesday morning after being addressed by their leader, all repaired on board in admirable order and with extraordinary resignation. Their departure was witnessed by hundreds of spectators and whilst the steamer gaily passed down the river, the Saints commenced singing a favourite hymn. On entering the piers, however, they abruptly stopped singing and lustily responded to the cheering with which they were greeted by the inhabitants.

From 1850–1859

1850. January 10th. The Argo sailed from Liverpool, England, with 402 Saints, under the direction of Jeter Clinton. It arrived at New Orleans March 8th.

February 18th. The Josiah Bradley sailed from Liverpool, with 263 Saints under the direction of Thomas Day. It arrived at New Orleans May 2nd.

March 2nd. The Hartley sailed from Liverpool, England with 109 Saints, under David Cook's direction. It arrived at New Orleans May 2nd.

September 4th. The North Atlantic sailed from Liverpool, with 357 Saints, under the presidency of David Sudworth and Hamilton G. Park. It arrived at New Orleans Nov. 1st

October 2nd. The James Pennell sailed from Liverpool, England, with 254 Saints under the direction of Christopher Layton. It arrived at New Orleans Nov. 22nd.

October 17th. The Joseph Badger sailed from Liverpool, England, with 227 Saints on board, under the direction of John Morris; it arrived at New Orleans Nov. 22nd.

We include a letter taken from the Millennial Star:

St. Louis, May, 1850

Dear Brother,—The ship Hartley arrived in New Orleans on the 2nd of May, 1850, with a company of Saints under the presidency of Elder David Cook, who I think has discharged his trust faithfully. The Saints that came on the Hartley as far as New Orleans were generally in good health. They had very little sickness on board, but were much annoyed by the Irish passengers. The conduct of Captain Morril was most shameful: he did all in his power to make their situation as miserable as possible; and when they were holding their meetings he took particular pains to annoy them. The Lord reward him according to his deeds. The captain was very kind to some two or three of the females, inviting them into his cabin, and at the same time acting as a demon towards the rest of the company. This is one great evil the elders have to contend against, namely, the imprudence of some who call themselves sisters.

The Saints have been warned, time after time, on coming to America to be careful of their diet, and of exposing themselves; yet, as soon as they land they commence eating fresh meat and vegetables, and drinking large quantities of water. The consequence is, that when they start up the river they are taken ill. This can be avoided by obeying counsel. The Saints I think would do well to provide themselves with spices, cayenne pepper, mustard, camphor, and peppermint.

I have delayed writing at New Orleans, as I was going up with the company to St. Louis. The second day after we left some of the Saints and others were taken ill with diarrhea. I immediately gave them some remedies I had provided before I started, and all were healed directly. The destroyer is abroad on the waters, and it requires the united faith and prayers of the elders to pass through the scenes that are before them. This I know by experience. All that came on the Hartley have arrived safely in St. Louis. Many of those who are apparently good Saints when they start away, when they arrive in New Orleans find fault with everything, from Brother Pratt down to Thomas M'Kenzie. I am now on board the Era on my way to the Bluffs, in the company of some good Saints who love and worship God. Praying God to bless you, I remain

Yours respectfully,

Thomas M'Kenzie.

Mary Lois Walker Morris, daughter of Mary Godwin and William Gibson Walker, was born May 14th, 1835, at Leek, Staffordshire, England. She was baptized at Pendleton, England, about 1846, by her father, who with his wife first heard the gospel in 1840. In February, 1850, when Mrs. Morris was 14 years of age, the family sailed for America on the Josiah Bradley, coming by way of New Orleans, through the Gulf of Mexico. They came up the Mississippi and landed at St. Louis on May 2, 1850, having been nearly three months on their journey. Traveling as many of the Saints did in those days, they were under the necessity of laying in supplies before leaving shore, such as bacon, herring, potatoes, butter, sugar, rice, oatmeal, etc., not forgetting sea biscuits or hardtack as it is sometimes called. Fresh water had to be taken on board to last for the entire journey, therefore it was necessary to measure it out, perhaps as little as a pint of drinking water per day for each person. This measured water had to be used for cooking which they did for themselves.

Quoting from the sketch of Mrs. Morris's life, which she wrote:

"Sometimes we had trouble cooking such things as rice and beans, which absorb so much water that we would not have sufficient to finish cooking them properly. This cooking was done on a sheet-iron stove about the size of an ordinary kitchen table, in a small room not much larger than a pantry. Many would be cooking at the same time, and would have to stand and watch their own things lest someone should come and push them back to give their own a better place. The ship furnished a cook to attend to the fires and superintend things and assist the passengers. Father, having learned to cook at home when a boy and considering the galley, where the cooking was done, an unfit place for women, did our cooking himself. The only way of going to and from the galley was by means of a large ship ladder. You can imagine the difficulty of carrying this hot food from the galley which was on the deck, down the ladder to our berths which were in the steerage. Fortunate indeed was the individual who was possessed with a good stock of patience, for it was surely needed under these trying circumstances." —Contributed by Kathryn V. Cannon

1851. January 8th. The Ellen sailed from Liverpool, England, with 466 Saints, under the direction of James W. Cummings; it arrived at New Orleans, March 14th, 1851.

January 22nd. The George W. Bourne sailed from Liverpool, England, with 281 Saints, under the direction of William Gibson; it arrived at New Orleans March 20, 1851.

February 2nd. The Ellen Maria sailed from Liverpool, England, with 378 Saints on board, under George D. Watt's direction. Apostle Orson Pratt and family also returned with that company. They arrived at New Orleans April 6th, 1851.

March 4th. The Olympus sailed from Liverpool, England, with 245 Saints, bound for Utah, under the direction of Wm. Howell. Some fifty non-Mormon passengers were converted and baptized on the voyage to New Orleans, where the company arrived about April 27th.

We include a letter from Elder James W. Cummings:

St. Louis, Missouri, U. S. A.,

March 29th, 1851.

Dear brother F. D. Richards,—I embrace the present opportunity of writing to you, and I will endeavour to give in few words a history of our voyage to this place. I should have written ere this, but circumstances and the press of business would not admit of my doing so.

I have no other apology to offer for not writing sooner, and I believe the above will be sufficient, for you are well aware of the labor and anxiety attending the presidency of 470 people in crossing the sea. No one can realize the responsibility until he has tried it—but to the history.

We weighed anchor in the river opposite Liverpool on the 8th of January, about eleven o'clock, a.m., the wind was fair, and we were soon under way; we ran at the rate of seven miles an hour till about eleven o'clock at night, when we struck a schooner, broke our jib-boom and main and fore yards. The captain the next day, put into Cardigan bay, North Wales, to repair; the ship, however, was ready in a few days for sea again, but the wind changed the day we put into port, to an unfavorable quarter, and remained there for three weeks. Therefore we considered our accident a blessing to us, for we were comfortable in port while hundreds were being knocked about, many vessels wrecked, and hundreds of human beings consigned to a watery grave. While many were experiencing the awful horrors of shipwreck, we had great cause to thank our Heavenly Father that we were safe and comfortable, and every Saint on board the Ellen felt that the invisible hand of God was over them for good, and they did not forget to thank him for the same.

The captain however became rather impatient, and although the wind continued unfavorable, on the 23rd we again weighed anchor and put to sea, but the wind blew a strong gale from the direction we wanted to sail, so we made but little progress for several days; however on the 1st of Feb. the wind changed in our favor, and we soon lost sight of the Irish coast, and from that time we had pleasant weather, and for the most part fair winds, and on the night of the 14th of March we anchored in the river off New Orleans, making the passage from Cardigan bay, (which is 12 hours sail from Liverpool,) in seven weeks.—We did not encounter a storm on the passage, and after we left the channel it was more like a pleasure trip than a sea voyage, so far as weather was concerned.

We had ten deaths on the voyage, two adults, namely, James Wright, of Skellow, and the wife of brother Wm. Allen, from the Birmingham conference, and the remainder were children. Brother Wright and sister Allen died of fever; four of the children died of measles; three of consumption; one of inflammation of the chest. I do not at this time recollect the names of any except the daughter of S. J. and Abigail Lees, of Sheffield, and the child of brother Wm. Allen. The measles broke out among us the day we left the dock, and nearly every child on board had them, besides several adults; I should judge there were more than seventy cases. Many of the children were afflicted with another disease in the tropical clime, that I named the tropical cough, it was similar to the whooping cough, but not exactly like it, many of the small children suffered much from it.

Immediately after leaving port we divided the company into twelve divisions or wards, allotting ten berths to each division, and appointed a president over each, then those twelve companies we divided into two, and appointed a president for each six, so that in the steerage there were twelve companies, with a president to each, and two to preside over the whole; the second cabin we organized in like manner. We found the above organization to be of great utility in preserving peace, good order, and the health and comfort of the Saints while on board of the vessel, and we would recommend the same or a similar organization to all companies of Saints that may hereafter cross the sea. We also organized the priesthood, and appointed presidents over them, to see that each attended to his duties. My two counsellors and myself often met with them in council, we could there learn the condition of every Saint on board, if any were sick, or in want, or in transgression, we were made acquainted with it, and immediately adopted measures to relieve the wants of the needy, and to prevent iniquity from creeping into our midst. We had men appointed to visit every family twice a day, and to administer to the sick; and but few days passed but what myself, in connection with brother Dunn or Moss, visited each family. I would say here that brothers Dunn and Moss acted in concert with me in all things, and we were united in all our counsellings. They did not spare labour nor pains to make the Saints comfortable and happy so far as it lay in their power.

At New Orleans we chartered the steamer Alex. Scott, to take the company to St. Louis, we paid 10s. 5d. per head for adults, all our luggage included, children half price. We left New Orleans on the morning of the 19th of March, and landed in St. Louis on the 26th. We had a good passage up the river, and I would recommend the Alex. Scott as a good, commodious, and safe boat, commanded by a good captain of the name of Swan. I am persuaded there is no better nor safer boat on the river. There were two deaths coming up the river, both children. On the voyage we had ten deaths, one birth, and six marriages, and one birth coming up the river. Everything in this country is working together for the building up of the kingdom of God. I have had an interview with Dr. Bernhisel, he requested me to give his kind love to elder Richards, and to say to him that "Mormonism" is at par in this country.

He has received some very liberal donations for the Library for the Valley, from the literary and scientific institutions, and from editors and publishers of books and papers in the States. I can plainly see that the tide of public feeling is fast changing in our favor, there are calls on every hand for preaching. The emigration to the Valley this season will be pretty extensive.

Elder Gibson and company arrived here to-day, generally in good health and spirits. I must now close praying for your prosperity, and for the prosperity of Zion's cause in England, and in all the world.

There was always a feeling of thanksgiving among the passengers as they arrived safely on the shores of America. This is aptly expressed in this report from the Millennial Star: May 1, 1851.By letter from Elder William Gibson, dated New Orleans, March 22nd, we are informed that the George W. Bourne arrived at that port on the 20th of the same month, after a passage of eight weeks from the time she left the Mersey. He says, "I feel to offer my heartfelt gratitude to God our Father for His great goodness to us, for I do not believe that ever a ship crossed the ocean with less sickness than we have had; there were one marriage, three births, and one death, on board; the latter, a boy, belonging to sister Baker (Jean Rio Griffiths Baker), of Poplar Branch of London Conference; he was about five years of age, and was far gone in a consumption before we sailed. The births were, by sister Hughes, a son; sister Gall, a son; and sister Clark, a son; all doing well.... We go up the river this afternoon by the steamer Concordia, for 10s. 5d. each adult; children under twelve and over two years old, half price; infants and baggage, free; distance twelve hundred miles to St. Louis. I am informed that two of the crew wish to be baptized, and several of them speak of accompanying us to the Valley."

1852. January 10th. The Kennebec sailed from Liverpool, England, with 333 Saints, under the direction of John S. Higbee. It arrived at New Orleans March 11th. It was an unusually spacious and commodious vessel. After getting their luggage put to rights, the Saints seemed very cheerful, and gave vent to their feelings in song and praise, as the noble ship passed out upon the bosom of the Mersey, and left the shore fading in the distance.

February 10th. The Ellen Maria sailed from Liverpool, England, with 369 Saints, under the direction of Isaac C. Haight. It arrived in New Orleans April 6th.

March 6th. The Rockaway sailed from Liverpool, England, with 30 Saints and machinery purchased by Apostle John Taylor for the manufacture of sugar in Utah. It arrived at New Orleans after seven weeks' passage.

March 11. The Italy sailed from Liverpool, England, with 28 Scandinavian Saints—the first from the Scandinavian mission—under the direction of Ole U. C. Monster. The company arrived at New Orleans May 10th.

The Saints were eager to know the exact amount of money, hence there was organized what was known as the ten pound company. Following are the instructions given to the Saints, as well as the report of the Ellen Maria, both of which are found in the Millennial Star:

In order to emigrate the Saints with only ten pounds each, it will be necessary to make every possible arrangement to avoid needless expense; and that none may be incurred by detention on the way, an Agent who is well acquainted with the business will be sent to the United States for the purpose of procuring wagons, oxen, provisions, & c., and whatever else is necessary for a fit-out across the plains; and to have them in readiness upon the arrival of the companies upon the frontiers.

To effect this object, every person purposing to join the ten pound companies is required to forward immediately to our office the sum of five pounds, to be forwarded by our Agent. This amount is required over and above the deposit money, and in all cases should be forwarded to us through the Presidents of Conferences, on or before the 20th of December. The remaining four pounds will not be required until the time of shipping.

It is also advisable for those who do not join the ten pound companies, but have means to fit-out teams for themselves and families, to forward money for the purchase of them by our Agent. This will save them detention by the way, and also a vast deal of trouble and expense, which they would be subject to in numberless ways, travelling through a strange country, trading with strangers for their fit-out.

According to the prices which have been furnished us, no one should expect to procure a team suitable for the plains, consisting of two pairs of oxen, two cows, and a wagon, for less than forty pounds; and if they wish their flour and other provisions supplied to them for the land journey, the amount of money sent should be increased for that purpose. Every person's name should be forwarded to us with the amount of money which they send, that there may be no mistake in returning to them the full value thereof, in whatever they may order purchased.

We learn that tents, and wagon covers can be supplied here to better advantage than in St. Louis; and we shall make arrangements for furnishing all that may be required by the ten pound companies. All others who will require tents or covers would do well to inform us as early as possible, that they may be provided for in our arrangements; also the size of their tents, or the number of persons which they will be required to accommodate.

It is of the utmost importance for the well being of the Saints, in the coming emigration season, that these items be punctually attended to; and if there be any who cannot furnish the amount of money required, by the 20th of December, from not having closed their business, &c., let them not fail to forward it the first possible moment after that date.

As a general thing, it will be advisable for the Saints emigrating from the same Conference, to go together; should there be cases, however, where circumstances render it particularly advisable for persons to emigrate early, we should be timely advised, that we may enter their names for our first ship.

Included in the Passage-money to New Orleans, the following amount of provisions will be furnished to each adult passenger, sailing after the 16th January, 1853; and half the amount to children under fourteen years and over one year old:

Dietary scale for the voyage to New Orleans, required by Act of Parliament of June last: 25 lbs. Bread or Biscuit, 20 lbs. flour, 37 1/2 lbs. Oatmeal, 20 lbs. Rice, 5 lbs. Sugar, 1 1/4 lbs. Tea, 1 1/4 lbs. Salt, 3 quarts Water, daily.

In addition to the above, we shall furnish: 10 lbs. Pork, 5 lbs. Molasses, 3 lbs. Butter, 2 lbs. Cheese, 1 pint Vinegar.

The issue of provisions will be made daily.

The vessel or vessels which may sail before the 16th January, will be victualled for eighty days, and those which sail after the 16th, for seventy days, as required by law.

The company on the Ellen Maria went out under the presidency of Elder Isaac C. Haight, who takes charge of the same to Kanesville, unless relieved by Elder Smoot at St. Louis, and will co-operate with Elder Smoot in fitting out those who go by the Fund, for crossing the plains. After this is accomplished, he will render such aid as he shall be enabled to in fitting out those who are going upon their own resources; so that none, or but very few, will be obliged to stop in the States a year for want of a little aid and experience in getting up their teams. Elder Haight's extensive acquaintance in that region and general business tact, peculiarly fit him for this important duty, which, when he has accomplished, he is expected to return to England, and fulfil his mission here.

The same evening on which the Ellen Maria cleared, there arrived in our midst a small company of Danish and Swedish Saints, in all nine persons, on their way to America, and in hopes to be in time for this ship. It is truly refreshing to associate with these dear brethren, although it is with great difficulty we can communicate with them in the absence of an interpreter. Their hearts are warm with the love of the Gospel; they are living examples of our great salvation, which do appropriate honor to their father in the Gospel—President Erastus Snow. What outward evidence is more calculated to strengthen and confirm the hopes of babes in Christ, than the certainty which attends all the great moves of the Apostles and Elders in the various nations. The unerring counsels of Jehovah are executed with the utmost success by the legitimate Priesthood of His Son on earth. Already, in addition to the various national distinctions of the British people, we have on their way to the place of gathering, French, Danish, Swedish, and the first fruits of the German Mission—all happy and united in the blessings of the Gospel.

1853. January 16th. The Forest Monarch sailed from Liverpool, England, with 297 Scandinavian Saints, under John E. Forsgren's direction. The company arrived at New Orleans March 12th; at Keokuk, Iowa, in the beginning of April; and most of the emigrants reached G. S. L. City, Sept. 30th. This was the first large company of Saints who emigrated to Utah from Scandinavia.

January 17th. The Ellen Maria sailed from Liverpool, England, with 332 Saints, under the direction of Moses Clawson. It arrived at New Orleans March 6th, where Elder John Brown acted as Church emigration agent that season. The emigrants continued up the Mississippi river to Keokuk, Iowa, which had been selected as the outfitting place for the Saints crossing the plains in 1853.

January 23rd. The Golconda sailed from Liverpool, England, with 321 Saints, under the direction of Jacob Gates; it arrived at New Orleans, March 26th.

February 5th. The Jersey sailed from Liverpool, England, with 314 Saints, under the direction of George Halliday; it arrived at New Orleans, March 21st.

February 15. The Elvira Owen sailed from Liverpool, England, with 345 Saints, under the direction of Joseph W. Young. It arrived at New Orleans March 31st.

February 28th. The International sailed from Liverpool, England, with 425 Saints, under the direction of Christopher Arthur. It arrived at New Orleans April 23rd.

March 28th. The Falcon sailed from Liverpool, England, with 324 Saints, under Cor. Bagnall's direction. It arrived at New Orleans May 18th.

April 6th. The Camillus sailed from Liverpool, England, with 228 Saints, under the direction of Curtis E. Boulton. It arrived at New Orleans in the latter part of May.

April 6th. A small company of Saints, in charge of Elder Charles W. Wandell, and bound for America, sailed from Sydney, Australia, per ship Envelope.

August 24th. The Page sailed from Liverpool, England with 17 Saints, under the direction of Elder Bender; it arrived in New Orleans.

New Orleans, April 26th, 1853.

Dear President S. W. Richards:—We have just arrived at New Orleans, and it is with a heart truly grateful to God my Eternal Father, for all His multiplied mercies, that I now sit down to pen you a few items of our voyage across the Great Atlantic. Never I believe since the days of old Captain Noah, until the present emigration, has a more respectable company of Saints crossed the wide deluge of waters, to be freed from Babylon's corruptions, than has sailed in the International.

I am happy to say that my right hand Counsellor, Elder Lyon, in conjunction with Elder Waddington, has greatly aided me in carrying out the following measures, which have greatly contributed to our comfort and happiness, during our voyage.

After we left the shores of old England, we entered into the following order—I summoned a meeting of all the Priesthood, and when we had ascertained the number and standing of each person, we divided the ship into eight wards, and appointed six Travelling Elders for the steerage, and two Elders for the second cabin, each Elder holding his ward as a Branch of the International Conference, and having authority over the same, to hold meetings each morning, and otherwise to preside over all their affairs, spiritual and temporal. These Elders were to be held amenable to the General Council, in seeing after the Saints' welfare, and were to report the same, every Thursday evening, viz., state of health, sickness, behaviour, standing &c. They were to be assisted by a Priest or Teacher, in carrying out the above measures.

I also appointed meetings to be held every evening for worship, testimony bearing, teaching, &c, under the prescribed order which was carried fully into effect.

The Saints, without exception, have enjoyed a great amount of the Spirit of God, and our hearts have been made to rejoice in the gifts and blessings of the Holy Ghost, such as speaking in tongues, interpretation, prophesying, and in a flood of intelligence being poured out upon us in rich effusion through the Priesthood. These things, and the good conduct of the Saints, have had a happy result in bringing many to a knowledge of the truth. And I am now glad to inform you, that we have baptized all on board, except three persons. We can number the Captain, first and second mates, with eighteen of the crew, most of whom intend going right through to the Valley. The carpenter, and eight of the seamen, are Swedish, German, and Dutch. There are two Negroes, and others from Otaheite, &c. Many of them have already testified to the truth of this work, and are rejoicing in the anticipation of building up Zion. The others baptized, were friends of the brethren. The number baptized in all is forty-eight, since we left our native shores. The captain is truly a noble, generous-hearted man; and to his honour I can say that no man ever left Liverpool with a company of Saints, more beloved by them, or who has been more friendly and social than he has been with us; indeed, words are inadequate to express his fatherly care over us as a people, our welfare seemed to be near to his heart.

The whole ship's company have been free from sickness of any kind, except the ordinary malady of sea-sickness, which was of no consequence materially, to those afflicted. We have had five weeks of head winds and some heavy gales, in which our good ship was nearly tossed upside down, having only distanced in that time about 1400 miles from Liverpool. But, wonderful to relate, in fifteen days we nearly reached the mouth of the Mississippi, sailing most days at the rate of 220 miles per twenty-four hours. The sea and the winds seemed to conspire together, to frustrate your prophesyings concerning us, still my mind reverted to your words which inspired me with faith to look for the fulfillment of them, for which I am truly thankful to our God.

On the 6th of April, we held the twenty-third anniversary of the organization of the Church, which was, in our circumstances, a splendid affair. Early in the morning, a goodly number of brethren assembled on the forecastle, and fired six rounds of musketry, to usher in our festivities. At half-past ten we marched in regular procession to the poop deck, in the following order—President and Counsellors with sashes, and white rosettes, on their breasts, who took their seats with their backs to the main-mast. After them followed twelve young men appropriately robed, each with a white rod in his hand, with sashes, rosettes, &c. Then followed twelve young women mostly dressed in light dresses, each holding in her hand a scroll of white paper, bearing the significant motto "Utah's rights," adorned with ribbands and white rosettes. The young men took their seats on the right hand of the Presidency, and the young women on the left. Then followed twelve old, venerable men, dressed similar to the young men, each carrying a Bible and Book of Mormon in his hand, led on by Father Waugh, who read portions out of each book, illustrative of this Latter-day work.

We then took the Sacrament, and attended to the celebration of four marriages, which finished our forenoon service. At two o'clock we met, and took our seats as formerly, and after an address from the President, songs, speeches, and recitations, commemorative of the occasion, followed in due order for three hours. Henry Maiben, from Brighton, composed and sang a song graphically and wittily portraying our happy company, and our progress from Liverpool. In the evening we met on the quarter deck, and skipped the light fantastic toe, to a late hour. During the whole day, everything was done with the highest decorum, and I can say to the credit of the company that a more harmonious festival was never before held on the high seas.

I am happy to state with regard to our provisions that no complaints have been made, most considering the provisions to be good and ample. And in their name we have to return to you heartfelt gratitude and thanks for the exercise of that sagacity which God has so amply blessed you with, in providing for their wants, and otherwise in your choice of a vessel so well fitted to promote the health and comfort of all concerned.

I never enjoyed so much of the Spirit of God since I entered the Church of Jesus Christ, as I have with this company of Saints. I rejoice to say that my right hand Counsellor, Elder John Lyon, is one of the best men I have met with, and I hope we shall be near neighbours when we reach the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. Elder Richard Waddington has been unwell, he has now recovered, and is taking an active part in connexion with all the Priesthood. I hope to baptize brother (Captain) Brown's wife, before I leave New Orleans. I am happy to say we called brother Brown with other of the officers of the ship, to office—brother Brown to the office of Elder.

Now, dear brother, with these few items of our procedure, I beg to conclude, praying God our Eternal Father to bless you abundantly for all you have done for us, in the name of Jesus. Amen. Yours, affectionately, Christopher Arthur

1854. January 3rd. The Jesse Munn sailed from Liverpool, England, with 300 Scandinavian and 33 German Saints, under the direction of Christian Larsen. It arrived at New Orleans Feb. 10th, and the emigrants continued up the rivers to Kansas City, Mo., which this year was selected as the outfitting place for the Saints crossing the plains.

January 22nd. The Benjamin Adams sailed from Liverpool, England, with 378 Scandinavians and 6 British Saints, under the direction of Hans Peter Olsen. The company arrived at New Orleans, March 22nd, and at Kansas City in the beginning of April.

February 4th. The ship Golconda sailed from Liverpool, England, with 464 Saints, under the direction of Dorr P. Curtis; it arrived at New Orleans March 18th.

February 22nd. The Windermere sailed from Liverpool, England, with 484 Saints, under Daniel Garn's direction; it arrived at New Orleans April 23rd. Many died on board from the small pox.

March 5th. The Old England sailed from Liverpool, England, with 45 Saints, under the direction of John O. Angus. It arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi river April 24th.

March 12th. The John M. Wood sailed from Liverpool, with 393 Saints, including 58 from Switzerland and Italy, under the direction of Robert L. Campbell. It arrived at New Orleans May 2nd.

March 22nd. The Julia Ann sailed from Sydney, Australia, with about seventy Saints, bound for Utah, under the direction of Wm. Hyde. The company landed at San Pedro, Calif., June 12th.

April 4th. The Germanicus sailed from Liverpool, England, with 220 Saints, under the direction of Richard Cook. The company arrived at New Orleans June 12th.

April 8th. The Marsfield sailed from Liverpool, England, with 366 Saints, including about forty from the French mission, under the direction of Wm. Taylor. The company arrived at New Orleans May 29th.

April 24th. Twenty-nine Saints sailed from England on the Clara Wheeler, bound for Utah.

November 27th. The Clara Wheeler sailed from Liverpool, England, with 422 Saints, under the direction of Henry E. Phelps. The company arrived at New Orleans Jan. 11, 1855, and at St. Louis Jan. 22nd.

The Millennial Star Volume 16 reports:

Saturday, July 15, 1854. Ship Germanicus. Elder Richard Cook writes: At the above date the vessel was at anchor at the Island of Tortugas, four hundred miles from the mouth of the Mississippi river. The vessel had made a rather lengthy voyage, in consequence of which, she had to put in at St. Georges, Grand Cayman, where she staid two days, and took in eight days' water, and again at Tortugas for a further supply. Sister Mary Warren gave birth to a fine son, May 14. Both did well until the 21st, when, about six o'clock p.m., the mother was taken sick, and she died at eight. She was buried in the churchyard at George Town. With this exception the Saints have Enjoyed good health. Elder Cook says—"The Saints generally express their satisfaction with the quality of the provisions you furnished. Captain Fales is a very agreeable gentleman to travel with, and seeks to make the passengers comfortable."

Elder William Taylor reported the Marsfield arriving in New Orleans where they boarded the steamer James Robb and went up the Mississippi to St. Louis.

1855. January 6th. The Rockaway sailed from Liverpool, England, with 24 Saints, under the direction of Samuel Glasgow. The company arrived at New Orleans, Feb. 28th, and at St. Louis about the 16th of March.

January 7th. The James Nesmith sailed from Liverpool, with 440 Scandinavian and one British Saint, under the direction of Peter O. Hansen. It arrived at New Orleans, Feb. 23rd, and the company continued up the rivers to Ft. Leavenworth; afterwards to Mormon Grove.

January 9th. Thirteen Saints, under the presidency of Thomas Jackson, sailed from Liverpool on the Neva, bound for Utah. The company arrived at New Orleans, Feb. 22nd.

January 17th. The Charles Buck sailed from Liverpool, England, with 403 Saints, under the direction of Richard Ballantyne. The company arrived at New Orleans about March 14th, and at St. Louis March 27th.

February 3rd. The Isaac Jeans sailed from Liverpool, England with Geo. C. Riser, Jacob F. Secrist and 16 Saints bound for Utah. They landed in Philadelphia, March 5th.

February 27th. The Siddons sailed from Liverpool, England, with 430 Saints, under the direction of John S. Fullmer. It arrived at Philadelphia April 20th, from which place the company went by rail to Pittsburgh, Pa., thence on steamboats down the Ohio river to St. Louis and up the Missouri river to Atchison, Kan.

March 31st. The Juventa sailed from Liverpool, England, with 573 Saints, under the direction of Wm. Glover. It arrived at Philadelphia May 5th. From there the company went by rail to Pittsburgh, and further on steamboats down the Ohio river to St. Louis, Mo.

April 17th. The Chimborazo sailed from Liverpool, England, with 431 Saints, including 70 from the Channel Islands, under the direction of Edward Stevenson. The company arrived at Philadelphia May 21st.

April 22nd. The Samuel Curling sailed from Liverpool with 581 Saints, under Israel Barlow's direction; it arrived at New York May 27th. The emigrants continued by rail to Pittsburgh, thence by steamboat on the rivers, via St. Louis, Mo., to Atchison, Kansas.

April 26th. The Wm. Stetson sailed from Liverpool, with 293 Saints, under Aaron Smithhurst's direction. It arrived at New York May 27th.

April 27th. Seventy-two Saints from Adelaide (South Australia) and Victoria, sailed from Melbourne, on board the brig Tarquenia, bound for Utah, via San Pedro, Cal., under the direction of Burr Frost. Arriving at Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, the vessel was condemned as unsafe and the emigrants landed. Shortly afterwards some of them engaged another passage to San Pedro, Cal.

May 29th. A small company of Saints emigrating to Utah sailed from Calcutta, India, per ship Frank Johnson.

July 29th. The Cynosure sailed from Liverpool, England, with 159 Saints, under the direction of George Seager. It arrived at New York Sept. 5th.

September 7th. The American bark Julia Ann sailed from Sydney, N. S. W., Australia, with a company of Saints, under the direction of Elders James Graham and John S. Eldredge, bound for America.

November 25th. Elders Wm. Walker and Leonard I. Smith, accompanied by 15 Saints, sailed from Algoa Bay, Cape Colony, Africa, on the Unity, bound for Utah. They arrived in London, England, Jan. 29, 1856.

November 30th. The Emerald Isle sailed from Liverpool, England, with 349 Saints, under the direction of Philemon C. Merrill. It arrived at New York Dec. 29th.

December 12th. The John J. Boyd sailed from Liverpool, England, with 508 Saints (437 Scandinavians, 41 British and 41 Italians), under the direction of Knud Peterson. It arrived at New York, Feb. 15, 1856. A part of the company remained in Iowa and Illinois for some time, while a portion continued to Utah the same season via St. Louis and Florence.

From the History of the Scandinavian Mission by Andrew Jenson:

On Thursday, November 29th, 1855, a company of Scandinavian Saints numbering 447 souls sailed from Copenhagen, on board the steamship Loven, bound for Utah, under the direction of Elder Canute Peterson, who returned from his mission to Norway. After a pleasant voyage, Kiel, in Holstein, was reached, and thence the emigrants continued their journey by rail to Gluckstadt, thence by steamer to Grimsby, England, and thence by rail to Liverpool, where the Scandinavian emigrants were joined by 42 British and 30 Italian Saints, and went on board the ship John J. Boyd. Elder Charles R. Savage, one of the emigrating missionaries, gives the following report of the voyage:

We left Liverpool on Wednesday, Dec. 12, 1855, at 7 a.m. and had a fine run down the channel, sighted Cape Clear on the Friday morning following, and had mild weather with a fair wind for three days after. During this time we had leisure to devise plans for the maintenance of order and cleanliness during the voyage. Notwithstanding that our company consisted of Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, Icelanders, Italians, English, Irish and Scotch, the rules adopted proved efficient in maintaining a strict entent cordiale among us all. The Saints were by the sound of trumpet called to prayer morning and evening. Meetings were also frequently held in the Danish, English and Italian languages during the voyage. On the whole we enjoyed ourselves first-rate, notwithstanding the gales and hurricanes we experienced, from the breaking up of the fine weather in longitude 15 degrees to our anchoring off Sandy Hook.

About midway on our passage we fell in with the clipper ship Louis Napoleon, from Baltimore to Liverpool, laden with flour, with all her masts and spars carried away and leeward bulwarks stove in; upon nearing the ship we found her in a sinking condition. The captain and crew desired to be taken off, which was done. This acquisition was of great advantage to us, as the bad weather, sickness and exhaustion from overwork had made quite a gap in our complement of sailors. We had much sickness on board from the breaking out of the measles, which caused many deaths among the Danish, chiefly among the children. In the English and Italian companies we lost three children. The weather got worse after crossing the Banks, so much so, that we were driven into the Gulf Stream three times, and many of our sailors were frost-bitten. Our captain got superstitious on account of the long passage and ordered that there should be no singing on board; the mate said that all ships that had preachers on board were always sure of a bad passage; however, the Lord heard our prayers, and in His own due time we arrived at our destination. On the evening of the 15th of February we safely anchored, having been 66 days out from Liverpool.

Our supply of water was almost exhausted. We had on our arrival only about one day's water on board. The provisions were very good and proved abundant to the last. On our taking the pilot on board he informed us that there had been many disasters during the months of January and February; many ships had been wrecked. We had made the passage without the loss of a single spar.

On the 16th of February, 1856, the emigrants landed in New York, and after tarrying a few days at Castle Garden, the journey was continued on the 21st or 22nd by rail to Chicago, where the company, according to previous arrangements, was divided into three parts, of which one, consisting of about 150 souls, went to Burlington, Iowa, another to Alton, Illinois, and a third to St. Louis, Missouri.... The part of the company which went to St. Louis arrived in that city on the 10th of March 1856 ...

Note: Castle Garden, the former immigrant depot in New York at the point of Manhattan Island in Battery Park, is of considerable historic significance to Utahns, for it was here that a large percentage of Mormon converts disembarked from ships that carried them from the Old World. In the early days of the city the place was a small, fortified island a few feet from the mainland; later it became a public hall for assemblies and concerts. Here Jenny Lind made her American debut. In 1855 the island was incorporated with the general area of the Battery by filling the intervening space with earth and rock; new buildings were erected and the place was devoted to the purpose of landing steerage immigrants. In 1890 it ceased to be used as an immigrant depot and was turned over to the park commissioners of the city of New York and is now used as a public aquarium.

One immigrant gives her impression of the depot:

Ellen Wasden Christensen was born at Rotherham, July 15, 1848. This excerpt is from her journal:

"I left England April 26, 1855 on the William Stetson ship setting sail from Liverpool. It was a small sailing vessel with 700 people aboard and we reached New York in May, landing at Castle Garden. I had such glorious ideas of the New Country, and these dreams of America were somewhat shaken when I viewed the awful place with such a fair sounding name—Castle Garden. But it was a relief to get on land and quit the little vessel which had been a scene of much discomfiture and peculiar experiences. We were on the water about a month. And the meals—for several days I did not care to eat and there was never a time when I felt very hungry, but hungry or not—there was but one cooked meal in three days and this bi-weekly affair was prepared while the vessel was rocking and the galley, so the kitchen was called, was in a state of shifting scenes and sometimes the sea was too rough for any culinary work at all. It was a time of picnicing without the usual picnic zest and spirit.

"We were all anxious to set our eyes upon the promised land, but landing at the unkept immigration quarters was enough to dispirit the bravest heart. Then when we knew that the untried dangers of the trackless plains lay before us and our journey had just begun, we raised our petitions to the Keeper of all for strength to the end." —Laura Christensen McCurdy Clark.

1856. February 18. The Caravan sailed from Liverpool, England, with 454 Saints, under the direction of Daniel Tyler. The company arrived at New York March 27th.

March 23. The Enoch Train sailed from Liverpool, England, with 534 Saints, under the direction of James Ferguson. It arrived at Boston May 1st. From that city the emigrants traveled by rail via New York to Iowa City, Iowa, whence the journey across the plains this year was commenced by wagons and handcarts. Daniel Spencer acted as general superintendent of emigration on the borders, assisted by Geo. D. Grant, Wm. H. Kimball, James H. Hart and others.

April 19th. The Samuel Curling sailed from Liverpool with 707 Saints, under the direction of Dan Jones; it arrived at Boston May 23rd. From that city the emigrants traveled by rail to Iowa City.

May 4th. The Thornton sailed from Liverpool, England, with 764 Saints, under the direction of James G. Willie. It arrived at New York June 14th, and the emigrants, continuing the journey by rail, arrived at Iowa City, June 26th.

May 25th. The Horizon sailed from Liverpool with 856 Saints, under the direction of Edward Martin. The company arrived safely at Boston, and reached Iowa City by rail July 8th.

May 28th. A small company of Australian Saints, under the direction of Augustus Farnham, sailed from Port Jackson, New South Wales, bound for Utah. The ship arrived at San Pedro, Calif. Aug. 15th.

June 1st. The Wellfleet sailed from Liverpool, England, with 146 Saints, under the direction of John Aubray. It arrived at Boston July 13th. The emigrants remained in the States until the following season.

July 5th. The Lucy Thompson sailed from Liverpool with fourteen Saints, under the direction of James Thompson. It arrived at New York Aug. 8th.

November 18th. The Columbia sailed from Liverpool with 223 Saints, under the direction of J. Williams. It arrived at New York Jan. 1, 1857.

Dan Jones, close friend of the Prophet Joseph Smith, reports:

Ship S. Curling, May 21st, 1856.

President Richards.

My dear Brother—While the passengers are on tip-toe, stretching their necks over the bow of the ship, watching for Cape Cod to raise his hoary head above the blue lip of ocean, I, though no less anxious than they to see the long looked-for welcomer of all pilgrims to "the land of the free and the home of the brave," retire to my cabin to inform you of some of the incidents of our voyage.

In a few hours after I was loosed from your parting grip, and that of the other faithful and highly esteemed brethren at your Office door, on April 19th, which parting has not yet been or will be for some time forgotten, I found myself mustering the passengers on board the S. Curling, in the open sea, being towed out by a steamer. All this over, to the astonishment of the inspecting officers, in less time and with less trouble, they said, than they ever had with any other ship; and after the tug had taken our worthy brother Daniels and other faithful escorters back home, I availed myself of the first opportunity to organize the passengers.

Having conversed with my counsellers, J. Oakley and D. Grant, and some dozen presiding Elders, brother Birmingham was chosen Secretary; the ship was divided into eleven wards, and suitable Presidents appointed to each, whose duties, although defined to them emphatically, would only be a repetition to you of what you have often heard. For the first three days gentle breezes and tides wafted us to Cape Clear; four days more of strong north east wind hurried us at the rate of twelve or more knots per hour to the westward, which had so flattered us with a speedy passage, that it took two weeks of adverse winds to erase it from our minds. During this time the S. Curling, though called a mammoth of her species, with her 700 passengers and luggage, crew, and withal 2,000 tons of iron in her bowels, rocked like a crow's nest on a lone sapling in the gale, nor paid deference to Saint more than to sinner, all in turn.

Amidst the wreck of berths, wholesale, the passengers grappled to be uppermost, which position was no sooner gained, than they were again reversed with beds, uppermost. Of course pots, pans, kettles, and every thing that could make a noise, joined as usual in the music, and the medley dance. Upon the deck, also, where we enticed, helped, carried or hoisted all we could, true affection bound them in heaps or piles to each other; all had one leg too short or too long every step, but amid such a throng twas as difficult for one to fall alone as it would be for a ten pin to fall alone amidst its tottering throng; and here, before they learned to walk alone, all felt the power of the adage, "Once a man and twice a child." More than once, in the mean time, the power of the Priesthood curbed the fury of old Boreas, who, as soon as the bits were out of his mouth, like a prancing steed, again would snort in the gale, requiring all the faith on board to rein him in, until, at length a certain Jew, in an indescribable circle, fettered him, and ever since stubborn old Boreas has been more tractable to his riders, and promises to continue so until he lands them.

Notwithstanding the roughness of this wintry passage, we continued to be quite a devotional people. At 5 a.m. each day the bugle called the men out to clean their wards, and then to retire on deck while the ladies were dressing for morning prayers, at a quarter to six o'clock. At dusk the bugle called all hands to prayer again, by wards, and it pleased me much to see, by the almost universal willingness to go below, that the call was duly appreciated, nor was the scene less interesting to see seven hundred Saints on their way to Zion, pent up in so small a space, all bow the knee, and, with their hearty Amen, lift their hearts in aspirations of praise to Him who deserves our all. Instructions suitable to the circumstances were freely given, at such times, by the presiding Elders; and, to their praise be it said, were as freely received and promptly carried out. Our evenings, after meetings until bedtime, were spent in singing the songs of Zion; after which the men retired on deck, while the females retired to a better place.

Sundays, at 10 a.m., I have enjoyed myself much in council with the presiding Elders, where undisturbed union has always reigned. At 2 1/2 p.m., we held public meetings on deck, where we had Captain and crew among the audience. The sisters, especially through the various wards, being ever preaching their favourite topic—the celestial order of marriage—it was deemed ungenerous in the Elders not to help them in such a laudable undertaking. Consequently, according to previous announcement, myself and counsellors volunteered our services to help them, and did our best for a couple of hours, the last two Sundays; in return we received the thanks of the sisters for doing it so much better, they say, than they could do it themselves.

At 8 p.m. the bugle again called to sacrament meetings in the wards, when many could not refrain from testifying of the goodness of God and their love of "Mormonism." Tuesday and Thursday evenings, prayer meetings convened in the wards. Thus, from day to day, blow high, blow low, in the bonds of love and union, whether English, Irish, or Britons—of the latter we had about 560—has this noble band of Zion's pilgrims served their God, on the wide ocean; nor do I believe that any people could do better, under the circumstances, than they have done.

In the cooking department, where I have seen in the experience of years, others, "whose God is their belly," have a "bone of contention" in every kettle, and fight with bones, kettles, and pans, these quiet and self-denying people have sanctified even the galley—the seat of war—with their harmony. Two wards at a time have half an hour for supper, reversing alternately, and the intervals between meals for baking, &c. This dispenses with the throng around the galley, and each knows his turn by seeing the number of his ward over the door.

The health of the passengers, although good in the main, considering the weather, has not been without grievous exceptions. I regret to say that, notwithstanding myself, counsellors, and others devoted all our time to nourish the sick, especially the old, and the mothers of infants, by preserves, soups, sago, arrowroot, and all the well assorted stock you furnished, owing to a lack of energy in some to contend with and overcome seasickness, by coming to the air, themselves and babes suffered much, six of the latter have died, namely Joseph J. Davies, son of George W. Davies, of Cardiff, aged one year and five months, of inflammation of the lungs, on 28th of April; Hyrum Bassett, son of John Bassett, of Wales, 29th of April, aged ten months, of inflammation of the lungs; Joseph Thomas, son of William Thomas, of Milfordhaven, on the 8th of May, aged nine months and five days; Parley R. Lewis, son of John Lewis, of Tredegar, of cancer in the breast, aged seven months, on the 9th of May; John Davies, son of Evan D. Davies, of Glamorganshire, of consumption, on the 17th of May; and Joseph Price, son of John Price, of Pembrokeshire, May 21st, of consumption aged twelve months. Three of the former, however, were so weakly, that the doctor said while inspecting them at Liverpool, they would not live ten days. Mothers might prolong the lives of their babes, did they keep them half the time on deck in the fresh air, but they keep them smothered up on their arms in the blankets, inhaling each other's breath. Owing principally to this the chicken pox broke out among the children, and in despite of all efforts to check its progress, in which the doctor of the ship and Captain Curling distinguished themselves, it spread throughout the whole ship, yet, by steady perseverence, and the blessing of God upon the ordinance of His Gospel, it has not proved fatal, but by this time all have either recovered or are recovering.

To change the topic from our decrease to our Increase, I have the pleasure of saying, that our company has been augmented by the inauguration of two little cherubs from the spirit world, who are already the favourites of all, and all say, they must come to Zion with us. They would have one called Dan Curling Dee, son of Thomas Dee, Llanelly, Wales. The other is called Claudia Curling Reynolds, daughter of brother Reynolds, England; mothers and babes are doing well, and the former say they would come a long way again to be rocked in so easy a cradle with their infants, and especially so as to bequeath upon their infants the rights of cosmopolites or citizens of the world. We are kept on the alert, by the signs, waiting for Neptune in his carriage to bring us some more sea-born "Mormons."

But hark! What means the tumultuous throng of hasty feet that press along? The word is passed—Land oh! Land oh! I cannot stay, I must up to see it too. Well, there it is sure enough, the grey old Cape Cod, some dozen miles to the windward; passengers, old and young, lame, maimed, halt, and blind, shouting out, "There it is! There it is! There are houses, and trees, and men walking!" Some wish for wings to fly to it, yet they have to wait for them to grow. It affords me much pleasure to say, that my gratitude to you is still increased, commensurate with the able and efficient aid I have received, in all things, from the good men whom you gave me to be counsellors—ever ready, always willing, and one in all things, I cannot speak too highly of them; nor will the services they have rendered to this people be soon forgotten.

The conduct of Captain Curling has demanded our praise; generous, courteous, and philanthropic, he has shared his commiseration indiscriminately among the greatest sufferers, and all have received comforts from his liberal hand. He has vouchsafed to us the freedom of his commodious and splendid ship, fore and after, both in our devotions as well as our amusements and recreations, for which as well as for his gentlemanly, humane, and parental conduct, the Saints, in public meeting assembled, of all people first and foremost to appreciate and reciprocate favours, were pleased with the privileges given them, to express, with an uplifted hand, their gratitude to him; and many are the invocations for their Father to repay him with the blessings he merits. As for myself, we have spun yarns together for hours, as we paced the quarter deck eagerly scrutinizing the horizon, lest a treacherous squall should take us unawares, and disturb the repose of the sleepers below. At home among the stars, born in a storm, cradled on the ocean, few things escaped his eagle eye, with such a one, hours have I spent with a pleasure known only to weather-beaten old tars. May he moor his barque, yes, his fleet in Zion's snug harbour, ere the equinoctical gales of life beset him.

I ought to further add, that the provisions you furnished were of a superior quality, and so abundant that few drew their rations. You would be reminded, by the meat, &c., which was hung up to the deck below, of a huge butcher's shop, and, sometimes, when the overstrained cords gave way beneath the ponderous mass, some felt the strength and hardness of bones, which did not, luckily, however, prove fatal.

Boston, May 25th. On the 22nd, pilot boarded us; light winds off shore kept us off until daylight of the 23rd, when the Enoch Train, came alongside and towed us in Quarantine Ground. In a few hours the Inspectors came aboard, welcomed by the spontaneous three cheers of 700 people, and, strange as it may seem, called the names of all, and passed them, in less than one hour and a half, without any further complaint than that "I was taking all the handsome ladies to Utah." The passengers were all remarkably clean, as well as the ship, which commanded the admiration of all. In proof of the latter I would say, that I had made a wager with Captain Curling upon leaving Liverpool, that the lower decks would be whiter than his cabin floor, and the Quarantine Doctor decided in my favour. Noon, we moored alongside the wharf, and had the great pleasure of meeting my worthy friend N. H. Felt, whose judicious counsels I had learned to appreciate before, while taking a company through St. Louis, but now more welcome than ever.

24th. Concluded a contract with the Railway, to take about 400 to Iowa city direct, fare $11, under 14 half-fare, and under 6 years free, with 100 lbs. of luggage free; $3.50 per cwt for freight; to leave Monday, 11 a.m. Got the privilege from our ever kind Captain Curling, to remain on board until that time. Sent all luggage except bedding up to the station in safety, and without aid of either mates, loafers, or any but ourselves. Our arrival created quite an excitement through the City, and the wharf is thronged with inquisitive and astonished spectators, including reverends, ladies, officials, and editors. A delegation from the tract society waited on me, petitioning the privilege of distributing Testaments, tracts, &c., to enlighten the benighted "Mormons," and they were as much astonished as pleased when informed that their charity was highly appreciated, and that they were at perfect liberty to say or introduce anything they pleased, to any and all of the passengers—that we could investigate, and, if they would decoy any away from "Mormonism" I would thank them for it, and be glad to get rid of them. They gazed wildly when informed that these people's actions were predicated upon actual knowledge, by the revelations of God to each for himself, and not upon mere belief. I informed them that if they would pronounce in their churches, and attend tomorrow on the wharf at 11 a.m., and at 5 p.m., I would endeavor to tell them what "Mormonism" really is, and invited all the Bostonians to come and hear our own representations of ourselves which seemed to please them much, and by all prospects there will be a good turnout. May the spirit of "Mormonism" manifest its wonted power for their good....

Having said so much hurriedly, brother Franklin, and being called upon by an assembled throng to preach for them, I bid you, and the beloved brethren in the Office adieu, praying the Lord to bless you with health, influence unbounded, and all your heart's desires in time and eternity, and beg to remain as ever, truly your brother in the Gospel, D. Jones.

1857. March 28th. The George Washington sailed from Liverpool, England, with 817 Saints, under the direction of James P. Park, bound for Utah via Boston.

April 25th. The Westmoreland sailed from Liverpool, England, with 544 Saints, mostly Scandinavians, under the direction of Matthias Cowley. It arrived at Philadelphia May 31st. The emigrants reached Iowa City by rail June 9th.

May 30th. The Tuscarora sailed from Liverpool, England, with 547 Saints, under the direction of Richard Harper. It arrived at Philadelphia July 3rd, and the emigrants continued by rail to Burlington, Iowa, in the vicinity of which most of them sought temporary employment.

June 27th. The American ship Lucas sailed from Sydney, N. S. W., Australia, with 69 Saints, in charge of Elder Absalom P. Dowdle, bound for Utah.

July 18th. The Wyoming sailed from Liverpool, England, with 36 Saints, under the direction of Charles Harman. It arrived safely at Philadelphia, Pa.

The autobiography of Caroline Hansen Adams gives a description of how the dead were buried at sea:

I was born in Denmark January 14, 1849. My parents were Christian Hansen and Ingar Mortensen Hansen. When I was eight years old my parents and their children left Denmark to come to America. Father's friend Ole Petterson and family wanted to come, but did not have the money. Father loaned them enough to make up their fare, they came with us. We left Copenhagen, Denmark with others for Liverpool, England. From there we boarded a sailing vessel named Westmoreland.

This ship sailed from Liverpool with 544 Saints, mostly Scandinavians. The Saints were under the direction of Matthias Cowley. The weather was unusually calm and our progress was very slow. We were thirteen weeks on the ocean. Many hardships were endured while on the water and a number of deaths occurred during the voyage. The dead were wrapped in sheets with a weight tied to their feet and placed on a board on their backs. One end of the board was placed on the side of the ship. The other was held level. After a short funeral service, the board was raised sliding the body, feet first into the ocean. The weights on the feet would sink the body almost instantly.

When we got good sailing weather we soon landed in the harbor of Philadelphia. We landed in a heavy rain storm. The next day we boarded a train and traveled west to Iowa City, arriving there on June the 9th, 1857.

The following article concerning the arrival of Elder Richard Harper's company of Saints was taken from a Philadelphia newspaper:

Should the Salt Lake settlement continue to drain the old countries of their peasantry, as they are now doing, the Mormons will soon become a strong people. Another cargo arrived at the foot of Walnut Street yesterday, per packet ship Tuscarora, consisting of five hundred and thirty-seven souls. The entire multitude were Mormons excepting one Irishman. They hail from Sweden, Denmark, and Great Britain, the majority being natives of the latter country.

Our reporter boarded the ship on her arrival, threaded his way through the disciples who thronged the decks, and sought out the president or Elder of that party. We found him in the person of Richard Harper, a fair type of English mechanic—lusty, vigorous and healthy. He became a convert to Mormonism about five years since, through the preaching of itinerant Mormons who visited Lincolnshire, in his native land. Harper declared that the truths uttered by these vagabond Mormons was so irresistible that he yielded implicit credence to them. Feeling, therefore, like Paul—'Woe is me if I preach not the Gospel,' he, in turn, became an exhorter, an Elder, and finally president of the Societies of the District. He then determined to form a company to emigrate to Utah, with what success the reader can judge for himself. He is accompanied by his wife and four children. The appearance and condition of the passengers are better than we have ever seen before in an emigrant ship. The contrast between these Mormons, in point of cleanliness and apparent comfort, with the passengers of the Saranak, a ship at the adjoining pier which was then discharging a load of Irish, was strikingly in favor of the former. Their cheerfulness, too, was remarkable, but is accounted for by their unity from care in disposing of their baggage, all of which was attended to by Mr. Angus Cannon, agent for the Mormon Emigration Societies.

When the ship hauled into her berth, there was a crowd of boardinghouse keepers ready to extend their good offices, but all their attentions were entirely superfluous, and the Mormons saved their money. Each family pays its own expenses. The cargo of the Westmoreland, which arrived some three weeks ago, was entirely from the continent and was a sort of joint stock concern. Not so with this. Indeed, only about a third of them are going direct to Utah, the remainder will remain in the States until they can earn sufficient money to carry them out. One English woman whose dress and address were alike refined, informed us that she was a dressmaker, and should remain here if she could obtain employment, otherwise she should go with the others to Salt Lake. There are quite a number of seamstresses on board who were eager to know whether employment could be readily obtained, while mechanics of the opposite sex were no less inquisitive.

We were much surprised at the degree of conversance which these people have gained with the Holy Scriptures. A man to whom we spoke upon the subject of Mormonism, under the impression that he was utterly ignorant of the Bible, astounded us by an exposition of his creed, backed by scriptural quotations so apt that none but a well-versed Theologian need attempt an argument with him.

It is unfair to characterize these Mormons as unlettered, or charge them with embracing the creed for the mere sake of promised happiness in an ideal country. On the contrary, they seem fully to realize the hardships before them and to have their eyes open to the fact that they must earn their bread by patient toil, upon arriving in Utah. They appear to be a moral and correct set of people, with no such ideas as we find existing in the land of Brigham Young. While on shipboard there were religious services, three times on Sunday and every morning and evening during the week.

No intercourse was permitted between the crew and passengers. President Harper was the mouthpiece of the tribe. The mode of address among each other was Brother and Sister, while their intercourse appeared to be eminently cordial and affectionate.

1858. January 21. The Underwriter sailed from Liverpool, England, with mostly Scandinavians, under the direction of Henry Harriman. There were 25 Saints. They landed in New York.

February 19th, Sixty-four Saints, mostly returning Elders, under the direction of Jesse Hobson, sailed from Liverpool, England, on the Empire, which arrived at New York on March 20th.

March 22nd, The John Bright sailed from Liverpool, England, with about ninety Saints, mostly Scandinavians, under the direction of Iver N. Iversen. The company arrived at New York April 23rd and at Iowa City May 1st.

Lovett Bunting, who sailed on the Empire relates his experience:

February 16, 1858, I bade goodbye to my native land and boarded the ship Empire bound for America. The grief of my parents, brothers, and sisters was very touching at my determination to not only adhere to the doctrine of Mormonism, but to leave my home and native land. But I felt it my duty to do the will of the Father and assist in the great work of redemption, hoping the time would come when my loved ones would do likewise.

On the ship we were organized in companies with officers in charge. I was appointed cook, but my labors were very light for several days, as most of the passengers were seasick. The kettles were continually upsetting and like their owners rolling about the cabins. Several persons were thrown out of their beds. The water gushed into our cabins wetting our luggage, which was hard to get dried.

The headway made by the vessel depended on the way the wind happened to be blowing. However, the spirits of the Elders were kept good by singing the songs of Zion. After tossing twenty-seven days on the sea we came in sight of land, America "The Land of Zion," which caused the hearts of all to leap with joy. A few hours later the ship was safe in the port of New York....

1859. March 9th. A small company of Saints, under the leadership of Joseph Humphreys sailed from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, bound for America. They arrived at Boston early in May, 1859.

April 11th. The William Tapscott sailed from Liverpool, England with 725 Saints, under the direction of Robert F. Neslen. The company arrived at New York May 14th, and at Florence, Neb., May 25th.

July 10th. The Antarctic sailed from Liverpool, England, with 30 Saints, under the direction of James Chaplow. It arrived at New York Aug. 21st.

August 20th. The Emerald Isle sailed from Liverpool, England, with 54 Saints, mostly Swiss, under the direction of Henry Hug.

From a history of Thomas C. Fautin and his wife, Inger, we learn:

The Fautin family with many others, joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in Fyen, Denmark in 1857, and were advised by their Conference President, Carl Widerborg, to save means for their emigration to Zion, which was now opened again for the gathering of Israel. They sold their farms and placed in the bank the sum of 3,029 regadaler. The Scandinavian newspaper of January 1st, announced the cost of each adult who crossed the plains, with handcarts, would be 150 regadaler, ($75.00) and they were to advance $20.00 for each handcart emigrant. This money was to be sent to America to purchase the necessary outfit for the journey across the plains, which included handcarts, provisions, etc. With their children, Charles, age 3; Amazene, 9 months old and Inger's parents, Ole and Annie Hedvig Jensen, they sailed from Copenhagen, April 1, 1859, on the steamer L. N. Hvedt. Their voyage over the North Sea to Liverpool, England was very rough. On April 7th they went on board the ship William Tapscott. April 11, 1859, the ship sailed out to sea, with 725 precious souls from many nations. Songs of joy resounded from all parts of the ship as it left the dock. Only one death occurred on board, two births and nineteen marriages. Thirteen of the marriages were among Scandinavian couples. Elder Robert F. Neslen was appointed president of the company of Saints aboard. He recorded that it was quite difficult to take charge of so many people speaking nine different languages, but through faithfulness and diligence of the Saints, he found the task easier than anticipated.

Arriving safely in New York Harbor after a thirty-one day voyage, the emigrants stepped on American soil at Castle Garden May 14th and were pronounced by doctors and government officers to be one of the healthiest, best disciplined, and most agreeable companies ever to arrive in port. The evening of the same day most of them continued the journey by steamboat up the Hudson River to Albany, New York. The company went by rail to Niagara, Windsor, Canada; Detroit, Michigan; Quincy, Illinois; on to St. Joseph, Missouri, where they arrived May 21st, and the afternoon of that day boarded the steamboat St. Mary, which brought them to Florence, Nebraska, May 25th. This route through Canada and the States was one which no former company of emigrating Saints had ever taken.

During the 1860's

1860. March 30th. The Underwriter sailed from Liverpool, England, with 594 British and Swiss Saints, under the presidency of James D. Ross. It arrived at New York May 1st, and the emigrants continued to Florence, where Geo. Q. Cannon was acting as Church emigration agent this year to arrange for the journey across the plains.

May 11. The William Tapscott sailed from Liverpool, England, with 731 Saints under the direction of Asa Calkin. During the voyage small pox broke out among the emigrants, who had to remain several days in quarantine after arriving at New York harbor. They finally landed June 20th and continued their journey to Florence, Neb., where they arrived July 1st.

Heinrich Reiser, Utah pioneer of 1860, was born July 29, 1832 in Strahlegg, township of Fischenthal, Canton, Zurich, Switzerland. His parents were Heinrich Reiser and Susanna Ottiker. During his thirteenth year he was apprenticed to a shoemaker and during his time of service the father died. After leaving the employ of Kasper Keller, Heinrich traveled considerably in his native land working at the shoemaker trade as a means of livelihood. The following was taken from his own writings:

On the 16th of February, 1859 my wife gave birth to a son whom we named Johann Heinrich, and we had him christened according to the law of the land. At this time we had a 62-year-old woman helping with the housework. Her name was Verena Rieben and she was a member of the Mormon Church. She spoke frequently about her religion and on the Monday after we had our son christened, she came with one of her preachers a Mr. Heinrich Hug from Zurich to visit us. This gentleman expounded Mormonism to me ... I attended several meetings and we were quite happy. On the 10th day of May, 1859, we were baptized by Heinrich Hug in the Rheus River in St. Imer. From then on we never missed a meeting. Shortly afterwards Marianne Rupp, my wife's sister, was baptized. I was ordained a teacher. I have always done my best to help build the Kingdom of God.

On the 25th of April, 1860 we set out for our journey to the valley of the Great Salt Lake—me and my wife, my son, Marianne Rupp, Anna Mueller, Father Hirschi, Johann Hirschi, Judith Hirschi and Sister Naef. We first went to Basle, thence to Mannheim and Arnheim to Toderdam and from there to Hull, England. There we took a train to Liverpool.... On the 5th of May Brother Woodard and five more persons arrived. On the 7th our trunks were taken to the William Tapscott. On the 14th of June the pilot came on board and we received the news with great rejoicing, for we were told that now we were not very far from the coast. On the 15th a small boat came to tug ours to Staten Island. On June the 16th the doctor came on board and all the passengers had to go through a physical examination. As there were some cases of small pox, it was decided that we all would have to be vaccinated. This was done and on the same day those who had the small pox were taken to the hospital in New York, among them were 6 Scandinavians and a Swiss. On the 17th the little boy of Brother Christian Staufer from Berne died; on the 18th my little boy, Henri, 16 months, passed away and on the 19th the little boy of Johann Keller died. All three were buried on Staten Island. We felt very bad over losing the boy, but willing to recognize the hand of the Lord in it ...

1861. April 16th. The packet ship Manchester sailed from Liverpool, England, with 380 Saints, under the direction of Claudius V. Spencer. They arrived at New York May 18th.

April 23rd. The clipper ship Underwriter sailed from Liverpool, with 624 Saints, under the presidency of Milo Andrus, Homer Duncan and Charles William Penrose. The company arrived at New York May 22nd, and at Florence June 2nd.

May 16th. The packet Monarch of the Sea sailed from Liverpool, with 955 Saints of various nationalities, under the direction of Jabez Woodard, H. O. Hansen and Niels Wilhelmsen. The company arrived in New York June 19th.

Sarah Anglessey Allen was baptized when eight years old, and left England on the 15th of April 1861 when she was fifteen years of age. There were seven hundred Saints in the company she traveled with. Her mother, father, and remainder of the family stayed in England, so she was alone and knew but few. Sarah sailed on the ship Underwriter and was five weeks on the ocean. The rations were hard biscuits, beans, a little rice and black tea. But Sarah didn't eat much of the food because her mother had fixed her a box containing currant bread, cheese, white bread and green tea. The company finally landed at Florence where they stayed three weeks, fixing wagons and preparing to cross the plains.

Johanna Nilsson Lindholm, born July 19, 1830, at Greby Gothuirda, Sweden, was the daughter of Nils Johnson and Kristana Anderson. When Johanna was a small child her parents were well-to-do, but they lost their money and a short time later the father died ... When Johanna secured a job in Sundsvall, Sweden, in a tailoring shop, she met Carl Eric Lindholm, a Latter-day Saint missionary who converted and baptized her. The people were prejudiced against the Mormons so Johanna's baptism took place in the night of January 29, 1859. Johanna and Carl Eric were the only members of their families to join the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Later Johanna went to work in Copenhagen, Denmark while Carl Eric remained at Sundsvall to continue his missionary work. The following is taken from his diary:

Jan. 5, 1861. Wrote a letter to Johanna Nilsson, my sweetheart, in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Jan. 11th. Wrote a letter to my brother, father, and sweetheart.

Feb. 2nd. Received a letter from Johanna with word that L. P. Edholm is coming to Sundsvall to collect some money before he emigrates to America.

March 22nd. L. P. Edholm returned today with information that I could journey to Zion. This was truly a great day for me. I took out my journeyman's book with the release of my mission. I thanked the Saints for their loyalty and goodness to me and bade them farewell. They in turn thanked me for counsel and instruction I had given them during the time I was conference president and bade me a very tender farewell.

March 27th. I commenced the journey to Copenhagen with L. P. Edholm.

April 7th, 1861. I arrived at Copenhagen. Met my sweetheart Johanna who was happy that I came. Called on President Van Cott and gave him my report. He was satisfied with me and wished my sweetheart and I much happiness.

May 9th. We left Copenhagen and started on our journey to Zion, the promised land.

May 14th. Arrived in Liverpool, and went aboard the ship Monarch of the Sea. It is an excellent vessel, large, roomy, new and clean. Here are English, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Swiss, French, Welsh, Irish and Scotch Saints all together.

May 15th. Received tickets, cabins and provisions which consisted of cheese, bacon, meat, rice, tea, sugar, potatoes, pepper, mustard and water. This 15th day of May, 1861 Johanna Nilsson and Carl Eric Lindholm were married by President John Van Cott on the great ship Monarch of the Sea. Many other couples were married. Apostles A. Lyman, Charles Rich and George Q. Cannon were aboard ship. They counselled everyone to be friendly, patient, peaceable, charitable, and tolerant to one another. Apostle Cannon suggested that Elder Jabez Woodward be appointed president over the Saints aboard ship until our arrival at New York. Elders Hansen and Wilhelmsen were chosen counselors. At 11 o'clock the apostles left the ship. They bade the Saints farewell after the Saints had sung many hymns for them. A tugboat towed us a long way through the channel.

June 18th. Sighted land today, the 34th day at sea.

June 19th. A steam tug towed the ship into the place of quarantine. Physicians came aboard and examined us. Arrived at New York.

June 25th. Arrived at Quincy at 2 p.m. June 26th. Left Quincy and arrived at St. Joseph at 10 p.m. July 1st. Arrived at Florence, Nebraska. July 4th, and 5th. Wagons were distributed. July 6th. Oxen distributed. July 7th. Moved a mile out and made camp. Completed the trip from Florence, Nebraska, to Salt Lake City in ten weeks, in Capt. Woolley's train of covered wagons. Arrived in Salt Lake City 2nd of September, 1861. Sept. 24th. Went to Tooele, Utah to look for a home. —D.U.P. Files

1862. April 9th. The Humboldt sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with 323 Scandinavian Saints, under the direction of Hans Christian Hansen. The company arrived at New York May 20th and at Florence about the 1st of June.

April 15th. The Franklin sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with 413 Scandinavian Saints, under the direction of Christian A. Madsen. The company arrived in New York harbor May 29th and at Florence June 9th. Between forty and fifty children died of measles on board the ship.

April 18th. The Electric sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with 336 Saints, under the direction of Soren Christoffersen. It landed in New York.

April 25th. The Athenia sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with 484 Scandinavian Saints, under the direction of Ola N. Liljenquist. The company arrived at New York June 6th and at Florence June 19th.

April 23rd. The John J. Boyd sailed from Liverpool, England, with 701 Saints, under the direction of James S. Brown; it arrived at New York June 1st.

May 6th. The Manchester sailed from Liverpool, with 376 Saints, under the direction of John D. T. McAllister; it arrived at New York June 12th.

May 14th. The Wm. Tapscott sailed from Liverpool, with 808 Saints, under the direction of Wm. Gibson, John Clark, and Francis M. Lyman. It arrived safely at New York.

May 15th. The Windermere sailed from Havre, France, with 109 Swiss and French Saints, under the direction of Serge L. Ballif, bound for Utah via New York.

May 18th. The packet ship Antarctic sailed from Liverpool, England, with 38 Saints, under the direction of Wm. C. Moody.

Ola Nilsson Liljenquist was born in Ingaberga, Vestra Goinge, Hered County, Scone, Sweden, September 23, 1826, the son of Neils Tykeso and Bengta Larsen. He was converted to the L.D.S. Church and baptized on the 4th of September, 1852. Two weeks later his wife was baptized. For several years Ola served as a missionary in his native land, then, with his wife and four children, sailed for America and arrived in Salt Lake Valley September 13, 1857. He returned to Scandinavia as a missionary in 1859. The following is taken from his journal:

I continued my labors in the same position and with similar results, until the spring of 1862 when I was released with the privilege of returning home. I also made a very pleasant acquaintance with W. W. Cluff and Jesse N. Smith and traveled considerably in their company, while they were learning the language. They have since presided over the Mission and Jesse N. Smith has presided over the same twice.

April 21, 1862, I left Copenhagen the second time, for Zion, in charge of a comp any of Saints, numbering 484 souls. This was the fourth and last company that st arted from Copenhagen to Zion in the spring of 1862. I left feeling exceedingly grateful for the power and graces that had been bestowed upon us while we had be en bearing our testimonies to tens of thousands of people and felt that our garm ents would be unspotted from their blood in the great day of judgment. The Lord has blessed our feeble efforts with much fruit, but we felt that the harvest would be great though the laborers few. The company arrived at Hamburg on the 22nd and were taken by boat five miles up the Elbe where we embarked on a German emigrant ship, a large sailing vessel, called the Athenia. We set sail on the morning of the 24th. We learned before we reached New York, to our sorrow, the difference in the German laws and the English in fitting out an emigrant ship for its long voyage. In the first place, the water for use on shipboard taken in on the Hamburg Elbe, rotted long before we reached our destination; the provisions were of very inferior kind and the way it was cooked was still worse, and then not half enough of it. The captain said he carried emigrants across the Atlantic for 25 years. He showed me the irons and handcuffs he used to put upon the emigrants when they were not observant of his will and said he would treat us the same if we did not honor him as sole chief and quit finding fault with the treatment we had. One Sunday afternoon, after we had concluded our afternoon services, I suppose through jealousy and not having any influence with the Saints, he threatened to throw me overboard and I suppose he would have carried out his purpose had he dared to. Measles broke out among us and 35 deaths occurred as the result of bad water and food. Finally after seven weeks at sea, we arrived at New York where we took the car for St. Joseph and from there to Florence by steamer. At Florence we had a very long delay and several deaths occurred. Horace S. Eldredge was the emigration agent at New York and he arranged everything well for us. The four companies we made into two at Florence. C. A. Madsen was appointed captain over one and myself over the other, and our great chief, John Van Cott, presided over both as we traveled close together. We arrived safely at Salt Lake City September 23, 1862. —D.U.P. Files

1863. March 14th. The barque Rowena sailed from Port Elizabeth, Cape of Good Hope, Africa, with 15 Saints on board, under the direction of Robert Grant, bound for Utah.

April 30th. The John J. Boyd sailed from Liverpool, with 763 (or 766) Saints, under the direction of Wm. W. Cluff. The emigrants landed in New York June 1st, and arrived at Florence June 12th.

May 8th. The B. S. Kimball sailed from Liverpool, England, with 654 (or 657) Saints under the direction of Hans Peter Lund. The same day 38 Saints, under the direction of Anders Christensen, sailed on the Consignment. The emigrants on the B. S. Kimball landed in New York June 15th, and then continued by rail to Florence. The Consignment arrived at New York June 20th.

May 23rd. The Antarctic sailed from Liverpool, England, with 483 Saints, under the direction of John Needham. The emigrants landed in New York July 10th and arrived safely at Florence a few days later.

May 30th. The Cynosure sailed from Liverpool, with 754 Saints, under the direction of David M. Stuart. It arrived at New York harbor July 19th.

June 4th. The packet ship Amazon sailed from London, England, with 882 (or 895) Saints, under the direction of Wm. Bramall. It arrived in New York harbor July 18th, and the immigrants reached Florence a few days later.

About two hundred emigrating Saints from the Christiania, Lolland and Bornholm conferences sailed from Copenhagen per steamer Aurora, April 30, 1863, bound for Utah, under the leadership of Elders Carl C. M. Dorius, Johan F. F. Dorius and Hans Peter Lund.

Some of the Norwegians emigrating in this company (28 souls) had sailed from Christiania April 13, 1863, per steamer Excellensen Toll. A strong and contrary wind on the Skagerak and Cattegat made the voyage very uncomfortable, but the emigrants were safely landed in Copenhagen April 15th. Another company of emigrating Saints (about one hundred souls) left Christiania, Norway, April 28th, under the direction of Elder Johan F. F. Dorius and arrived in Copenhagen, April 29th, where the Norwegians joined the emigrants from other parts of the mission. About a dozen Saints emigrating to Zion went direct from Stavanger to Hull where they joined those who had sailed from Copenhagen.

When the emigrating Saints left Copenhagen April 30th the weather was fine, and a great number of people congregated on the wharf to see the Saints leave, but t here were no disturbances, as a number of police had been detailed on special du ty to keep order. The emigrants made themselves as comfortable as they could on the deck and in the second cabin of the Aurora, which on the morning of Friday, May 1st, arrived at Kiel, where the emigrants walked to the railway station and left at 11 o'clock a.m. by railroad for Altona, where they arrived at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. From Altona to Hamburg the emigrants walked in about half an h our to the ship Roland, on which they went on board, together with about four hu ndred emigrating Saints from Jutland and Fyen (or the Saints from the Vendsyssel , Aalborg, Skive, Aarhus, Fredericia and Fyen conferences) who, on June 30, 1863, had boarded a steamer at Aalborg, Aarhus and Fredericia, and like those who commenced the voyage from Copenhagen, landed in Kiel, whence they traveled by rail to Altona. After the emigrants, numbering nearly six hundred souls, had gone on board, together with about forty steers and several hundred sheep (which made the atmosphere on board anything but comfortable for the emigrants), the ship Roland sailed from Hamburg May 1st about midnight. The weather was very fine, but the emigrants, in their crowded quarters, nevertheless, were uncomfortable. Early on Sunday morning, May 3rd, the Roland cast of Grimsby, and a little later sailed to the wharf, where most of the emigrants landed, with some of their baggage; the balance of the baggage, together with forty of the brethren, remained on board as the ship went to Hull, where they arrived at 6 o'clock in the evening and remained on board all night. The next morning (May 4th) a small steamer ran up to the side of the Roland and took the rest of the baggage, belonging to the emigrants, back to Grimsby, while the forty brethren went to the same place by rail. Elder Carl C. N. Dorius, however, remained in Hull where he, about 11 o'clock the same day, received some emigrants (seven adults and six children) who arrived direct from Stavanger, Norway, per steamer Skandinavien. In the afternoon, after settling with the captain of the steamer for their passage, Brother Dorius led these emigrants by steamer and train to Grimsby, where they were united with the other emigrants. At Grimsby the emigrating Saints were made quite comfortable in a large building erected for the use of emigrants. On the 6th all the emigrants, except the Norwegians, made themselves ready for the journey to Liverpool. They left, nearly seven hundred strong, by rail for that city at 5 o'clock in the afternoon. A young Danish sister who was sick was carried in a chair into the cars.

President George Q. Cannon organized the company on the B. S. Kimball, with Elder Hans Peter Lund as president, Elder Peter Beckstrom and Christoffer S. Winge were chosen as his counselors. Elder P. Wilhelm Poulsen was appointed secretary for the company, which was divided into seven districts with a president and a captain of guard over each. Other helps were also appointed. Both ships sailed from Liverpool on the 8th of May. Four deaths occurred on board the B. S. Kimball during the voyage; two children were born and the following couples were married: Christoffer S. Winge and Anna Marie Salvesen, John Ness and Christine Andersen, Jorgen Dinesen and Christine Christensen, Soren Petersen and Ane Nielsen, Soren Mikkelsen and Christine Weibel, J. H. Hendricksen and Maren Rasmussen, Rasmus Nielsen and Maren Sorensen, Lars Gustaf Bergstrom and Johanna Engstrom, Peter Christian Steffensen and Mariane Berthelsen, S. J. Christensen and Ane M. Nielsen, Niels Larsen and Wilhelmine Hovinghoff.

The B. S. Kimball cast anchor in the harbor of New York in the evening of Saturday, June 13th, and on the 15th the passengers were permitted to go ashore. In the evening of the same day the emigrants continued by train to Albany. There a fine boy was born. The company then proceeded to Florence, Neb., from which place the journey across the plains was commenced in connection with the other company from Scandinavia. —History of the Scandinavian Mission —Jenson.

1864. April 5. A small company of Saints bound for Utah, sailed from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, under the direction of John Talbot.

April 10. The barque Susan Pardew sailed from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, with a small company of Saints under the direction of Elders Wm. Fotheringham and Henry A. Dixon. They arrived at Boston after 60 days' voyage.

April 28. The Monarch of the Sea, sailed from Liverpool England, with 973 Saints, under the direction of Patriarch John Smith. It arrived at New York June 3rd. and the emigrants reached Wyoming, Neb., in safety.

May 21. The General M'Clellan sailed from Liverpool, England, with 802 Saints, under the direction of Thomas E. Jeremy, Joseph Bull and Geo. G. Bywater. It arrived at New York June 23rd, and the company arrived at Wyoming July 3rd.

June 3. The Hudson sailed from London, England, with 863 Saints, under the direction of John M. Kay. The company arrived at New York July 19th, and at Wyoming Aug. 2nd.

Following is a story as told by Mary Roberts Roskelley, who was born November 22, 1843, in Eglysbath, Denbigh, Wales:

We left the old home at Eglysbath about the 17th of May in 1864 in the night time. We traveled about 20 or 30 miles and reached the coast about the middle of the night. The next morning we boarded the steamship and reached Liverpool in a couple or three hours. Here we stayed for about two days and on the 21st of May at 4 p.m. we boarded the ship McClellan and sailed for America.

The next morning after we boarded the ship we looked back but could see nothing of our old England. We had been on the ship about 15 or 20 days when a storm, almost a hurricane, overtook us and the rocking of the great ship caused great excitement among the passengers. My parents took steerage passage while my brother John went one story below us with the other small boys to bunk. When the storm came up mother was worried about John sleeping down there and made him a bed on the trunks and boxes in her room. These were placed in a row down the middle of the room between braces while the bunks were in rows on each side of the wall. I remember well how some people were crying, some praying and some singing all night as long as the storm lasted. We got John to bed and the girls went to bed on one side while the married folks had their bed on the other side of the room. When we were all settled as best we could for the rocking of the ship and the seasickness among us, there came an extra swell of the sea. The ship rocked slowly, then lurched, which landed John, bed and all down on the floor among the buckets and shoes, etc. and rolled him under the bunks. Mother started up and cried "O my boy, my boy." Father said in his quiet way, "Oh never mind mother, he'll come back when we roll the other way." But she thought he must have rolled out of the ship into the ocean.

Well when the ship slowly rolled back, here came John from under the bunks, with bedding and buckets and mother grabbed him. When the excitement cooled down a little, they took John and tied him down to the boxes and posts and we spent the night in peace. This storm lasted for about three days and two nights. We reached New York on the 21st of June. When we sighted the hills of America a great shout of "America, America" went up from the eager throng and there was singing and rejoicing all day. The ship was anchored for the night and the next morning we were put on a small steamboat and carried to shore. We were taken into a large inspection room. Father went first, the children next and mother brought up the rear. The inspector looked at father and asked him where his wife was. "Six," he said "Back there." He looked us all over and said, "You'll do" and passed us.

In a day or two we embarked on a boat and sailed up the Hudson River to Albany. On each side of the river were beautiful homes and we feasted on the beautiful scenery on either side. We boarded the train from there to Lake Erie. Reaching there we changed cars. The president of the company warned us we may have trouble here, but to remain silent. We left the train here and were met by a mob armed with lumber edging which they hit us with. Some of them said not to hit the girls, but to get that old man. We finally reached our train, and after boarding it were taken on to it, train and all to cross the lake. Early in the morning we were all tired and lounging in our seats. The Canadians came to meet the train with great baskets full of different kinds of sandwiches to treat their fellow countrymen. The two men that came to our car came up to mother who was always awake and asked her where her family was. She pointed to the four children and said "These are mine and fathers." He filled her lap with sandwiches. When father and the children awoke and saw what the Canadians had done he said, "Well you can give me the petticoat government. It's the best yet." —D.U.P. Files

1865. April 10th. The brig Mexicano sailed from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, with 47 Saints on board, under the presidency of Miner G. Atwood, bound for Utah. The Company arrived in New York, June 18th.

April 29th. The Belle Wood sailed from Liverpool with 636 Saints on board, bound for Utah, under the direction of Wm. H. Shearman. The company landed at New York June 1st, and arrived at Wyoming, Neb., on the 15th.

May 8th. The packet ship B. S. Kimball sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with 557 Saints, under the direction of Anders W. Winberg. The company landed in New York June 15th and arrived at Wyoming June 26th.

May 10th. The David Hoadley sailed from Liverpool, England, with 24 Saints, under the direction of Wm. Underwood.

Oct. 17th. The barque Albert sailed from Melbourne, Australia, with a small company of Saints bound for Utah.

From the story of a passenger on the Belle Wood:

Martha Burrows Taylor, eldest child of Thomas and Mary Burrows was born at Kinton, Warwickshire, England, August 31, 1839. Very little is known concerning the hardship and struggle of Martha's younger life. She was baptized a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints at an early age. The missionaries from Utah were often visitors at the Burrows' home and later at the Conference House, where they were cared for by Mother Burrows. During these years Martha gained a strong testimony of the truth of the gospel and looked forward to the time when she could join the Saints in the Valley of the Mountains.

This great desire was realized April 29, 1865. The name, Martha Burrows, spinster, age 26—passage paid, 3 pounds, 18 shillings—appeared on the ship's listing of the Belle Wood a 2500-ton sailboat which sailed from Liverpool, England, at 4 o'clock that afternoon for America. Alone but unafraid, Martha faced the future courageously. Little did she realize that her future husband, Charles Barber Taylor, was returning to America on the same boat after completing a three-year mission in England.

It is interesting to note the organization of the Saints on board the Belle Wood. An unusual account of the crossing is given in a letter which was written to Presidents Young and Wells, by the presiding brethren of the vessel. Taken from the Millennial Star, it follows in part:

"We had the pleasure of clearing the ship Belle Wood for the port of New York on Saturday, the 29th. On the morning of that day, President Wells, accompanied by a number of Elders, went on board, for the purpose of organizing the ship's company. The weather was very propitious and about noon a meeting was held on deck. Instructions suitable to the position of the Saints were given by President Wells and the ship was dedicated and consecrated to the Lord, for the purpose of conveying the Saints, after which Elder William H. Shearman was appointed president of the company, and Elders Charles B. Taylor and William S. S. Willes, his counselors."

From another letter to Presidents Wells and Young:

"After the departure of yourselves and the Elders who accompanied you, from your visit to our vessel in the Mersey, we all stood gazing after you with emotions only known to Saints who have long enjoyed each others society, until your forms were no longer distinguishable, when we turned our attention to the practical duties before us, and proceeded to get the baggage below and all made secure for the night. We then held a council meeting at which time the ship was divided into nine wards....

"Most people were too sick to attempt to hold meetings the next day and those who were well were busily occupied in ministering to the comfort of the others. The number of aged, feeble and sick rendered it necessary to appoint some persons whose special business it should be to attend to them. Accordingly, Elder William Willes and a female Sanitary Committee consisting of sisters Cecilia Campbell, Sister Wixey and Eliseman Savage was appointed to that important labor of love. This office they cheerfully accepted and faithfully performed the onerous duties devolving on them, dispensing sego, tapioca, arrowroot, hot tea, coffee, soup, boiled rice and dried apple sauce, with other little luxuries which were carefully prepared and proved very nourishing to the invalids. By the kindness of Captain Freeman in permitting these foods to be prepared in his own galley, it enabled us to supply the sick with a little refreshment at an earlier hour than could have been done at our own fire, which was a source of much comfort to many in a debilitated condition....

"To supply the Saints with regular meals an organization of brethren for cooking was formed. Elders Shaw and Holt were appointed superintendents to preside alternately and direct the labors of Brothers May, Wise, South, Richards and Bowen, who were very vigilant and patient in the discharge of their duties, supplying three good meals a day. The Saints were notified to prepare their dishes, which were brought to and taken from the galley by brethren appointed for that purpose from each ward. The wards cooked in rotation commencing with the First Ward one morning, and the Ninth the next.

"Our first Sunday meeting May 7th, by permission of the Captain, was held on the quarterdeck where the mate, Mr. Graystone, had prepared a pulpit by spreading the Union Jack on the harness cask, and had also arranged seats for the accommodation of the Elders. The ship's bell was tolled for half an hour previous to each meeting. The Captain, officers, and as many of the crew as could conveniently do so favored us with their presence and paid marked attention. It is but justice to the officers of the ship to state that during every meeting which was held upon deck, they maintained the strictest order and decorum among the crew. The sacrament was administered and addresses were given by several of the Elders. The spirit of the Lord was copiously poured out upon both speakers and listeners. The speeches were powerful, animated and instructing, inspiring each heart to renewed diligence and faithfulness and were very comforting to the afflicted.

"Brothers Fowler, Palmer and Stonehouse were appointed to make arrangements for social parties for the recreation of the Saints, at which well selected pieces were recited and anthems, songs, both spiritual and secular were executed in a very creditable manner. A small brass band made sweet melody to beguile the leisure hours of our trip. Among the amusements may be classed the publication of a paper entitled the Belle Wood Gazette, Elder George Sims, editor, in which daily appeared sundry communications from different correspondents, poetical contributions, reports of the board of health, lost property, essays, editorials, instructions, etc."

1866. April 30th. The John Bright sailed from Liverpool, England, with 747 (or 764) Saints, under the direction of C. M. Gillet. The company landed at New York June 6th, and arrived at Wyoming June 19th.

May 5th. The Caroline sailed from London, England, with 389 Saints, under the presidency of Samuel H. Hill. It arrived at New York June 11th, and the company continued the journey by steamboats and railroad to Wyoming.

May 23rd. The American Congress sailed from London, England, with 350 Saints under the direction of John Nicholson; it arrived at New York July 4th, and the emigrants reached Wyoming July 14th.

May 25th. The Kenilworth sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with 684 Scandinavian Saints, under the direction of Samuel L. Sprague. The company landed in New York July 17th and arrived at Wyoming July 29th.

May 30th. The Arkwright sailed from Liverpool, England, with 450 Saints, under the direction of Justin C. Wixom. It arrived at New York July 6th.

May 30th. The Cornelius Grinnel sailed from London, England, with 26 Saints. They arrived at New York July 11th.

June 1st. The Cavour sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with 201 Scandinavian Saints, under the direction of Niels Nielsen. The company arrived in New York, July 31st, and at Wyoming, Aug. 11th.

June 2nd. The Humboldt sailed from Hamburg, Germany, with 328 Scandinavian Saints, under the direction of Geo. M. Brown. The company arrived in New York, July 18th, and at Wyoming, Aug. 1st.

June 6th. The St. Mark sailed from Liverpool, England, with 104 Saints, under the direction of A. Stevens, and arrived at New York, July 26th.

Olof Jenson, a passenger on the Humboldt tells his story:

I was baptized a member of the Mormon Church at the age of ten years, by E. S. Greco, at Ostra Torp, Sweden. Shortly after, sometime between the 10th and 15th of May, 1866, we left our home, which had previously been sold and the furniture auctioned off. This was the beginning of a long journey, for our destination was Utah. We traveled by team to Malmo.

Around three sides of the city of Malmo there is a canal several hundred feet wide and the other side is bounded by the ocean. While in Malmo awaiting transportation, a few of us boys were playing in a boat that was tied to one side of the canal. While we were playing, the boat broke loose and floated down the stream. After some time, we were rescued by a party on the canal, and brought back. From Malmo, we went to Copenhagen by steamboat, and from there, by steamboat to Hamburg, Germany. June 2, 1866, we boarded a sailing vessel, the Humboldt as steerage passengers, to cross the Atlantic Ocean to America.

The food on the boat consisted of soup, potatoes, beans, fish, bread, or hardtack biscuits. The cooking was done in iron pots so large the cook could get inside. No bread was made on the ship, the biscuits having been made months before and were extremely hard and dry. The potatoes were sour and soggy. The drinking water was taken from the River Elbe, in Germany, put in wooden barrels, that had been burned on the inside, and was as black as coal, when we drank it. Water was also put in large iron barrels, holding about five hundred gallons, and when the water from the wooden barrels was exhausted, the water from the iron barrels was used. This was red with rust. Pigs would object to the food and water but had to take it.

The beds on the ship were made of common lumber, with room for four in width and were two tiers high. There were about three hundred L.D.S. emigrants in the company. We had a good trip except for fog as we neared the Newfoundland Coast, where another sailing vessel ran into us causing slight damage to our ship. When we were in mid-ocean, I did a boyish prank. Outside under the bow of the vessel, where anchor and chains are hung, I ventured out unknown to my parents or anyone else. I sat there for some time and I was able to see beneath a part of the vessel as the boat plowed through the ocean. This was a very dangerous thing for me to do. Had I slipped and fallen into the ocean, no one would have known what had become of me. But I climbed back safely.

We were six weeks crossing the Atlantic Ocean and were glad when we reached Castle Garden, New York, where we stayed for three days. We all had to pass a doctor's inspection before landing. Had there been any contagious diseases on board, we would not have been allowed to land. We left New York City and went up the Hudson River in a boat to Albany, New York, where we were put in very dirty cattle cars. After many days, we reached St. Louis, Mo. having changed cars at Chicago, Ill. We went in a paddle wheel steamer up the Missouri River to Florence, Nebraska, now called Omaha, where we remained two weeks waiting for oxteams from Salt Lake City.

1867. June 1. The Hudson sailed from London, England, with 20 Saints bound for Utah. The vessel arrived at New York July 19.

June 21. The steamship Manhattan sailed from Liverpool, England, with 480 Saints, under the direction of Archibald N. Hill. It arrived in New York July 4th.

1867 was the first year since the introduction of the Perpetual Emigrating Fund that teams and wagons did not go back to the railroad terminus to meet the Saints and escort them to Utah. Thus, immigration was not only very small, but considerably hampered. Only one chartered ship, the Manhattan, with 480 Saints under the direction of returning missionary Archibald N. Hill, made the journey. And one organized company of 500 under Leonard G. Rice left North Platte on August 8th, arriving in the Valley in October. One other ship, the Hudson, with 20 Saints aboard, sailed independently, arriving on July 19th. While the lack of organization did not prevent many independent groups from making their way across the plains, it did open the way for the various kinds of depredations to occur which had heretofore been more or less preventable, and the hardships suffered by those who did come, impressed the authorities with the necessity of renewing their help for future immigrants.

1868. June 4th. The packet ship John Bright sailed from Liverpool, England, with 722 Saints under the direction of James McGaw; the company arrived at New York July 13th, and at Laramie City, on the Union Pacific Railroad, 573 miles west of Omaha, July 23rd.

June 20th. The packet ship Emerald Isle sailed from Liverpool, England, with 876 Saints under the direction of Hans Jensen Hals, arrived at New York harbor after an unpleasant voyage, August 11th. The emigrants landed August 14th and arrived at Benton on the Union Pacific about 700 miles west from Omaha August 25th. There were 37 deaths.

June 24th. The packet ship Constitution, the last sailing vessel which brought any large company of Saints across the Atlantic, sailed from Liverpool, England, with 457 British, Swiss and German Saints, in charge of Harvey H. Cluff. It arrived at New York Aug. 5th, and the immigrants continued by rail to Benton.

June 30th. The steamship Minnesota, with 534 Saints, under the direction of John Parry, sailed from Liverpool, England. It arrived at New York July 12th, and the immigrants reached Laramie City July 22.

July 14th. The steamship Colorado sailed from Liverpool, England, with 600 Saints, under the direction of Wm. B. Preston. It arrived at New York, July 28th, and the company reached Benton, Aug. 7th.

From the history of Caroline Henrietta Lind we learn of the voyage of the Emerald Isle:

Saturday June 13, 1868, 630 emigrants left Copenhagen on the steamship, Hansia and arrived in Hull, England, Tuesday 16, 1868. The same evening they took passage on the railroad to Liverpool. Upon arriving there they were housed in 7 Hotels, where they were poorly treated. On the 19th they went on board the sail ship the Emerald Isle. There were 627 Scandinavians and 250 English emigrants under the direction of Elder Hans Jensen Hals as president and Counselors J. Smith and John Fagerberg with Elder Peter Hansen acting as provision dealer. Arriving at Queenstown they remained three days, which proved anything but pleasant as the emigrants were roughly treated by the ship crew. Seldom had Latter-day Saints suffered as much as did those who were the last to cross the Atlantic with sail ships. It was not only rough handling of the Saints that made it so unpleasant and hard to bear, but the water became so rank that it caused many of the emigrants to sicken. In all, 37 died, most of them children,—from measles and bad water. Among the dead was Marinus Lind, 13-month-old son of Mr. & Mrs. Lind. The family was greatly grieved at having to wrap him in canvas and bury him at sea.

1869. June 2nd. The Guion & Co's. steamship Minnesota sailed from Liverpool, England, with 338 Saints, under the direction of Elias Morris. It arrived at New York June 14th.

July 15th. The steamship Minnesota sailed from Liverpool, England, with 598 Saints, mostly from Scandinavia, under the direction of O. C. Olsen. The company arrived at New York July 28th, and at Taylor's Switch, near Ogden, Aug. 6th.

July 28th. The fine steamship Colorado sailed from Liverpool, England, with 365 Saints, in charge of John E. Pace. The company arrived at New York about Aug. 10th, and at Ogden Aug. 20th.

August 25th. The steamship Minnesota sailed from Liverpool, England, with 443 Saints, in charge of Marius Ensign. The company arrived at New York Sept. 6th, and at Ogden Sept. 16.

September 22nd. The steamship Manhattan sailed from Liverpool, England, with 239 Saints, in charge of Joseph Lawson. The company arrived at New York Oct. 7th, and at Ogden Oct. 16th.

October 6th. The steamship Minnesota sailed from Liverpool, England, with 294 Saints, in charge of James Needham. The company arrived at New York Oct. 17th, and at Ogden Oct. 28th.

From the history of one who sailed on the Colorado:

On Wednesday morning, July 28th, 1869, after bidding farewell to their families, friends and native land, Janett Gallacher and eight other Scottish Saints boarded a boat at Glasgow and under the direction of John E. Pace sailed down the River Clyde. Reaching Liverpool that same afternoon, they embarked on the fine steamship Colorado for America. The voyage was wonderful, no storms being encountered during the entire trip.

Upon arrival at New York in the afternoon of August 10th, they prepared to stay in Castle Garden all night, as their train did not leave until the next afternoon. The Saints were all very hungry, having had nothing to eat since their dinner the day before, and none of them had any money. None, that is, but Janett Gallacher. She thought of the two fifty-cent pieces tucked in her bosom, which had been given to her by two little girls at the time of her departure from Scotland. When she looked again at the hungry Saints, she crossed the street and bought one dollar's worth of cheese and crackers, which supplied them with food until their train arrived.

The little group reached Ogden August 20, 1869, on one of the first trains to cross the nation on the new transcontinental railway.

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