Scandinavian Voyage Narratives (1852-1868)
from first hand accounts.


Click on a Ship Name/Year to find a description of the voyage and possibly a narrative on the overland route.


 
 

Athena Voyage of 1862

Autobiography of Ola Nilsson Liljenquist
as contained in Tullidge’s Quarterly Magazine 4:1 (July 1881) pp.572-73.
 

April 21st, 1862, I left Copenhagen the second time, for Zion, in charge of a company of Saints, numbering four hundred and eighty-four souls.  This was the fourth and last company that started from Copenhagen to Zion in the spring of 1862.  I left, feeling exceedingly grateful for the power and graces that had been bestowed upon us while we had been bearing our testimonies to tens of thousands of people and felt that our garments would be unspotted from their blood in the great day of judgment.  The Lord has blessed our feeble efforts with much fruit, but we felt that the harvest would be great though the laborers few.  The company [p.572] arrived at Hamburg on the 22nd, and were taken by boat five miles up the Elbe, where we embarked on a German emigrant ship, a large sailing vessel, called the Athenia.  We set sail on the morning of the 24th.  We learned before we reached New York, to our sorrow, the difference of the German laws and the English in fitting out an emigrant ship for its long voyage.  In the first place, the water for use on shipboard, taken in on the Hamburg Elbe, rotted long before we reached our destination; the provisions were of a very inferior kind,  and the way it was cooked was still worse, and then not half enough of it as it was.  The captain said he carried emigrants across the Atlantic twenty-six.   He showed me the irons and hand-cuffs he used to put upon the emigrants when they were not servient of his will,  and stated that he use to cut off the finest head of hair from the girls, and said he would treat us the same if we did not honor him as the sole chief, and quit finding fault with the treatment we had.  One Sunday afternoon, after we had concluded our religious  services, I suppose through jealousy and for not having any influence with the Saints, he threatened to throw me overboard, and I suppose would have carried out his purpose in a crazy fit, had he dared to.  Measles broke out among us and thirty-five deaths occurred, as the result of bad water and food.  Finally, after seven weeks at sea, we arrived at New York, where we took the car for St. Joseph, and from there by steamer to Florence.  Horace S. Eldredge was the emigration agent at New York and he arranged everything well for us.  At Florence we had a very long delay, and several deaths occurred.  The four companies were made into two at Florence,  C. A. Madsen was appointed captain of one, and myself of the other; and our great chief, John Van Cott, presided over both, as we traveled close together.  We arrived safely at Salt Lake City, September 22nd, 1862. . . . [p.573]

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Reminiscences and diary of Martin Peterson Kuhre
pp. 41-45,48.
 

 At one o’clock we sailed with the steamer "Aurora.  We had a pleasant voyage and arrived at Kiel the 18th in the morning at six o’clock.  We came to the railroad and arrived at Altona.  It took four hours, it is 14 miles. We stayed there seven hours.  Was transported aboard in a little or coast [UNCLEAR] together with our baggage and was towed out to the large emigrant ship.  We came aboard in the evening and got bunk together with Sister Karen and came to house.  I was glad and happy because the Lord had [p.40] blessed me with a good wife to whom I could present my love and assistance.  She was able to comfort and make sweet unto me life with her sincere heavenly love.

 April 1862, 19th.  We fixed our baggage
 20th. The Sabbath.  We had meeting aboard.  District Presidents were appointed and I was appointed as overseer over the lanterns.  My beloved wife and I rejoiced together.

21st.  We were still in harbor at Gluckstad.  We had meeting.

22nd.  Changed a dollar and brought bread and some things.

23rd.  We were still in harbor at Gluckstad on account of contrary winds.

24th.  The same.

25th.  Hoisted anchor in the morning with good wind and stood out.  We were tugged out in the forenoon.  My beloved wife was taken seasick and had to go to bed.

26th.  Good wind.  My beloved wife kept a bed all day and was sick.

27th.  Sabbath.  Calm all day.  Meeting on the deck.  My wife was up and enjoyed the sea.

28th.  Good wind and rough.

29th.  Good wind.  Everything well aboard.  We got in sight of Scotland in the afternoon.  Passed [-] lighthouse in the evening and [-] islands at 12 o’clock at night.

30th.  Heavy sea with contrary wind further on in the day.  Pretty much all were seasick.  My wife was very sick.  Laid in bed all day.

May 1862.  The first of May.  The same kind of weather.  My wife was very sick and had to keep in bed all day.  Thanks to the Lord that I am strengthened and am able to help her.

2nd.  Same wind, but could manage to steer over high seas.  It blew terribly.  We sailed with reef sails.  My beloved wife was very sick.  Between 4 and 5 in the afternoon she said that now she did not feel like she could live any longer.  Her pulse beat fast and seemingly death was painted in her face.  I pressed her to my bosom and pressed a kiss upon her ice cold lips and my heart bled with the thought of losing her, the dearest I had in the world.  She expressed what was the desire of her heart.  "My Father let me live to remain with him.  I love him dearly."  I sprang out of bed.  Her pulse was stopped.  I took some wine and water and got her to drink it and it seemed she felt a little easier about the heart.  The Lord heard the silent prayers of our hearts and spared her life, thanks to His name eternally.  She is all the time very weak and cannot retain anything on her stomach.  The most of the Saints are very sick.

3rd.  We are steering the course.  It is blowing almost a storm.  We are sailing with bram  sail.  We have seen other ships with reefed sails.  My wife is yet very sick.  Oh, Lord, assist her and spare her life and bring us to Zion.
 

4th.  Sabbath.  Good wind and we are steering our course.  My beloved wife had to keep her bed.

5th.  My wife was up and was on half deck.  Found herself pretty well.  It was almost a storm but we went with [-].  In the afternoon we went with a side wind and we came very far towards the north. [p.41]

6th.  Wind full towards the north till pretty near the evening.  It blew hard and we made pretty good speed.  My wife better, thanks to the Lord.

7th.  About the same kind of wind and the ship went with the waves at a good speed.  It blew hard.

8th.  It blew hard.  We went along and several ships were passed that sailed with reefed sails.  My wife was lying all day.  In the evening we reefed sail.

9th.  Almost a storm.  Meeting aboard.  Hans Anderson and I administered and blessed a child who died half an hour after meeting.  It was Jens Mats child, a boy.  My wife well.  I got a pair of dried bacon for Trine.  It tasted splendid.  Thanks be to the Lord for it.  Rain and sharp wind from the west.

10th.   My wife was up.  Wind was west/southwest.

11th.  Splendid weather.  We were steering and we had a good meeting of the Saints on deck on quilts and blankets.  I preached, requested by our President Brother Liljenquist.  I felt blessed.  Brother Anderson, H. P. Moller and Liljenquist preached.  We did not get the meeting dismissed as the wind increased and as waves grew high and frightened some of the weakest of the Saints into gathering their clothes together.  I talked with Trine and was lying on the bed clothes on deck and we talked over where we should ship in the evening.  I went up to the brethren and thence down to my bed.  They had to set out bram sail and store sail.  The kaiver sail was broken during the night.  We continued and sailed south/southwesterly.  My wife kept in bed.  Oh, my Lord, strengthen her both spiritually and bodily.

13th.  Calm.  My wife was up and better.  I got a pan and fried bacon again.  The steward of the ship gave it to me, God bless him for it.  It tasted splendidly in the circumstances in which we were in.

14th.  Easterly wind.  Tail sail out.  My wife was better and up, the Lord be thanked.

15th.  Contrary wind.  Good weather.  My wife on deck in bed clothes.  Considerable sickness on board.  One man died.  17 (or 27) years old.  A child also, 7 years old.  In the evening I was up to see them sink in their watery grave.

16th.  My wife also up.  I was washing.  The steward gave me peas for dinner.  They tasted splendidly.  Otherwise we should have had rotten cabbage.  He gave me also some potatoes for evening and a big piece of pork of which I fried some for supper.  A child died.

17th.  Contrary winds and sharp.  Almost a storm.  My beloved wife well.  I got some cod fish from the cook in the evening.  The Lord bless him for his goodness towards us.

18th.  The Sabbath.  An old lady died during the night.  Westerly wind and foggy air.  Two children [-].

19th.  One child died during the night.  A man died.  Calm and warm and many sick.  My beloved wife well.

20th.  Calm and warm.  The guard was angry with Brother Halmstead.   Brother Halmstead asked his pardon.  In the evening there was music and dancing on the half deck.  Most of them participated in the dance even though their wives and everything that would keep them there was about dead.  I and my wife were lookers on to all this.

21st.  Still calm and warm.  A child died. [p.42]

22nd.  A sharp wind.  A woman and a boy 16 years old dies and a child.  My beloved wife was seasick.  Oh Lord, assist her.

23rd.  A child died last night.  Calm in the forenoon.  Storm in the afternoon and good wind.  This man has lost three children, Carl John Mork. [POSSIBLY, Mark]

24th.  Four children died last night.  Jens Poulson's [Poulsen] two sisters and wife and a child died.  My beloved wife is not well today.  Oh Lord, restore her I ask Thee in the name of thy beloved son, Jesus Christ, and bring us to Zion for thy mercy's sake.  The wind calm today.  Last night, rain, thunder and lightning.  My beloved wife very sick of diarrhea.  We got some wine soup from the captain.  It strengthened her very much.

25th.  My dear wife has been very sick during the night.  Brother Moller's boy brought us a sugar dipped in opium from the captain to ease it.  The wind northeast and sharp breeze.  One child died during the night.  My wife got a cup full of something that Brother Nielsen called liquor.  Something unpleasant to drink but I hope it will help her.  My beloved wife is still very sick.  I got some pancakes for her from the cook.  She ate a little of them.

26th.  Two children died.  The wind calm.  My wife better.  She got some warm wine and it did her good.  In the afternoon she was worse.  We brought the midwife and asked her assistance.

27th.  My wife was very sick.  Oh, Lord, assist her.  The midwife counseled to bleed her which was done twice on one arm but did not get any blood.  Niels Johansen brought blood from the other arm.  The wind easterly and a slow breeze.

28th.  My dear wife very sick.  I am downcast, but my hope is to the Lord that He will raise her and turn her sufferings into joy in the coming days.  She cannot retain food and is all the time writhing and in pain. A woman died today.  Good wind, the Lord be thanked, but almost a storm.  Four bram sail blown to pieces.  The ship is going at the rate of 11 1/2 miles in four hours.  The wind went west and the mar sails reefed for the first time on the voyage.  High seas and the ship working heavily.

29th.  My beloved wife a little better but she can still take nothing of such as I can get her to strengthen the weak body.  I fried a few potatoes for her.  She ate a few of them.  Oh, my God, spare her life.  Hear or hear thy humble servant's prayer for the dearest which thou hast given me on earth.  The wind blew considerably, but we had lots of sail up.

30th.  My beloved wife was a little better;  a little.  The wind was westerly.  Four children died today.

31st.  Calm.  My dear wife was a little better today, thanks to the name of the Lord eternally.
 June 1862.  The first of June, the Sabbath.  The wind south and calm.  Was together with a ship from Bremmen by the name of "Helena.  Our captain visited them and they visited us.  My beloved wife better today but must all the time keep in bed.  I cooked a little chicken broth for her today from the table of the captain.  She had wished it so long and she enjoyed it so well, thanks to the Lord as we have to acknowledge His hand in all things.   Meeting on deck.  Brother Liljenquist preached and we had a blessed day and fine weather.  A child died during the night.

2nd.  Foggy weather.  A girl died today.  My dear wife is better day by day.  I got a little food for her from the captain's table.  It strengthened her bodily. [p.43]

3rd.  The same foggy weather and calm.  Everything well aboard except a little sickness but not so bad as has been.  There happened a little between my dear wife and myself on account that we did not always deal as wisely as we ought.  We got it settled but not without tears on both sides.  The Lord give us mercy to deal more according to wisdom as we do love one another so sincerely.

4th.  Foggy.  We passed two steamers.  We had good wind all the time but foggy weather.  My dear wife better every day.  Two children died today.

5th.  My dear wife very sick.  The ship rocked very much and is sailing with a good wind and all of us waiting to see land.  I got a little chicken soup from the Captain's table to my beloved Trine.  About 3 o'clock in the afternoon we got land in sight.  Blessed feelings passed through my soul when I saw the land which is the object of my desires and future hopes.  The land where I was to pass through sorrow and joy and whatever comes in life together with this beloved woman the Lord has given me.  Oh my hope is for time and eternity in this land where thousands are flocking to prepare for the millennial morning.  Oh, Lord, hear Thy humble servant's prayer and strengthen and raise my beloved wife.

6th. [-] and cast anchor at 8 o’clock.  We heaved anchor again and sailed up a splendid river and enjoyed ourselves seeing the beautiful forests and landscapes.  My beloved wife was up and rejoiced in union with me.  We passed the doctor and got permission to go right up to New York.   We arrived in the city at
5 in the afternoon.  One child died.  We soon got a little to eat and refreshed ourselves.  In the evening a dance on deck.

7th.  Two children died today; in all 39.  We arrived at Castle Garden and was glad and rejoiced.  We went up and had warm beef.  It did us good after a long voyage.  We went to a hotel and took a nights lodging there.

8th.  Day of Pentecost.  We went around and got us something to eat and looked around a little.

9th.  We came to Castle Garden from the hotel.  Two women had two births during the night in Castle Garden.  We drove from Castle Garden at six in the afternoon to the station in wagons.  We traveled from New York at half past eight in the evening and arrived at Albany at 6:30 in the morning.

10th.  After we had rejoiced very much in seeing this pleasant land, these romantic rocky mountains, the green splendid forests and the fruitful fields; my beloved wife was pretty well satisfied.  We traveled from Albany at 12:30 noon and arrived at Niagara at 11:30 noon on the llth, and rode over the bridge under which the great Niagara water fall is running.  We camped in a green space and ate and drank and looked at this so much spoken of waterfall with great interest.  We left Niagara at 2:30 afternoon and arrived the 12th in the morning at 7:00 at Windsor where we were set over to Detroit by a steamer.  Traveled further at 2 in the afternoon.  A child died in the car where I was.

13th.  A boy of ten years fell out of the car and got his toes of one foot crushed.  We arrived at Chicago at one in the afternoon.  Everything well.  We had splendid cars to ride in.  We left Chicago at 5 in the afternoon and arrived the 14th at Quincy at 2 in the afternoon.  Went aboard in the steamer and sailed along the Mississippi River 20 miles to Hannibal where we lodged in the cars over night. [p.44]

15th.  Sabbath.  We remain in Hannibal.  Bought meat and made soup in the fields.

16th.  We left Hannibal at 5 in the morning and arrived at St. Joseph at 6  in the afternoon.  Camped on a green plain.  A little after midnight we went aboard on a steamer and left St. Joseph the same night.

17th.  We sailed up the Missouri River.  Sister Sophis [Sophie] Olsen died today aboard the steamer about 6 in the afternoon.

18th.  A child died today.  We landed in Florence at 12 midnight.

19th.  We hauled our baggage to the camping place and camped there.

20th.  Attended to necessaries together with my dear wife.

21st.  I made out a note to Brother Niels Johansen calling for 132 dollars American money at 4% interest annually until the same shall be paid.

22nd.  Sabbath.  Meeting under open heaven.  I was not there on account of not feeling well.  I built a bower to protect us from the heat of sun.

23rd.  Very damp.  My beloved wife not well.  I bought an oxen for thirteen dollars.

24th.  Heavy thunder during the night.  The day passed attending to the necessities.

25th.  The same.

26th.  I went out in country a little together with brethren in order to buy cows.  We went 9 ½ (or 4 ½) miles to town by name Gallawan.  We were lying there overnight but went further again in the morning of the 27th without getting any cows.  I bought a good cow on my road home for 20 dollars.  I came home about noon.  This day was my dear wife’s birthday, 24 years old.

28th.  I was looking out for the cow and was looking after the necessities together with my dear wife.

29th.  Sabbath.

30th.  We received our oxen.
 July 1862.  The first of July.  I herded our oxen and our cow.  I was not satisfied with our oxen and gave the brethren to understand it and they thence told me I could have my money back if I desired it.  I concluded that I myself would get my wagon.

2nd.  I went to Omaha in the morning and looked at some wagons but returned without buying any.

3rd.  I bought the one pair of oxen from the brethren and had to give $69.75 for them.  I went out and looked at a cow but went back again without buying it.

4th.  The jubilee of the Americans.

5th.  I and my wife went out and got a cow and gave $15 for it.

6th.  Sabbath.  We wrote some in a letter home to Denmark and herded our stock.

7th.  Nothing remarkable.

8th.  Very strong thunder and two English brethren were killed by the lightning.

 9th.  Rain and we almost swam in water in the tents.  I bought a wagon for $50.

10th.  I set [-] on the wagon and sent the wagon to the smith’s and brought provisions.

11th.  I bought some provisions and fixed for the journey . . . . [p.45]
 . . . [Sept.] 26th.  We reached Salt Lake City....[p.48]

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Benjamin Adams
 

Autobiographical Sketch of Jens Hansen

Autobiographical Sketch (Ms 7550), pp. 6, 8.
LDS Historical Department Archives
 

    We left Denmark and arrived at Liverpool.  Here our son Lars Christian Hansen died the sixteenth of January 1854.  My wife gave birth to another son, who was named Joseph Christian Hansen, born January sixteenth 1854 in Liverpool.  After about two weeks stay, we departed in the sailing vessel Benjamin Adams on which seven or eight hundred Latter-day Saints were passengers.  On this voyage my wife suffered much with sickness which was a great trial for me, as it was difficult to find a woman who nursed, so our little son could be breast fed.  After seven weeks we landed at New Orleans, in the blessed land of America, after having crossed the Atlantic Ocean and up the lovely Mississippi River; on the banks of which beautiful gardens were planted with trees that only can be grown in countries with climates like here.  I felt an inexpressible joy and happiness on entering this beautiful country about which I had read so much.  This country where so many great things had been done.
 We sailed up the river to St. Louis. Here my wife regained her health which was a great joy to me as well as a relief, for now she was able to nurse our baby.  The river banks here were as before, very beautiful.  Orange trees and other fruit trees were growing in the beautiful landscaped gardens.  We now went aboard another steamboat, which sailed up the river to Kansas, where we camped in a forest.  Here my wife received a child whose mother died during childbirth, who with our own child had sufficient breast feeding.  This child's father was Jens Pedersen who had emigrated from Sjaelland.  The child lived however lived [UNCLEAR] only a couple of weeks.  Cholera had just started up the river and the child caught it and died.  Due to this communicative disease my half brother, Jorgen Jacobsen and several of his children, died and was buried in this forest.  A daughter of my brother, Peder Hansen and his wife Karen also died here.  Karen was also very sick, so we naturally thought she would die too.  My brother Peder, her husband, and I even selected a place for her body when we buried their daughter Anne Kirstine, but soon she was better and lived.

    Our camp was soon moved to another forest by the name of Westpole, thinking that it would be more healthy, and the health of the camp seemed to improve now.
 I was appointed captain of the camp, which assignment I had until our arrival at the Great Salt Lake Valley. . . [p.6]

     . . . I feel and understand by all of this, partly the greatness and power of the Lord by viewing his handy work.  We crossed the large and smaller mountains and entered in through Emigration Canyon, where my father came to meet us.  We were very happy to see each other in the camp of Zion, the gathering place of God’s children.  My father had now another wife by the name of Dorthea.  My mother had died aboard the ship that took them from England To America, but because they were so close to land she was buried in America.  October fifth 1854 we came into the Great Salt Lake Valley and the beautiful laid out city.  It was a joy to see and to realize all of the work had already been done in so short a time they had lived in the valley.  I felt very thankful to the Lord for his protection and for the comfortable trip we had with the exception of the trial I went through when he called my wife and little son home and the difficulties with my brother Jorgen P. Hansen.  But the joy and satisfaction of arriving here to Zion healed these wounds. . . . [p.8]

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Rasmus Neilsen Journal, pp. 1-9
Ms 6006 (Typescript), pp. 109 in the LDS Church Historical Department Archives
translated from Danish by his son C. E. Neilsen on March 21, 1902
 

 From Fredericia, journeyed we Dec. 19, 1853, by ferry from Fredericia to Strib, from there with two wagons, to Odense, 2 o’clock p.m.

Dec. 20 We lay in the hotel till 8 o’clock, then to Nyborg on two wagons, arrived 1 o’clock.  On the road visited we our son Hans.  We took steamboat Nyborg to Korsor, 8 o’clock, then with two wagons to Roskilde, arrived 2 o’clock a.m.

Dec. 22  8 o’clock took train for Copenhagen.

Dec. 24 Christmas day we took steamer to Travemunde, took 26 hours.  Same evening we rode to Lubeck.  Travemunde is a small city, but Lubeck is about like Copenhagen. [p.1]
 We traveled on the morning, Dec. 26, with ry. [UNCLEAR] 14 miles to Altona.  We lay there three days.  We had our bills paid and had a good time, saw many wonderful buildings and ships.  We came through one end of Hamburg.  It is curious to see people living 7 or 8 stories up in the air.  We get tired of looking up at them.  Do not know how large Hamburg is; we went through but one end, but Altona is about the size of Copenhagen.  We bought many little things here that were cheap.

Dec. 30 From there by train to Gluckstad.  There we found our company who left Copenhagen the day after us by steamship by way of Kiel and train to Gluckstadt.  We were 400 quartered in a large hall and lay in straw on the floor.  We got dinner four times; the rest we provided ourselves with food.
 We lay there to the 7th of February [January] for the ice was covering the harbor and drifting in the strand.  We can see over the strand 1 mile to Hanover.  Here many things were cheap, such as factory shoes.  Living was dear.  We bought many things here, and if we had known we could have saved half by buying here instead of home.

Jan. 7 6 o’clock a.m. We went on the steamship "Tounsit with our things.  It was wonderful to see the ship breaking through the ice.  Nearly all were seasick.  The bad smell from the machinery, and the stormy weather, and the North Sea that is always rough . . . [TYPESCRIPT NOTES HERE THAT THE REST OF THIS LINE IS NOT LEGIBLE] We were on the water 58 hours and arrived at Hull, England, 4 o’clock after having sailed 150 miles.

    I will here give my recollection of that trip from Germany to England.  The ship was a merchant vessel with no accommodation for passengers, and they were stored away in the hole, and when the storm come, they had to shut down the hatches, and that nearly smothered them.  I and two other boys, one I learned was Peter Christensen from Nephi, was hid on deck near the boiler under some canvas and stayed there all night.  In the morning when they took the hatches [off] of the steam, [it] came up as from a manure pit, and the refuse and liquid was six inches in the bottom of the ship and the sailors drew it up in buckets next morning.  I think a child died that night.  I wonder [why] father passed over that night so lightly and I recollect it so distinctively, that I got but little of it.

    It was wonderful to see so many ships in the English Channel.  In Hull we were but three hours.  We went the same evening by train to Liverpool.  I think Hull is about the size of Copenhagen.  There are ships here in the harbor by the 1,000.  It was bad, we went through England in the night, as we passed many trains and cities and through tunnels and over rivers and lakes.  We rode 44 miles in 7 hours and arrived in Liverpool 3 o’clock a.m., 10th of January.  Here we got beds; the first we have had since we left Copenhagen.  We have had to lay on straw, on boards and boxes, and have had many trials.  Many are sick, but my wife and children are well.  We are furnished here, our food, coffee and white bread for breakfast, soup with beef and potatoes [p.2] for dinner, cakes and coffee and white bread for supper; as much as we want and good grub.  Here cotton goods are cheap, so is lemons and citrons, porcelain and glassware, but eating is dear.  We bought much factory and little things, thread in all colors.  There is no end to see in Liverpool.  It has 500,000 inhabitants and is several miles in circumference.  It has many large stores and factories and buildings not equaled in Denmark, but the most wonderful is the shipping.  I think there are 100 harbors and 1000 ships in each.  I cannot describe all there is to see; great butcher shops, beef  7 cents, pork 8 cents.  We We [SIC] do not see rye bread at all, but wheat bread everywhere.  They mix oat and cornmeal together.  We lay in Liverpool 15 days.

    The 22nd, which is Sunday, we went aboard 10 a.m. the large three mastered ship, Benjamin Adams.  We have good accommodations and good beds.  We got our provisions;2 ½ pounds white bread, oat meal, wheat meal, tea, sugar, salt--more than we need--and 3 gallons water.  We can go ashore each day if we want to.  People bring things to sell.  We can now have meetings, sing, and pray as we will.

    Friday the 27th was we towed out of harbor by a tug about two miles and lay there.  Was visited with the Rector and 4 families.  Sixteen persons had to go to land and remain till the next company.  The English missionaries visited us, but the worst was we could not converse with them--Brother Richards, President of the English Mission, and Brother Kahn.  And, we have been in meeting with the Saints in England.  Brother Wancot from Copenhagen is here.  We here bought canvas for $1000 for tents in America.  It is cheaper here than in America.  Now that we have rested we have had conference and been laid off in 5 districts with a president for each--Anderson Jargensen [Jorgenson] from Jutland, Lasstroni Windberg from Sweden, and Kalply from Norway.  Many spoke and much good instruction given from time to time.  We are 400 Saints and about 150 Irish Catholics and some first cabin passengers; I don't know how many.  It is beautiful to lay here on the sea between Liverpool and Brunswig.  The water is as broad as Little Belt, 2 English miles.  Brunswig is a city like Copenhagen.  The ships cruise between there by the hundred.  In the evening it is beautiful to see the gaslights on both sides of the channel. Children and grown people go barefooted.  The weather is like the last of May in Denmark.  We are waiting here to sail and hope the wind will soon blow from the east.  Myself and wife and all five children are all well.  Thank the Lord there is no sickness on board.

    The 28th we got 10 pounds bread extra provisions.  It is rye bred that we brought with us from Altona.

 The 31st  we got 5 pounds beef, very good food.  A ship left Liverpool for Amsterdam on the 17th  with 600 passengers.  2 days after it was lost and 450 perished and 150 were saved.  One of them that was saved I have talked with.  He said they drifted one whole day then struck a rock close to shore, and the ship went to pieces by the waves in one hour.  He lost all he had except the clothes he had on. He is going again.  Such [p.3] accounts we hear often in England.

    Feb. 1, 1854:  We had fast day and prayed that we might soon have good wind and the Lord heard our prayers.

    For Thursday, which is Kidamas Day (or Hidamas), 2. Feb., came  a steamer and towed us from England, 7  o'clock a.m.  Beautiful, clear weather as in Denmark midsummer.  Now, may our Heavenly Father give us a safe journey, good wind, luck, and health to get to America.  The boat towed us 76 English miles and left us at 9 o'clock p.m.  Then all sails were set but little wind.  We sailed all night and at noon the 3rd we went by Shetland's large mountains and sand banks.  The weather is calm and the 16 big sails can not move the ship but lays as still as in a wood.

    Friday at 10 o'clock began to blow.

    Saturday we got  a head wind.  We cruised but did not gain any.  On Saturday night and on the 5th which is Sunday we had gone back to where we saw the large banks we had passed.  May God protect us that we do not come to harm.  Most of us are a little seasick as the sea is rough.  We hope it will soon be better.  The wind is not so strong today.  I, my wife, and children are nearly well, and I think the wind will soon be favorable.

    On Sunday morning we passed a large cutter drifting without men or sails.  It had been lost in the storm Saturday night.  It looked awful to see the water washing over it, and the sails and rigging hanging in the water.  Who went down with it, the Lord only knows.  Sunday evening we had a large meeting and wedding of  7 couples; Va Andersen, N. Larsen, and N. Neilsen from Jutland, August Neilsen and Rapsel Wingberg [Windberg] from Sweden, and C. Krupe from Copenhagen.

    On Monday was the wind strong and against us.  In the afternoon a son was born to a sister from Holland.

    Tuesday had good wind, and Wednesday we had good wind.  We are now in the Spanish Sea.

    Thursday we sailed before a good wind.  Nearby a storm; the sea is rough, and the ship rolls much.  The waves go over the deck sometime.  Thursday the weather was nearly still, and we did not come far.  We got extra provisions--1 3/4 pounds rye bread each.

    Friday the 10th died an old lady from Holland.  We had good wind Friday 10th  and sailed 12 miles in the watch with east wind; the best wind we have had.

    Saturday, 11th  of February, we had a right good wind form the south.  One died from Holland.

    Sunday the 12th  Wind southeast--the best wind we could [p.4] have.  The ship travels fast with 19 sails.  This evening it is a pleasure to be out.  We had two meetings today with large attendance.

    Monday the 13th  Right good wind.

    Tuesday the 14th   Wind good but easterly, right in our face.  We got canvas for tents.

    Wednesday, 15  Wind westerly, large waves.  A sister from Saland had daughter.

    Thursday, 16   The wind southwest.  The ship is very uneasy.  The weather is mild.  Wednesday morning saw we a large white mountain south of us.  It belongs to the Portuguese Islands.  We saw a ship like ours, but we sailed past it.  So, we can see that our ship is a good sailor.  We have not seen many ships lately.

    Friday, 17  A strong wind from southwest.  Many got seasick again.  The waves went over the deck.

    Saturday, 18 Wind southerly.  We sailed south westerly.  Wind not so strong.  Good sailing.

    Sunday, 19  Had good wind from the south.  We had good meeting and administered the sacrament.

    Monday, 20  Wind was still, and it was so warm that we must lay off our clothes.  We got extra provisions, 5 pounds beef.  We saw a large steamship today, and ships like ours we seldom see.

    Tuesday, 21   Wind easterly and but little wind, the we sailed well.  We got extra beef, 1 pound each.  We have mild wind.  We are sewing our tents for the plains.

    Wednesday, 22  Wind southwest and poor wind.  One died.  We sailed good northwest.

    Thursday, 23  Wind southwest, we sailed southeast.  We saw a steamship.  One died.  Hard rain.

    Friday, 24  Wind light in southwest.  Much rain.  We did not come far.

    Saturday, 25  Light wind from the east.  Afternoon wind in the north.  Heavy rain, better wind.  We sailed this evening at good speed.

    Sunday, 26  Wind in north and good sailing.  We had a good meeting and two weddings--Soren Larsen from [-] and Neils Clemmensen.

    Monday, 27  Wind light.  Did not go far.

    Tuesday, 28  Light wind from the east, but so warm we could [p.5] not go on the deck barefooted.  One died.

    Wednesday, March 1  Hardly any wind.  Come very little way.  Have our tents ready.

    Thursday, March 2  Wind still in the forenoon.  In the afternoon blew from the north and rained, and we sailed beautifully.  The sailors have been smoking the cabins on account of health in the [-][UNCLEAR].  Wind northeast, right in our backs. We saw many kinds of fish--shark, whale, flying fish.

    Friday, 3  Wind in the east, right on our back.

    Saturday, 4  Wind the same.  We are sailing as good as we can, about 60 miles a day.  We saw one ship like ours.  One died.

    Sunday, 5  Wind east and good.  We saw 3 ships.  We had good meeting.  My wife lost five twenty dollar gold pieces which we were sorry for.

    Monday, 6  Morning saw we land.  It is one of the West Indian Islands.  We saw 4 ships. My wife found the lost money for which we are pleased and thank the Lord.  The three islands we saw were St. Domingo, St. Thomas, and St. Cuba; they belong to our fatherland and are 200 Danish miles from America.  They are south of us.  Wind is east and we are sailing good.

    Tuesday, 7  Morning, saw we land again and a very high mountain a couple of miles south of us.  Wind easterly, and we are sailing well.  Last evening had a dance from 8 to 10 o'clock.

    Wednesday, March 8  Morning we saw Cuba to the north of us with very high hills.  We were but 1 mile from land.  The air was not clear so we could see but sand banks.  Wind east.  Good sailing.

    Thursday, March 9  Was we again Cuba's high mountains that went above the clouds.  Such sight have we never seen before.  The air is not clear so we can see if the land is fruitful, but they are way above the clouds so they are hardly inhabited.  Wind easterly and we are sailing good.  We see ships now everyday.   This afternoon we had council meeting.  The presidents reported their districts.  Some are weak in the faith, and some have not means to take them through.  Hans Jensen from Jutland don't know where he is going, and J. Jespersen the same.  Some lack a little and some have none at all.  President Olsen gave much good counsel.  We must keep each other spiritual as well as temporal.  Want no one to stop at New Orleans as it was a robber town but go as far as St. Louis where there were 4,000 Saints.  Meeting adjourned till Saturday.

    Friday, March 10  We saw Cuba again.  Wind easterly, but light.  Air is heavy with rain.  We are sailing very well but slow.

    Saturday, March 11  Northeast wind and sail northwest very [p.6] well.  An outgoing ship reached us today at noon with Dutch aboard.  We was so near that the captains spoke to each other.  They were about half as many as we. It had three masts was much less than our ship.  We saw a brig, two masts, no passengers, but in ballast.  Five o'clock was council meeting.  The Saints felt better spiritually, but several were short temporally.  President Olsen said that all should try to come up the river from New Orleans to St. Louis, and wanted the Saints in meeting tomorrow to see about the needy and help them.

    Sunday, March 12  We sailed well today.  Tonight we are a long way from that two masted ship that followed us yesterday.  The wind today is northeast.  We sail north northeast.  We had good meeting.

    Monday, March 13  A child died.  Monday morning we saw the last of Cuba.  It was low and flat and many . . . [UNCLEAR].  We have now 200 Danish miles to America.  The wind is north and as much wind as the sails can carry.  We sailed good speed north northeast.

    Tuesday, March 14  Wind same as yesterday.  We sailed past several ships smaller than ours.  The birds are beginning to visit us.

    Wednesday, March 15  Morning wind was still.  Along in the day began to fresh up, toward evening was still again.  An old sister died.  Brother Swen Ladsen from Norway went wrong in his head that we had to watch him.

    Thursday, March 16  Light wind form southwest.  If it would clear up we could see land this evening.  We are sailing north little the last 24 hours.  We drifted back 20 miles.  We have yet 200 miles to America.

    Friday, March 17  Today the wind is favorable.  Are making good time with northwest wind.  A child died.

    Saturday, March 18  Tonight the wind was so strong that we had to take in all the sails.  The wind is not so heavy, but a head wind, so we have to cruise.  Yesterday little Christine's eyes were so poorly that she was quite sick.  She is today a little better.  Thank the Lord the rest are all well.  Many of the Saints are not well.  Some are so weak they can not walk.  Some have their feet swelled that looks like dropsy.  Many are much tired over many things that transpires among us.  The wind is again still, so we are drifting back.

    Sunday, March 19  We have a good wind from southwest, but so foggy we can't see far.  Water is as muddy as at Liverpool. We keep on sailing back and forward.  The Lord knows why he will not allow us to land.  We sail now south then north then east and west.  Today we are fasting and praying for the unclean spirits that many among us are in possession of that the Lord will soon allow us to land.  For 8 days we have not come any nearer.  Our prayer is that the Lord will have mercy and compassion on us.  Four o'clock came a war vessel loaded and went ahead of us to [p.7] America's land.  Five and one half o'clock we first saw the mouth of the Mississippi.  We cast anchor and lay there till morning.

    Monday, March 20  We have splendid weather, a little foggy.  Saw many birds and fish, especially untold seal and many ships.  Seven thirty o'clock came a beautiful steamship like a three story building and took us in tow.  Great relief to our hearts.  It is six weeks and three days since we were towed out of Liverpool Harbor.  We have been about 8 weeks on the ship.  We rejoice now to see the end of the long sea voyage.  Ten o'clock it left us and another with three other ships and took us along.  The beautiful steamship took us and three others and towed us up the Mississippi River.  It was grand to see land on both sides.  We were but a gunshot from land with both sides.  It is like a large swamp full of trees.  Some large and some small trees are floating in the water.  Several lighthouses and a town we passed.  It is still weather and very warm.  Here is many mosquitos.  We travel easterly higher up the river.  We came to small houses and cattle and beautiful green trees.  Eight thirty o'clock all five ships tied up till morning.
 Tuesday, March 21  Six o'clock sailed the steamship with all 4 ships.  We saw today many nice residences and plantations, 2 forts right across from each other, several good harbors, and trees full of oranges, great many wild turkeys.  We saw many wolves and ducks and many birds we did not know.  The land is very flat but little improved.  The water is fresh in the river and runs constantly out in the Spanish Sea.  A great many trees float out with the stream  A good deal of it is taken to land.  After 10 o'clock we passed a large grove on fire.  It looked like a great illumination in the night.

    Wednesday, March 22  Six o'clock we began to sail.  Last night we had the hardest thunder, lightning, and rain that I ever saw.  We saw today many beautiful gardens and sugar plantations.  Horses were small.  We saw cows and sheep.  It is a beautiful sight, so level and flat, so green and fruitful it looks with pretty groves on the plantations.  Saw we the black slaves at work, 30 to 50 in a gang.  On the steamship are 6 blacks.  They do the heaviest work.  They buy them here for $25 each.  Half that we have seen yet are black.  We ran aground but after a couple of hours hard work came off again.  We see . . . [UNCLEAR] yet, but the farther the prettier buildings.  We landed in the harbor of New Orleans 3:30 o'clock.  Two agents from Zion, Brother Brown and one other, came aboard to help for us, and brought word from Zion that all was well.  They took us to a store where we could buy things.  A Brother Olsen together with the agent found soon a steamboat that we will take tomorrow.  Great many came aboard to us.

 Thursday, March 23  We sent in the city and bought things for the journey.  Powdered sugar is cheap--4 cents [a] pound, rice cent [a] pound, butter 12 ½ cents [a] pound.  Two o'clock we went aboard the new steam- [p.8] boat.  The black carried our baggage from one ship to the other.  The sailors on the new ship are better to us than the old.  The black are polite and the folks in the city are accommodating.

 Friday, March 24  We got our provisions aboard and enjoyed ourselves in the nice weather about the city to see the many black people and especially in the harbor we saw many wonderful . . . . [UNCLEAR] on the ships, especially steamers.  The city and streets are not so pretty, but the harbor and the shipping is a delightful sight.  It is quite warm here to go about the city.  Potatoes are not to buy.  They cost $7 a barrel.  Fish we can hardly get with money.  Dress goods are dear.  A pair of boots for myself cost $16, but groceries are cheap, such as sugar and . . . . [UNCLEAR]  Ironware is dear.  Grain is dear.

    Saturday, March 25  It is raining so we must stay aboard.  The marshal have hard work to get all aboard to get ready to sail.  Five o'clock we sailed with the new ship.  It was nice to see beautiful meadows on both sides of the Mississippi River with woods and buildings.  But both land and water are cursed and for that reason it is very unhealthy.  We ran aground tonight and had to have help of another steamship as before.  That and ours worked all night and got off at daylight.  My wife took sick, 11 o'clock this evening with cramps in hands and feet, and so hard taken with diarrhea and vomiting, and at 2 the 26 of March, which is Sunday, she could not talk, but went quite dark on her hands and feet, likewise eyes and mouth and cold all over her body.  She soon got medicine but did no good.  She could not stand to have the clothes on her which we dearly wanted her to have on to keep her warm, but she held her hands in the air as if pointing toward heaven, but now she could not speak.  I gave have her a little wine, sugar, and water as long as she could swallow.  Sunday, March 26th, 2 o'clock p.m. she died peacefully.  The ship carpenter made soon coffin for her.  And in the evening 9 o'clock the ship came to land and we carried her a distance in the woods, 10 men, and dug there a grave for her, and buried her there in all quietness where she can rest in peace till we see each other again in the resurrection.

    Monday, March 27  Quite early, we ran aground but came loose again with our own help.  There are already three dead this morning.  The Lord have mercy on me and my children.

-----------------------

Reminiscences of Anders Wilhem Winberg
Ms 1513 2-3 (Typescript),fd. 3, pp. 3-4.  LDS Church Historical Archives
 

 The company left Copenhagen, Dec. 26, 1853.  There was a great many people to see us off.  When a little distance from the land we all sang.  We were delayed a great many times on the way.  It was a sailing vessel called Benjamin Adams.  I was married on this steamer with some of the others.  The Saints were divided into wards.  We held prayer and meeting every day on our journey.  It was not all pleasure as we had sickness and many deaths.  This is near the last of March and we have had 36 deaths all being buried in the sea.  We reached St. Louis on the 3 of April.  Here we met another company of emigrants who had left before us.  My sister Nora Elizabeth was among these.  She also had married on the way a man by the name of Anders Bertleson.  Many more of the Saints died and many were sick.
 On the 9th of May the company was ready to cross the plains.  There were sixty wagons, which we made into companies, each company having a captain.  I was one of the captains.  Ten wagons to a company. . . . [p.3]

 On the 5th the other wagons drove up and we continued this day, the 5th of October to the city. [MEANING, Salt Lake City] We camped on the then called 17th Ward square where is now the City High School grounds and our journey was at an end. . . . [p.4]
 

----------

Summary of Letter
Millennial Star 16:17 (April 29, 1854), p. 272
 

 Arrival of the Benjamin Adams at New Orleans.  By letter from Elder H. P. Olsen, dated New Orleans, March 25, we learn that the Benjamin Adams, with the second company of Danish and German Saints, arrived at New Orleans, March 22, after a prosperous voyage of forty-five days from Liverpool.  The company generally were in good health, and felt well.  Eight deaths--two of adults and six of children, nine marriages and two births, occurred during the voyage.  Elder Brown, at New Orleans, was rendering the company every assistance in his power.  They expected to leave New Orleans for St. Louis, the day Elder Olsen wrote.  Elder Curtis and company left New Orleans, March 21, all well and in good spirits.
 
 
 

B. S. Kimball
 

Autobiography of Christine M. Larsen Warnick
"History of Christine Marie Larsen Warnick by herself."  In Merrill N. Warnick, Warnick Family History, vol. 1 (Provo, Utah: J. Grant Stevenson, [1967]) p. 253.

    We went next to Hamburg, from which place our company, consisting of Scandinavian Saints, sailed for England, landing at Grimsby on April 18, 1863.  They left Liverpool on 8 May 1863 on the vessel B. S. Kimball and landed in New York on June 15th.  We were eight weeks at sea; our food rations not very appetizing--consisting of sea biscuit, salt meat and dried peas.  It was cooked in the general kitchen and came to us so salty that it could hardly be eaten.  Mother had brought quite a lot of bread and butter and such food as would best carry on such a journey, but it ran short and then, those sea biscuits!  One morning I slept extra long.  When I climbed down from the bunk and told Mother I was hungry she spread a sea biscuit thick with butter and gave it to me.  It looked good but when I bit into it, it was a different story.  I asked if I might have a little piece of our own bread, but it was gone.  I began to cry and wished we would soon be in Zion where we could get some bread.

From New York we went to Florence and from this place we began the long trip across the plains. . .

------------------------------
 

Autobiography of Lars P. Oveson
(formerly in Msd 2050) (typescript), pp. 2-3.
 

    In the Spring of 1863 Father sold his home, and made preparation to emigrate to Utah.  In the early part of April, bade farewell to dear old Denmark, the land of our birth, and after a stormy voyage over the North Sea, landed in Grimsby, England, and by rail from there to Liverpool, where we went on board the old sailing vessel, B.S. Kimball, together with 654 Saints from Scandinavia and Great Britain.  After a voyage of nearly six weeks, we landed in New York on the 15th of June, all well.  We only had three deaths on the voyage, which was considered very fortunate, and we were all glad to set foot on land again.  We left New York the same evening, by rail, for St. Joseph, Missouri, where we was crowded onto a river flatboat, without any railing around the sides.  The engine was fired with wood, and one night they laid to, to take on wood.  We were aroused from our sleep, to clear the way, for the sailors to carry on the wood.  A boy about twelve got up, I suppose half asleep, and walked right into the river and was lost.  The current was so swift that he was swept away in an instant and every effort made to find him was without avail.  This was on the Missouri River from St. Joseph to Florence, Nebraska.  Here we were met by teams, that had been sent from Utah for over a thousand miles, to bring the Saints to Utah.  That year (1863),  there was sent from Utah after emigrants 384 wagons, 488 men, 3,604 oxen, bringing 235,969 pounds of flour.  At Florence we stopped a couple of weeks to clean up and rest for the long overland journey ahead.  On the 6th of July, we started from Florence, with Captain John F. Sanders train of about 50 wagons.  Our teamster's name was Louris Jacobson, of Moroni, his home was later in Pleasant Grove, Utah.  He was a very kind man, and as my mother was not very strong and could not walk much, he was always willing for her to ride.  You can imagine that it was pretty crowded, as there was three [p.2] families in our wagon and as I now remember we were fifteen persons besides the teamsters, with all our belongings.  To me this was a regular pleasure trip.  We hadn't been many days on the road before I had learned the language that it took to drive oxen, and in two or three weeks, I was ready for graduation as a full fledged Bullwhacker.  After long and wearisome journey, we arrived in Salt Lake City on the 5th of Sept.. . .[p.3]

------------------------------
 
 


 

Journals of Hans Peter Lund
Journals (Ms 8941), typescript translation, pp. 79-81, 84.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

    Wednesday 6 at 5 a.m. we left for Liverpool by train.  Str. Else Petersen died at the station.  140 emigrants arrived at went aboard a big ship B. S. Kimball with captain Dearbom. [Dearborn]  May 7 we arranged our things and was piloted out, we arranged us in the best way.  Cannon, Jesse Smith and come more were aboard.  May 8 the officials came and surveyed everybody.  Ole Madsen's child was sick and parents and 2 children had to stay, the rest of the family left.  We had a nice meeting where Cannon and Jesse Smith talked and I was appointed to preside over the Saints to New York, with P. Beck [Beckstrom] and C. Winge as counselors.  J. N. Smith blessed us.

    After they had committed us in the hands of the Lord they left us.  A steamboat took us to Holyhead.  We had a meeting in the evening and we organized the company in 7 wards with each a president.  A. Jorgensen Vogt as captain and he arranged several things.  The Saints were happy and by good health.

    May 7, 4 couples were married: Christoffer Winge and Ane Marie Salvesen, Norway; Johannes Naess and Christine Larsen, Jylland; Jorgen Dinesen and Christine Christensen, Jylland; Soren Petersen and Ane Nielsen, Jylland.

    May 8 Severin Poulsen and Rasmine Vaibel, Jylland; J. H. Hendriksen and Maren Rasmussen, Fyen; R. Nielsen and Maren B. Sorensen, Aarohus Jylland; S. G. Baerenstrom and Johanne Engstrom, Goteborg; P. C. Steffesen and Mariane Bertelsen, Aarhus Jylland; Soren P. Christensen and Ane M. Nielsen, Aarhus Jylland.  We had a nice weather, and we gave out the provisions which was really good, Cannon had bought it, we had meetings every night.

    May 11 it began to get windy.  Sister Wetterlin, Goteborg, had a son, Joseph Kimball.

    May 12 Sister Mikkelsen, Vensyssel, had a daughter.

    May 13 still windy, seasick, unfavorable wind.

    May 14 the weather a little better, not so many seasick.  Sunday May 17  N. M. Skougaards little son from Fredericia died, Daniel Skougaard, he was 6 month old, we had a gathering in the afternoon, nice wind, we went fast.  We get our provisions twice a [p.79] [-]
 The wind is still fine and people are happy.

    Wednesday May 20 Hans Simonsen from Lolland died.  He was 65 years old, he was buried same day.  A seaman stole a coat from Brother H. P. Eriksen.

    May 22 it was found and P. E. got his coat back.  They put a note on the seaman's back with the word THIEF on, and he had to keep it there so everybody could see him.  We did our laundry and cleaned up, we still get provisions twice a week.

    May 24, Whitsun. [PROBABLY MEANING, Whitsunday, THE WEEK BEGINNING WITH PENTECOST]  I was sick.  The wind was unfavorable, during the week the wind got better.

    Sunday 31 we reached the banks.  Heavy fog that lasted for several days, we were sick to our stomachs.  We had gatherings, the districts during Sundays, we felt really strong, we had the best feelings for each other.  The members threw many boxes away to save weight.  We collected something for 4 English brethren, so when they came to America they could go to Florence.

    June 2  David Stuart, 2 years old, from Scotland died.  We still had fog and we saw many ships where people were fishing.  A little bird came and sat on the ship.  People were not seasick any more except for some few, they had an upset stomach.

    Sunday, Jun 7  we had heavy rain, we had a meeting and the Spirit of the Lord was poured over us.  Niels Larsen and Wilhelmine Hyvinghoff, Lolland got married, 3 children were blessed, a sister died and so did August Nybergs son, 2 years old, from Goteborg and Carl F. Helding.  We took care of our things because we are near America, but the wind was not good.

    Many people threw away their big iron-studded boxes and packed their clothes in bags.

    Jun 10  the fire in the kitchen was too big and the skirting-board burned and a piece of the cook's featherbed burned, but they stopped it and everything went well.  We all got soap and extra water so the Saints could be washed before they left the ship.

    Jun 9 Bekstrom [P. Beckstrom] and several brethren and the doctor found out how much provisions we had left.  At noon we were 320 miles from New York.

    Jun 11 we saw 2 very big ships.  We came so close, that the captains could talk together.  I gave the carpenter 8 and the steward 6 skilling, the wind was not good.

    Jun 13 we came to New York and Sunday I wrote to Jesse N. Smith.  We were happy and the weather was nice.  In the afternoon Brother Stainer came aboard and we were happy.

    Monday Jun 15 a ship came and took us to the fortress.  Some of the brethren took the luggage and went to the railroad.  Anders Eliasens son, 3, and Jens Hansens daughter, 1 ½ died.  P. V. Poulsen stayed in New York with the family.  I had a lot to do.  None of my company stayed.  At 9 we went by train and came to Albany.

    Jun 16 at 10,  H. Westenskous wife had a son.  We send greetings and thanks to the captain and his crew to a newspaper and I signed it.  Peer Hansen's son, 4, from Goteborg died. [p.80]

    June 17 we came over Niagara, the biggest waterfall in the world, and we arrived in Canada and asked a man to bury the child and paid $10.  At 2 we left and June 18 in the morning at 5 we arrived in Windsor.
We crossed the river to Detroit.  At 9 a.m. we left again.  Ane Marie Larsdatters son, 7, died.  We had him buried in Chicago and paid $5.  At 1 p.m. we drove to Qaneqe (Kankakee?)
 June 20 Rasmus Hansen from Lolland died, 63 years old, he was buried in Kankakee S 12.

    We crossed Mississippi and at 6 we took off and arrived in St. Joseph at 11.  We came aboard a steamship "Denver" at once and came to Florence at 5 June 23.  We met many members from Cluff's company.  Sister Elonora Petersens son fell overboard and we did not see him more, he was 9 years old.  A. Jonasens daughter, 3, went ashore with us.  It was really nice to get some peace after 2 months journey.  The wagons from the Church had arrived and I got letters from Maria and H. L. Dastrup and I was pleased.  New York-Albany 160, S.B [UNCLEAR] 200, to Detroit 229, to Chicago 284, to Kankakee 268, St. Joseph 200, to Florence 270.  Letter from Maria, I wrote her a letter.  I was in Omaha and I bought some things for Dasstrup.  I got sick and was in bed for several days.  I was really sick from vomiting and diarrhea.  I got some medicine from a brother. . . [p.81]

     . . . I have not had time to write my journal so I will give a short resume about the journey.
 1863 Apr 30  I left Copenhagen with a company of the Saints, we went via Kiel, Grimsby, Hull, New York, Florence.  We arrived here Jun 23, everybody was happy and we had a nice spirit among us.  We stayed here some days, then we drove 3 miles from Florence.  I got really sick.  I was in Captain Sanders' company.  Jul 5  I was called as curate in Captain John Young's company.  We left Florence Jun 7 with 240 persons in 47 wagons and arrived in Salt Lake Valley Sep 12. [1863] [p.84]


 
 
 

Cavour

Journal of Charles P. Anderson
Anderson, Charles P., Journal of Charles P. Anderson, (Gilbert Publishing Co., 1975), pp. 1-2.

 On the 12 of May 1866 Mother, Claus, Carl, (myself), and Hilda, bid adieu to our native land.  First day we went to Skofde where we remained ten days.  While we were waiting there Father and August went to Gotenberg to get work, but failed, had to return to Skofde walking nearly also the way a distance of 84 miles.

    In the meantime we left for Gotenberg arriving thee in the evening by rail.  Eleven o’clock p.m. same evening we embarked

    Everything being ready we left Hamburg June 1st 1866 the Saints were under the direction of Niels Nielson.  We started out along the northern shores of Germany and Holland, then through the Strait of Dover into the English Channel.  After that we saw nothing but the rolling billows, and the blue canopy of heaven for two months, with the exception of an endless variety of fishes sporting in the great deep.  The only hope that we cherished was to look to that omnipotent being, that controls the elements and the destinies of mankind; for his watch care to be over us during our perilous voyage across the Atlantic.  One stormy day the ship was going at a fast rate, a sailor fell over board, in front of the vessel, it going over him; when first seen behind the vessel he was bloody.  Everything within the power of man was done to rescue him from a watery grave, but all in vain, he was left to the monster of the deep.

    We sailed along for several weeks on our monotonous voyage; until one day we were aroused by the distant firing of cannon.  The captain informed us that a vessel was firing to attract the attention of a pilot and that we was not far from New York.  As we was on deck reconnoitering the distant shore a small schooner came in view, and in a short time it arrived at our vessel with a pilot, to pilot us into the New York harbor in safety.  I gazed upon these men with great curiosity, as they were dressed in red and blue costumes.  In one and a half days we reached the harbor, then we were compelled to stay on deck for two days while the quarantine officers were fumigating the ship.  On the 31 of July 1866 a small steamer came out in the harbor and relieved Cavour (the vessel) of her burden.  After being on the water for 61 days, three having died naturally and one fallen overboard, we were all glad to once more be on land, and we were soon walking up the streets of New York as happy as Columbus when he landed at San Salvador.  We were all taken to Castle Garden, furnished our names for publication.  We remained there until late in the [p.1] evening, then we all marched down the streets and embarked on a steamer.  Next morning we landed and continued our journey westward, by rail, until we arrived at St. Louis.  There we left many sick behind, after laying over one day and two nights on account of the cholera we continued our journey to St. Joseph by rail.  There we embarked on a steamer, while we were going up the Missouri River first evening we buried four and the next (day) five.  We arrived at Wyoming Nebraska August eleventh.  I could not help but feel sad, in seeing suffering humanity excruciating in the most horrible manner until death relieved them of their suffering.  It was daily sweeping young and old into a premature grave.

    We left Wyoming August 13th 1866 traveling with ox teams; the dreadful cholera continues its ravages, until the cool weather, then it ceases . . . .

     . . . As we approached the boundary of Utah, it was late in fall, and nature began clothing the everlasting hills with its white robes.  We finally reached Parley’s Canyon, which we passed through and camped at its mouth.  Nest morning we arose very early, to gratify our enthusiasm by getting the first look at Salt Lake City and the surrounding country . . . . [p.2]

------------------------------

Autobiography of Charles P. Warnick
Warnick, Charles Peter, [Autobiography], in Warnick Family History, vol. 1, pp. 233-35.

    I, together with my parents, my two brothers, John August and Anders Gustave, my sister Anne Christine, two sisters in law and three children, left our native land in the latter part of April, 1866 for America.  We were thankful that we had thus been blessed of the Lord that we were able to go to Zion where we might live and worship with those of our faith without fear of mob or ridicule.  But alas!  How short-sighted are we human beings!  How little we know what is before us.

    We boarded the sailing vessel Cavour at Hamburg June 1st, 1866, for our trip across the great Atlantic.  The supply of water was very limited for such a long journey which lasted nine weeks.  We were allotted one quart of water per family each day.  The water itself was terribly bad.  Other rations were likewise limited and of very poor quality.  Sickness broke out among the passengers.  I was so sick my mother worried much as to whether I would be allowed to land.  But that part went all right and we were glad once more to set foot on mother earth and to enjoy the luxury of good cold water, as the weather was warm.

    When we landed in New York July 31st, we [p.233] went directly to Castle Garden and from there to Montreal, Canada.  We went on a flat steamer that was fired by wood up the St. Lawrence River, and then continued by rail to Chicago and on to Omaha.  When we saw the string of cars into which we were being herded, our hearts almost failed us.  But what could be done about it?  We were on the road and must follow it through, even though we were treated like cattle.  For that was the kind of cars the train was made of.  But those awful hard and dirty cars proved to be a blessing in disguise, for we had not been long on the train when cholera broke out in a very serious form among the people.  The poor stricken souls couldn't have sat up, so with room to spread their bedding down, it was better for them.  But oh how they suffered with the jarring and bumping of the cars.

    When we had traveled three days, on the fifth of August my dear mother passed away, she being one of the first to go.  Her body was left on the station platform at Marcella.

    Conditions continued to get worse and when we reached St. Joseph a few days later, my father and sister Christine were left dying on the platform.  When I now look back and think of that awful scene, I wonder how we could do it, and I can only think that we saw so much suffering and death that our sense of feeling and sympathy must have been paralyzed.  We thought nothing mattered - - the sooner the better.
 We met ox teams in eastern Wyoming and started for Salt Lake City on August 13th . . . [p.234]

     . . . The company we traveled with was made up of teams and men from Sanpete County.  Our captain’s name was Ebnar Lowry and he was from Manti.  We arrived in Salt Lake on October 27, 1866.  Our family was John August and his wife Mary Bengston Warnick, their little girl Caroline and myself.  Their baby, born on the way, was numbered among the dead . . . .  [p.235]
 
 
 
 
 
 

Consignment
 

Letter Concerning the Consignment Voyage
Millennial Star  25:31 (August 1, 1863), p. 491.

 EMIGRATION.--We have received a long letter from Elder A. [Anders] [C.] Christensen, who went out in charge of the Saints on board the packetship Consignment, which we have not space to publish entire, but from which we learn they had a safe and pleasant passage and no accident, with the exception of running into a French fishing smack.  The Consignment sustained no serious injury, however, from this collision, and the fog was so thick that it was impossible to ascertain whether the smack was materially injured, as she disappeared almost instantly from sight.  Elder C. [Christensen] speaks very highly of Captain Tukey, who, with his officers, did all in their power to make the Saints comfortable and the passage an agreeable one.  As our readers are already advised, this ship arrived at New York on the 20th ultimo. . . .
 
 
 


 

Electric

Autobiography and Journal of John Hansen Hougaard
Hougaard, John Hansen.  Autobiography and journal (Ms 8178), pp. 14-20.
LDS Historical Department Archives

We left Nykjobing in Falster Apr. 5th 1862 with the steamship "Zambia".  At 8 o’clock a.m., several of our friends and relations had come there in the morning to see us once more and to bid us "goodbye".  After a pleasant voyage, we arrived in Kjobenhavn at 4 p.m. the same day where we remained till Apr. 14th when we left with the steamship "Albion" for Keil where we arrived Apr. 15. at 8 a.m.  Left the same morning with railroad for Hamburg where we arrived the same evening and came on board the sailship Electric [p.14] which brought us directly from there to New York where we arrived on the 3rd of June.  We had quite a pleasant and agreeable voyage across the Atlantic Ocean.  We had no storm of any consequence and but little sickness on board the ship.  We had but 7 or 8 deaths, while other ships that went with emigrants the same season had out of the same number of people, nearly between 4 or 5 hundred , had from 20 to 30 deaths.  The main cause of this difference in mortality was said to be that we went in a higher latitude on account of going north of Scotland while the other ships went south of England [p.15] and through the Channel.  Knud Brokker’s, daughter Else Meagrethe died in the Ocean on the 5th [of]  May.  Elder S. [Soren] Christofferson being the leader of the Saints on board the Electric exhorted them to diligence and faithfulness in keeping the commandments of the Lord.  To be patient while in the ship, and how to conduct ourselves when we got to America.  The Saints generally feel well and spend the time while on the ship singing praises to the Lord, playing, dancing &c.  .

    On the 6th of June we were landed in New York.  Before however we were permitted to go ashore, a doctor [p.16] came on board to inspect the emigrants to see that no contagious diseases were among them, but that not being the case we were permitted to land.

    We remained in New York for 3 days when we could not but admire the greatness,  grandeur and magnificence of that far famed City.

    On June 9th we left New York with the railroad wherewith we continued till we reached St. Joseph when we arrived June 16th.  We had to change cars several times, but in the whole we had a very pleasant and agreeable ride, but we could not but see the contrast between [p.17] American Railroads and those of Europe, the latter being in our opinion much superior to the former, but all went well.

    At St. Joseph we came on board a large river steamboat, which took us to Florence when we arrived June 19th and remained till July 13th, when we set out for the journey across the plains.  During our stay in Florence we had it quite comfortable and convenient living in a house which we [lived] in per section with [which] a few more families had resisted.  The most of the Saints while there lived in tents which they also used while crossing the Plains [p.18]

    We had some considerable trouble getting started from Florence with those kind of horses, I mean oxen which there [was] provided for us . . . [p.19]

    . . . finally after a somewhat tiresome and tedious trip of about 10 weeks we arrived in Salt Lake City, Utah, September 23rd, 1862. . . . [p.20]

------------------------------
 

Autobiography of Oluf Christian Larsen
Larsen, Oluf Christian.  Autobiography, (microfilm of typescript) pp. 31-36.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives
 

    In the fall of 1861, a semi-annual conference was held in Christiania where I first had the privilege of looking upon a living apostle.  Amasa Lyman and Charles C. Rich, apostles of Jesus Christ.  The president of the European Mission and Charles W. Wediberg of the Scandinavian Mission were present.  We had a glorious time together such as never before had been known in Christiania.  During the conference I spoke to the authorities about becoming engaged to Emelia.  Taking in consideration that I had the opportunity to emigrate in the near future they consented.

    After this conference Norway seemed less homelike to me.  I now started to work and plan to get money with which I could emigrate in the spring.  This was no easy matter as few people were expected to emigrate that spring.  I was too proud to ask Emelia’s father for the amount necessary for my own emigration.  At this time I had not yet asked Emelia’s father for her, but I now wrote him a letter asking his consent to our marriage which he never answered.  I took his favorable disposition and silence on the subject as his consent.  It seemed that every avenue to get money was closed against me as the spring emigration drew near.

    When Emelia’s father found I had not gotten money he felt very sorry because I had not told him before as I could have all the money I wanted if he had known my condition only a week before.  Emelia kept preparing as though everything was sure.  A few days before the appointed time for emigrating I was promised money by a good sister from Frederikstad.  I immediately wrote President Dorius and informed him.  I got answer to prepare myself and come to Christiania at once to help arrange for the Saints who expected to emigrate.  The morning of April 12, 1862, the ship expected to leave for Copenhagen where we were to meet the Danish and Swedish emigrants.

    The day I parted with the Saints was a day of mingled joy and sorrow as I had become very much attached to the people as they also were to me.  We were all inspired with the hope of meeting again as they expected to follow.  When I left, arrangements were made for Emelia to meet me at Moss the 12th of April.

    The steamer left Christiania 8 a.m. and arrived at Moss about 10 a.m.  A lot of boats came out filled with passengers.  I stood with an anxious eye in search of the object that almost interested me.  It was a happy moment when she and her luggage were safely on deck.  I was thankful to God that our time for emigrating had come.  The father, brother and Emelia had stayed at Wilberg’s overnight and all came out to the steamer to bid us goodbye.

    The evening of the 13th arrived in Copenhagen where we remained for two days.  I was placed as the head of the Norwegian emigrants and was expected to look after the changing of their money and other business affairs.  When all the emigrants arrived we took steamer to Keil via Hamburg by railroad where we went aboard the sailing vessel which carried us across the ocean.  It took the ship one day to get ready for sailing during which time we were locating and organizing.  The ship was divided into two decks with a row of single bunks on each side and a double row along the center.  There were between three and four hundred passengers, mostly Scandinavians.  The ship was divided into wards with a president over each.  The young unmarried men were in the forepart and the unmarried ladies in the hind part of the ship.  I was chosen as captain of the guard [p.31] as we found it necessary to have a certain number of men on guard at night in the various parts of the ship.

    This was a hard job as all the able bodied men were enrolled and each should have an equal share of the time to stand guard.  The guard was divided into four shifts of two hours each.  Some of their duties were to prevent stealing and immorality and to look after the kerosine lights to prevent fire, to help the sick and disabled, bury the dead and to awaken their successors.  My duty was to see that the guards attended to their duties and to keep strict account of what was done.

    The 19th we were towed down the Elbe River and anchored at the mouth awaiting a favorable wind.  A returning missionary, Soren Christopherson [Christoffersen] from Manti, was appointed president over the Saints.  We found there were several couples in the company who were engaged and it was deemed advisable that they marry considering the long journey before them.  Accordingly on the 20th of April, 1862 there were twelve couples presented themselves for marriage among whom Emelia and myself were one.  The same day President J. Vancott who had been among to attend to the organization went ashore to return to Copenhagen.  The pilot was taken on board and sails were set for seven weeks cruise across the Atlantic Ocean.

    Many varied incident happened on such a journey and the character of men and women were brought the light of day.  Some were satisfied under all conditions while others were never satisfied.  Some with large families of small children were to be pitied, especially in case of sickness, as there was no dainty food to be had but the sailor’s provisions was all.  We had quite a spell of sickness on board and I was necessitated to superintend the burial of seventeen person before we reached New York.  As there was no rain we were unable to get fresh water and our supply became very foul before reaching shore.  At last, seven weeks after we left the Elbe, we sighted shore, the tops of the mountains of the promised land, which made our heart rejoice exceedingly.

    When we landed in New York City we were all ushered into Castle Garden, a large amphitheater building down near the battery.  Here the doctor’s examination took place and we were pronounced free from contagion.  The nest day we boarded the train and rolled westward.  This was during the Civil War and the railroad companies were not very particular what kind of cars they furnished.  All kind of rolling stock was used for passengers.  Here was another trial for grumblers and fault-finders because there were no upholstered seats for our use.  When they came into a car they were obliged to stay.  Now there were no warm breakfasts nor dinners to be had and there was very little chance to buy anything on the road.  We at last reached Quincy, Illinois where we took steamers down the Mississippi to Hannibal where we stopped a day and had a rest.  Those who had money could also get a good meal.  There a train was patched up to take us to St. Joseph, Missouri, where we agin took a steamer up to Florence, Nebraska.  From here we were to begin our tramp across the plains.

    The church agent who had been working all summer preparing for the emigrants, had not been able to get tents to accommodate all the emigrants as they came in such great number.  Some, consequently, had to camp with nothing but heaven as a canopy until tents were made.  This was soon accomplished as hundreds of young ladies were set [p.32] to work sewing.  This also gave a good opportunity for grumblers.  It was very uncomfortable to be out in the hot sun.  Then at times drenched in rains as if the heavens opened.  Women, men, children, trunks, bedding and clothing were all moved about in the muddy, dirty water.  Some were drying, some laughing and others were cursing.  The sun would them come out with its extreme heat sending steam and fog heavenward.  A general washday then generally followed including also drying and brushing.  It seemed that God sent the people something to do to keep their minds occupied.

     Our companies were soon furnished with tents but as other companies came they had the same things to endure that we had.  There never before had been such a large company of emigrants on the prairies and we had to stay for several weeks.  Living on the open prairie under such circumstances was something unknown to the people coming from Europe.  It was connected with a great deal of inconvenience for all and suffering for others and was a use for discontent and fault-finding by the faint hearted.  The provisions were chiefly flour and bacon with very little sugar.  Beef was almost out of the question.  We got a very little once a week.  Having nothing to do people got restless and some ventured over to Omaha, five miles distance, to seek work although warned and advised not to do so.  When they returned to camp they often brought a plug of tobacco or bottle of liquor with them.

     Omaha seemed to be, at that time, a resting place for the weary and discontented coming from Europe and the east as well as the apostates who left Utah with the emigration teamsters.  These apostles [PROBABLY MEANING, Apostates] were generally loaded with untruths and rumors about Utah and her people.  The fain-hearted were easily deceived and captured by them.  Several of this class left the camp and stayed behind.  The faithful people enjoyed themselves by playing games, singing, holding meetings, etc.  In this way kept up a good spirit.  The teamsters from Utah then finally came.

     Among the emigrants were several who had money so they could buy oxen and wagons of their own.  These parties were supplied and organized into companies with guides and guards and pulled off toward the prairies.  They had a great many difficult experiences in store which they had not dreamed of.  They were entirely unacquainted with driving oxen and most of the oxen bought were unbroken.  As young cattle essential for the journey it was a wonder they could make any headway at all.  Ropes and men were a requisite and there was more leading than driving.  Every day, however, gave both men and teams more experience and made them better acquainted with one another thus making better headway.

    High water was the cause of the train not coming from Utah before.  A great deal of snow had fallen during the winter and rain in the spring causing the rivers to be too high for the teams to cross.  For weeks they had to wait for the water to lower.  At last they came which caused rejoicing by both teamsters and Saints.  The teamsters being you men they all gave vent to their feeling of joy by yelling, jumping, swinging their hats, capering around and with an occasional pistol shot.  This was an unusual sight for the Europeans to look upon.  There was a string of sixty or seventy wagons, each drawn by three of four yoke of oxen.  The teamsters were ragged and dirty with broad brimmed slouchy hats, many wearing one shoe and one boot of which were often ragged.  They had a brace of two or three pistols and a large bowie knife strapped to their waist and carried a 15 or 20 foot [p.33] whip in their hands.  Thus they came in a cloud of dust.  This was a terrorizing sight for those who never before had seen such a thing.  Many different comments were made  some favorable, but most unfavorable.  Some thought, if this was a sample of the Mormon in Zion the evil reports about them must be true and "God pity the emigrants.  Others were more sensible and held forth correct ideal of the condition and said we could not expect a different appearance of men and boys who had to be prepared to fight savages and who had traveled thousands of miles through dust, rain and mud.  In this way their appearance was argued in every direction.  The young girls especially who had figured on meeting some nice young men from Zion were disappointed very much.

    As the company drove up and formed a circle with their wagons and the people were amused and astonished to see the teamster taking their stand and causing by command these long strings of brutes to take their exact places in the circle.  It was as good a circus performance for us to watch.  In a few moments the oxen were all unyoked and the guards on horseback drove them off to feed.  The teamsters then hurried to the creek and washed themselves and some took time to put on a better suit of clothes while the others more anxious hurried to shake hands with the emigrants.  They were soon scattered over the camp inquiring for relatives and friends among the company and emigrants inquiring for friends and relatives in Utah.  Thus there was talk and chatter in every direction mingled with joy and laughter.  Friendship and brotherly love was soon exhibited by all parties.  The emigrants soon began to realize that these rough looking men were our deliverers and guardians and expected to carry us through seen and unseen danger across the wilderness to out destination among the mountains.  The more we realized this they more they became a subject in our petitions to God.  In this way our hearts were filled with love and respect for them so that even their shortcomings were overlooked.

    The companies from the west now began to arrive fast, one after another and everybody was busy and especially the leaders.  There was no time to stay longer than necessary.  The wagons should be loaded and a certain number of person assigned to each.  The number was generally 15 with one tent to each wagon.  Two or three baking kettles went with each wagon as well as bedding and luggage allowing a certain number of pounds for each person.  Those who brought more than their allotment had to pay extra for overweight.  New trouble came that emigrants had not anticipated for the luggage generally outweighed the allotment.  Everything should be done in  a hurry and it was sometimes hard to decide what to throw away. Such things as mattresses, feather beds, trunks, boxes and unnecessary utensils had to be discarded.  As many of the Danish people had supplied themselves with many pairs of fine new wooden shoes they had also, to be sacrificed although it was quite a trial to some.

    One woman in our company had a spinning wheel along.  The neighbor told her to throw it away as there was plenty wood in Utah.  The woman cried very bitterly and said if her wheel could not be taken along she also would stay.  The woman, however, came along but the wheel had to remain.  The day of loading and packing was a busy one.  It passed with little friction as the mind of all were filled with anxiety about getting on the road leading toward the mountains.  There were near seventy-five wagons in our company.  Our captain, Joseph Horn, was an experienced hand on the plains.  The day we left [p.34] camp was one of rejoicing as the slowness with no progress for several weeks was very tiring. . . .

    . . . We were all eager to get into [p.35] the open Valley and when there on the bench all eyes were directed toward Great Salt Lake City which at that time was hardly visible from that distance.  With light, yet tired and faint steps we passed by the penitentiary through Sugarhouse into town where streets everywhere were lined with people to see the emigrants.  In the afternoon about 4 o’clock, September 29th, 1862, we arrived on the Eighth Ward Squared, it being nearly six months since we started on our journey from Norway. [p.36]
 


 

Diaries of Ola Nelson Stohl
Stohl, Ola Nelson.  Diaries, Book D, English translation from Swedish (Ms 1420), pp.8- 14.
LDS Historical Department Archives
[NOTE: SWEDISH ORIGINAL OF BOOKS D AND E (Ms 1426), pp.146-182.]
 

 The trip to Utah seemed to be well organized.  On the 26th Grandfather sent out 10 letters all containing final instructions.

    On Sunday March 20, Grandfather’s successor Lars Nilsson from Skåne arrived.  A young man not quite 20 years old - a good man and a fine preacher.

    Grandfather is getting some fine business experience since the accounting for his district must be settled and turned over to his successor.  Also all the fares, etc. - for the emigrants must be collected by him.

    On Thursday, April 3, they are busy packing.  Grandfather is overjoyed with the gifts he is receiving.  That evening a farewell meeting is held with the Saints only.  About 70 were present.  He says: "They were very moved when I bade them farewell.  The brethren and Saints were very thankful to me and I went with their blessings.  Little Sister Charlotta Carlsson gave me a silver spoon.  She cried most of the night.  Brother Carlsson gave me [p.8] $15.00.  The sisters fixed up my things very well.  O Lord God of Israel bless them one thousand fold!"

    The trip to Copenhagen began early Friday April 4th by coach.  He says: "We had three horses from the Coach Company and 4 hired horses that should go all the way to Töreboda.  They arrived in Töreboda, April 6 after traveling 125 miles.  "We were well preserved in body and spirit.  The Lord had guided everything to our good.  During the night the Libeck’s [Hendrik and Christine C. Lieback] arrived at the inn."  On Monday two more elders came with the luggage which must be taken as passenger goods.  They were charged extra for this.  They next traveled to Gothenburg and on Tuesday the 8th, boarded the steamship "Najaden" arriving at Halmstad in the evening.  Grandfather and Libeck [Lieback] slept on the ship.

    On Wednesday 9th, they arrived in Copenhagen at 3 p.m. after a pleasant voyage.  They had to pay "8 dollars for one room for three persons for 6 days and nights."

    On Thursday, the 10th, Grandfather visits the mission office and "settled the money affairs for the emigrants."  They traded for gold with the exception for the price across the sea to America.  Grandfather had the joy of staying with his brother Nilsson.

    On Saturday, April 12th, he purchased a coat for 14 dollars.  Had his picture taken and sent it with a letter to his father.  He had a fine visit with several old missionary companions.

    Sunday, April 13th, he attended services at Wingardsstradde(Vingaardsstraede).  More emigrants from Nörrkoping arrived.  Their certificates must be made out also money exchanged for gold.  His business is all finished, and a farewell is held with his two brothers Nils and Magnus.

    Monday the 14th, after having everything in order including another letter and picture to his father the party board the ship "Albion" at 1 p.m.  Sailed on the Baltic Sea to Kiel in Germany where we arrived  the 15th in the morning.  Took the railroad to Altona arriving that afternoon.  The Saints from Norrköping Conference, 35 persons, were to board the ship "Athenia" but this was changed and we went aboard the big sailboat Electric that was anchored outside of Hamburg.

    On Wednesday April 16, President Van Cott comes on board to organize the Saints into districts.  I was appointed to preside over district 7, consisting of 40 people.

    Thursday - Grandfather accompanies Brothers Liljenquist and Peterson into Hamburg which was a very elegant city.  They visited President Van Cott at an English Hotel and telegraphed to Copenhagen for some lost baggage.

    Friday April 18, held meeting on deck.  Very early in the morning we sailed from Hamburg to Glückstadt Harbor at noon, anchored not far from the ship "Athenia" where the other Saints were.

    On the 20th Grandfather goes over to the "Athenia" to see the [p.9] ship with Elder [Ola Nilsson] Liljenquist.  They hope to get lost baggage which is not there.  The ship was very elegant.  There were 486 Saints aboard the Athenia and 335 on the Electric.

    On Monday 21st, letters were written etc.  They sailed some but very little so they anchored again.

 On the 22nd - Again they tried to sail then anchored at Hanover.  A meeting was held on ship for districts 5, 6, and 7.  Every morning prayer was held for all on ship at 7 o’clock.  Also evening prayers at 8 p.m.

    On Friday, the 25th We lifted our anchors and had a good sail wind on Nordsjön (North Sea).  I was assigned to make a list of all the emigrants on our ship, to be submitted to the captain.  I wrote it even though the sea was rough and many were seasick.  In the evening we held prayer as usual and I was mouth.  We sailed all night.

    On Monday the wind is still good but sickness breaks out among us.  Measles had broken out.  Grandfather was keeping well.

    Tuesday - April 29 - The first death at sea - a little daughter of Brother H. [Haukan] Andersen.  Grandfather was there when she died.  He lifted her into another bed.
 On Wednesday - the little child was put into the sea in her little casket.  Grandfather was to assist but was too ill.

    On May 1st we were now out on the Atlantic.  Had good wind.
 On the 2nd and 3rd two women died - one left her husband and children, the other, a 15 year old girl had a throat disease.

    Sunday, May 4 - Grandfather is asked to make a list of all the priesthood on board.  Usual services are held.  After evening prayer,  Brother Christofferson spoke about the sickness that was among the Saints and that we had no doctor on the ship and that he felt that someone should be appointed to look after the sick Saints and really be a spiritual doctor to them.  He nominated Grandfather for the position.  He was put in by unanimous vote to be a spiritual doctor and look after the cleanliness among the Saints.
 That night he helped with a woman and her daughter from Lolland.  The woman died in the night and the daughter in the morning.  There are now between 20 and 30 sick.  Grandfather is very busy.  All are administered to.

    Tuesday, May 6th - He is in the captain’s dining room making a list of those who have died on the ship, been married on ship, and the children blessed.  Sophie Marie Sorenson a 2 year old child from Jylland dies that day.

    On Saturday, May 10 - A wedding is attended.

    On the 11th the regular church worship.  Some of the sick people are improving.  The wind is picking up - more work with the sick.

    Tuesday, May 13 - A special meeting on the ship was interesting to me.  The Saints were instructed to walk a lot on deck, wash and comb [p.10] themselves there and do everything to prevent uncleanliness down in the ship.  Admonished the night watchmen to look after this very carefully and to look after the sick, who could not help themselves.  Every district president should appoint a brother to see that the Saints were up at 5 a.m.  The Saints were admonished to behave in everything, that the hypocrites might be revealed.  The brethren preferred that these stay in the States.

    On the 14th, he is keeping books in the saloon of the ship.  He is to account for the income of the ship.  He is to account for the income and expenses of the company.  Another death.  That evening they are informed that a thief is among them.  His comment, "Verily a sad thing that such would exist among the children of Zion".

    Thursday and Friday - working on the lists of the Saints as I had done many times before, one to the captain, one to be brought to Zion.

    Saturday, the 17th - A father from Jylland dies also a brother from Westerplana.  He wanted me after he died to send his money to his foster parents in Sweden.  A one year old baby girl dies also.

    Lists of the belongings of some of the dead were made by Grandfather.  The belongings were sold at auction.

    Thursday and Friday (22 and 23) - After looking after the sick, instructions are given as to things to be purchased for the trip to Florence, Nebraska.  Goods could be freighted for 15 cents per pound.

    Saturday, May 24. - The captain asked me to write the lists because of his sickness - that he would write and show in New York.  I had supper with the captain.

    On Sunday the 25th - After services an auction is again held and a third member of the Fredrik Mårtensen [PROBABLY, Carl Fred Mortenson] family, a little girl is buried at sea.

    Monday, 26th - Continued to write the captain’s lists.  Had dinner and supper with him. He continues to work with the captain through June 1st.  Is fortunate in having all his meals at the captain’s table.

    On Saturday, May 31, a baby girl is born.

    June 1 - The weather is delightful.  The Saints are happy.

    June 1, 2, 3.  He is still working with the captain and still enjoys his hospitality.  He says "Finished all three lists to his (the captain’s) satisfaction.  However fog is coming in and more measles are showing up."

    Wednesday, June 4 - A good wind.

    Thursday, June 5. - In the morning American pilots came on board.  Then we must dress us well as the doctors came on board too. Four persons were sick.  We began to behold the wonderland of Joseph’s inheritance and holy feelings pierced my soul.  ‘O Father, thanks be to Thee for the great grace and luck we have had over the big waters, and our arrival in the promised land be to an eternal blessing for me and all sincere.’ [p.11]

    Friday June 6  We arrived at Castle Garden in New York.  (The voyage was from April 18 until June 6 - seven weeks and two days.)  Tipping was in vogue in 1862.  He says "We gave the police officers some tips that they would not look into our things."  Two brethren from Utah came to us.  They were sent to help us.  They had arranged the trip to Florence for us - 12 dollars for everybody over 13, 6 dollars for those over 5 and under 5 free.  I was in the office and fixed the lists.

    Saturday 7 - "Weighed all our belongings.  The Saints from the ship "Athenia" also arrived.  They had a lot of bad luck.  About 38 dead.

    Sunday, June 8 - A couple from Norway are married.

    Monday, June 9 - Still could not find the lost baggage.  "Boarded the train and  traveled all night.

    Tuesday, June 10 - Arrived in Albany.  Ferried over a river and put to another train.  Went over Canada. - More train changing.  Arrived in Chicago, Friday, June 13 - Saturday, June 14, lost several brethren.

    On June 14, they reach Hannibal, Missouri, a town that one year ago was destroyed by war.
 Sunday -  June 15 - Stood still, very warm.
 ____________________
 End of Book D
 BOOK E

    June 16, 1862 - July 17, 1864

    Monday June 16 - The emigrants left Hannibal at 5 a.m. by train.  Many soldiers came up to them at whistle stops but did them no harm.  Stayed a few hours in St. Joseph then boarded a big steamer and sailed up the Missouri River.

    Wednesday 18th - Arrived in Omaha and then to Florence at 2 a.m.  The church wagons carried us over to the camp.  There were already two companies from Scandinavia there.

    Friday June 20 - For those who could afford it the church wagons would take them to Utah for $40.00 and provide everything.  Other purchased their own outfits.  Some were taken by the church for the small means they had with a promise to pay later.  Grandfather is offered a job as teamster with the privilege of taking 80 pounds of belongings.  He must buy his own food.  He had to submit the lists of his company.

    Saturday June 21 - Another death - A Norrköping sister that had been sick all the way.  She made Grandfather her administrator.  He took charge of her burial, purchasing a casket, etc., paid ten dollars of her money to the church.  She said that I would have after her two [p.12] pillows and a pair of sheets.  Three more deaths are recorded.

    Sunday June 22 - We had a meeting at the camp at 5 p.m.  Thousands of people were gathered.  President  Joseph W. Young, Brother Blackburn and J. Van Cott preached, all in English except Van Cott.  A very good meeting even though our ignorance of the English language caused that we could neither understand nor benefit from it.

    Tuesday June 24 - Midsummer day.  Bought a hat and glasses for protection from the sun.

    Wednesday - Helped to organize 12 to each tent.  During the next week the business of organizing, making a list to be sent to Zion, recording several more deaths and a marriage and administrations to the sick kept our Grandfather busy.

    Sunday July 6 - The Libeck’s [Lieback’s] decide to stay in Omaha for a year.  He commissioned me to collect all the money he had lent to several people for the journey.  I wanted to sign a note for 77 dollars that I owed him, but he said no, he trusted me completely.

    Monday July 7 - A terrible hurricane followed by thunder and lightning surprised us.  Brother Hakon Andersson and I were down at the river to look after a wagon.  An American was first hit in the face.  His hat flew away.  Anderson and I ran for it.  I caught it over in a corn field, where I hid while some of the hurricane passed over me.  When I came back I saw our dear Brother Young had nearly his whole head crushed when some wagon parts nearly buried him.  Nearly unconscious he was carried in.  I ran for Van Cott and Blackburn.  Some Americans were hit to death and others hurt.  Anderson and I were in a marvelous way led away from the wagons, praise the Lord.  This day I had the joy to meet Apostle [Charles C.] Rich of Utah.

    Friday July 11 - In the evening I baptized 3 people.  Carline Gren [Caroline Gran] bore a child which died.

    Sunday July 13 - Grandfather is asked to be a teamster for a Danish family with all expenses paid.  Brother Christofferson releases him from the other job.

    Monday July 14 - 1862 - The journey to Zion begins.  Things seemed to be uneventful until the last of July when I became sick with Constipation.  I took in some American oil [could it be castor?].  Then I was sick for three weeks with diarrhoea.  I was very weak but did not suffer anything in my head that I lost my senses.

    Sunday August 17 - After being well for a couple of days, but not yet regained all my strength, I drove one of our wagons loaded with more than 2000 pounds.  The road was very hilly.  At one occasion we drove down a steep hill with banks high as the wheels.  The stopper was sitting over the front wheel.  When I should stop the wagon I slid down the high bank and I could not come forward but one of the back wheels drove over both my legs below the knee of the one and up on the thigh of the other.  As soon as the wheel was over I stood up without help of hands or men - I walked and drive my oxen to the next camp.  In the evening I felt some pain in my thigh but in the leg that the wheel passed over first I never felt any pain or knew the spot that was passed over.  I anointed my thigh [p.13] with consecrated oil and during the night the pain left me.  I rode on the wagon the first half of the next day, but thereafter I walked by the side and drove my oxen.  For this Thy great mercy, O my Father in Heaven, I wish I could always be thankful and live to glorify Thy name.  O Lord help me to do this.

    Monday, September 22 - After two months and eight days they reach Emigration Canyon and that same evening I was surprised by the very pleasant meeting with my mother and her husband Pehr Brodersson.  This was wonderful to meet mother for the first time in six years.  I was very gracefully invited to stay with them.

    Tuesday, September 23 - We drove over the large mountain range which in its bosom protects Israel, gathered from all parts of the world.  We camped at the big campground of the city.  There I met my dear sister Johanna and her husband C. P. Willingbeck who very gracefully asked me to stay with them which I accepted because my mother lived 4 miles from the city.  At this place I had the joy to meet many old friends.  The honor be thine, O Lord, who spared my life that I am now happily gathered with the Saints in the valley of the mountains. . . . [p.14].
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Emerald Isle

Diary of Annie E. Bertelsen
Bertelsen, Annie E., Diary, (Typescript) Utah Pioneer Biographies vol. 5, pp. 31-32
 
 

 We started with 630 emigrants and left for Copenhagen by the steamer "Hansia on June 13, 1868, crossed the North Sea and arrived in Hull, England, on June 16 same year.  In the evening we went on board the train to Liverpool.

    On the 19th we went on board the ship Emerald Isle, and on the 20th the ship started sail from Liverpool, with a company of 877 souls.

    On June 26th the ship sailed into the harbor of Queenstown to take fresh water, as the machine that distilled the water had broken.  Loaded up with all the barrels and cans with fresh water that they could find and set sail on the 29th day of June, same year.  The water soon became stagnant and a lot of sickness became on board.  We were eight weeks crossing the ocean, and there were 37 deaths occurred on the voyage.  I remember very well the first death on board the ship, which was a two year old little girl, she was a very pretty child, and they built a large casket for her, twice her size, and the partitioned [UNCLEAR] it off in the middle placing coal in the one end so that it would be sure and sink when she was lowered in the ocean.  When they placed her down into the water, it did not sink, it just floated away, and as we sailed along, we could still see this casket still floating in the ocean.  Our ship sailing one way and the casket still floating in another.  The parents were almost grief stricken.  After this the dead were placed on long boards with weights on each end so that it was sure that they sunk and went to the bottom.  It was a wonder that any of us lived to tell the tale.  I later heard that the ship on its return voyage back [p.31] sank with all its crew.

    On August (of this year) 11th we arrived at the harbor of New York.

    On the 17th we went from New York via Niagara, Detroit, and Chicago to Council Bluffs.  Then by steamboat and railway to Benton, 700 miles west of Omaha.

    On August 31st we started to cross the plains by ox team which was lead by Captain John G. Holman.  We walked most all the way even if we were so tired and sick we could hardly go.  There were 30 who died in crossing the plains, and in that number was my mother, who had hoped she would live to be buried on land, which she did.  She was buried in a grave without any casket, just wrapped up in a cloth, laid in the grave, placed brush over her before covering her with dirt.  We arrived in Salt Lake City September 25, 1868, of a long and tiresome journey. [p.32]

------------------------------

Departures
"Departures, Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star 30:27 (July 4, 1868) p. 426.
 

 The magnificent packet-ship Emerald Isle sailed from this port for New York on the 20th June, with a company of Saints numbering in all 876 souls.  Of these 627 were from Scandinavia, and the rest from the British Isles.  The following named returning missionaries were in the company: --Elders Hans Jensen Hals, John Fagerberg, and Peter Hansen, from the Scandinavian Mission; and James Smith and Henry Barlow, from the British Mission; also Samuel Southwick, James Stuart, Andrew Simmons, and Elisha Peck, native elders, who have been traveling in the ministry.  Elder Hans Jensen Hals was appointed president of the company, and Elders James Smith and John Fagerberg his counselors.  Previous to sailing, a meeting was held on deck, when the Saints were addressed by Elder Carl Widerborg in Danish, and Elder Charles W. Penrose in English.  Everyone was in good spirits, and was thankful to the God of Israel for deliverance from Babylon. . . . [p.426]

------------------------------
 

Reminiscences and Journal of Hans Jorgenson
The Journey to America
Jorgenson, Hans.  Reminiscences and journal (Ms 7330), pp. 79-82, 84.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

     The 13th of June, 1868, President C. Widerborg came up to [--] and emigrants called to order, whereupon he gave suitable instructions for our journey.  5 o'clock in the afternoon we all went on board the steamer [-] (Captain Beck of Hamburg) and after the Saints from Malmo, Sweden led by John Faferburg, had come on board, we started for England 7 ½  o'clock in the evening in a beautiful weather.

    On the 14th I saw old [-] for the last time.  We had a good passage across the North Sea, but I was nevertheless very seasick.

    On the 16th, 2 ½ o'clock in the afternoon we landed in Hull, England and started off by rail same afternoon and arrived in Liverpool 1 ½ o'clock in the night.  Next day we were all quartered at Hotel Columbia [p.78] owned by David Full, a Jew.

    On the 19th we were all sent on board the packet ship Emerald Isle, Captain Gillespie of New York.  While in Liverpool, I saw the greatest steamer in the world, "The Great Eastern which laid outside of Liverpool.

    On the 20th of June, 1868, we started our long and weary journey to America, being pulled out by a tug steamer.  Same evening a seaman belonging to the crew fell overboard but was rescued by a good swimmer.  Then a safety boat fell from the ship and all on board was called for help [to] pull it up.  The company of emigrants consisted of 876 souls of which six hundred and twenty seven were from Scandinavia and we had for [our] leader Hans Jensen Hals of Manti, San Pete County; John Faferburg of Fort Ephraim; and James Smith from Provo, his counselors.  Henry Barlow also returning elder from Utah.

    The following ships and steamers left Liverpool with emigrants belonging to the Latter-day Saints in the summer of 1868: "John Bright sailing vessel on the 4 of June; Emerald Isle sailing vessel on the 20 of June; "Constitution sailing vessel on the 24 of June; "Minnesota steamer vessel on the 30 of June; "Colorado steamer on the 14 of July.  A total number of emigrants 3232. [----] We continued our journey.  On the night of the 30th of June - died the first person namely Nicolay Christensen’s daughter, Albertine. [p.79]

    On the 1st of July I received a letter from my mother off Queenstown, date June 11th.  On the 7th of July a child died belonging to a Brother [-] of Sweden.

    An English sister gave birth to a child on the 10th of July.

    On the 11th a child belonging to a brother from Sjalland died.  Same day I in company with Brother C. [Carl] B. [Burnhard] Olsen administered to Brother G. [Gustav] W. Siderberg [Soderberg], who fainted.

    On the 12th, Brother [-] Nielsens' wife from Copenhagen was buried.  On the night of the 18th I stood guard.  An English brother buried on the 17th.

    On the 18th 2 Danish children was buried.

    On the 19th a Danish child died, and buried.

    On the 23rd of July saw me an [-].  A boy belonging to Nicolay Christensen buried on the 21st and a child belonging to J. [Jorgan] Carlson buried on the 22nd.  A severe storm occurred on the 25th of July and one Christen Petersen [Peter Christiansen] got his leg broke.  A severe and terrible storm on the 26th and many sails blew off the ship.  2 Danish children buried in the evening.

    On the 29th a child buried belonging to Johannes Olsen of Vendsyssel.

    On the 30th 2 children buried.  One was J. [Jens] C. A. Lind’s of Aalborg.

    On the 1st of August a child belonging to Knud Christian [Christensen] of Hjorring buried.

    On the 2nd three children buried.

    On the 3rd an English adult and child buried.

    On the 4th were 4 children buried; I stood guard.

    On the 5th 2 children buried.

    On the 6th 1 child.

    On the 7th 6 children buried.

    On the 9th Peter Nielsen of Copenhagen was married to [-] Larsen of [-].  A child buried the 10th.  I minded to keep track of all those who died but I was sick and lay in the hospital myself.  However I was told that less than 37 babies was sunk into the ocean. [p.80]  The dead list of those buried in the ocean:

1 child, Danish, buried on the 30th June
1 child, Swedish, buried on the 7 July
1 child Sjallouidsk, buried on the 11 July
1 adult, Danish, buried on the 12 July
1 adult, English, buried on the 17 July
2 children, Danish, buried on the 18 July
1 child, Danish, buried on the 19 July
1 child, Danish, buried on the 21 July
1 child, Danish, buried on the 22 July
2 children, Danish buried on the 26 July
1 child,----- , buried on the 27 July
1 child, Danish, buried on the 29 July
2 children, Danish, buried on the 30 July
1 child, Danish, buried on the 1 August
3 children, Danish, buried on the 2 August
1 adult & 1 child, Danish, buried on the 3 August
4 children, ------, buried on the 4 August
2 children, -------, buried on the 5 August
1 child, -------, buried on the 6 August
6 children, -------, buried on the 7 August
1 child,-------, buried on the 10 August
2 adults, -------, buried on the 11th August

    The treatment we had on board said vessel was anything but human.  The captain and crew showed themselves as rough and mean towards us (especially Danish) as they could and the provisions did not by any means come up to the bargain.  The shortest I can say about it is that this treatment was something like the Danish prisoners received in the 1807-1814.  I for my part can [p.81] never think on the deadly Emerald Isle but with the greatest disgust and hatred.

    About daybreak on the 11th of August, 1868, we to our great joy saw the land for which we so long a time had been longing.  Having now been on the deadly ship 7 weeks and 3 days, we all felt to thank God our deliverer that he had spared our lives and permitted us to see the land of which we had so great hopes and anticipations.  We were quarantined 3 days outside of New York and on the 14th we were permitted to put our feet on American soil.

    On the 15th 10 o'clock in the evening, we left New York per rail via Albany & Niagara.  The train stopped there and we had a splendid view of the great waterfall and I walked over the great suspension bridge on the 17th.

    On the 25th we arrived at the terminus of the railroad and we were met at Stanton Benton by the church teams and 68 ox teams under leadership of John Hullman of Pleasant Grove.  Our journey now became of an entirely different character. . . [p.82]

    . . .  We ended our journey and on the evening of the 22 we arrived at [-] City where our lives and journey came to a close for which I feel very thankful indeed. . . . [p.84]
 

------------------------------

Journal of Hans Jensen Hals
Journal History, September 25, 1868, pp. 7-19,21

    Saturday, June 13, 1868--The emigrating Saints, 630 in number, went on board the steamship "Hansia at Copenhagen, Denmark, which sailed for England.  Previous to sailing President Carl Widerborg came on board and named me as leader for the company.  I was accepted by unanimous vote.  A number of police officers, the emigration agent, and several of the brethren accompanied us to Elsinore.  Owing to the large company on board we were very much crowded for room.

    Sunday, 14--We passed Laeso and Skagen and the last we saw of Denmark [p.7] was the Hanstholm Lighthouse.

    Monday, 15--We arrived safely at Hull, landed and went by train to Liverpool, where we arrived about midnight and were taken to several hotels by the brethren from the mission office in Liverpool.

    Tuesday, 16--Accompanied President Widerborg to the mission office at 42 Islington and attended to business for the emigrating Saints.

    Wednesday, 17--Visited the emigrating Saints who were stopping at seven different hotels.  Some were comfortably located, while others were dissatisfied because they had had next to nothing to eat.  I assisted in making them more comfortable, and then visited the ship Emerald Isle which is to take us across the Atlantic Ocean, and had a conversation with the captain.

    Thursday, 18--Assisted the other brethren to change money and otherwise prepare for the voyage.

    Friday, 19--The emigrating Saints went to the wharf where the Emerald Isle was lying, in the morning, but as the carpenters had not completed their labors in making temporary berths for the passengers, these were compelled to wait until past noon, when they were ushered on board in great haste.  It was a most unpleasant sight to witness the poor emigrants treated like brutes by the sailors and others, and it certainly was a wonder that none was hurt.  About 250 emigrating Saints from the British Isles also boarded the same ship.  A tug boat towed us out into the river, where we cast anchor for the night.

    Saturday, 20--President Franklin D. Richards and Elders William B. Preston and Charles W. Penrose, from the Liverpool office, came on board and a meeting was held, on which occasion the vessel was blessed and dedicated to bring the Saints safely across the mighty deep.  President Richards gave me instructions as the leader of the company, and James Smith was chosen as my first and John Fagerberg as my second counselors.  Elders Peter Hansen of Hyrum, and a Brother Parks were called to act as stewards and Hans Petersen [Hans Pederson] appointed clerk of the company.  The visiting brethren then addressed the Saints under the influence of the Spirit of God and every heart was touched by the words uttered and the pleasant influence which pervaded the assembly.  As the brethren left us to go ashore, we gave them several ringing cheers.  Soon afterwards the anchor was weighed and a small steamer tugged us out into the open sea.  I was very busy assisting the Saints in finding their baggage, which was scattered all over the ship, and showing the Saints their berths and getting [p.8] them settled down.  Thus I succeeded in bringing some little order out of chaos.  I also appointed guards to protect the Saints against the sailors, who seemed to take delight in annoying and insulting us in every way possible. . . .
 Elder Jensen continues his journal as follows:

    Sunday, June 21--We held three meetings during the day in different parts of the ship (Emerald Isle) and divided the company into 13 wards, each with a presiding elder.  A sailor fell overboard, but as he was a good swimmer he was rescued by a passing steamer.  In the evening I performed the marriage ceremony for two couples.

    Monday, 22--Beating against a contrary wind, we saw the hills of Wales and Ireland.  Together with the brethren, who assisted me, I was very busy in perfecting the organization of the company and getting the Saints satisfactorily divided into their respective wards.  We gave numbers for drawing water, provisions and cooking, administered to the sick and supplied them with medicine and little wine.

    Tuesday, 23--We commenced to distribute provisions among the people, but as this was something new and novel in the experience of the emigrating Saints, it took us nearly all day to complete the distribution.  I held a meeting with the teachers, giving them instructions about the cooking and divided the kitchen between the English and Scandinavians. [p.9]

    Wednesday, 24--I settled up financial matters with the people and conversed considerably with the captain, the doctor and the mate.

    Thursday, 25--The experiment was made with the distilling machine which should change the salt sea water into fresh water, but the trial proved unsuccessful, as the man who had been assigned the task of running the machine was incapable.  Consequently, Elder Smith consulted with the captain, and it was decided that the ship should touch at Queenstown, Ireland, to take fresh water on board.

    Friday, 26--We anchored in the outer harbor of Queenstown and the captain went ashore.  A large number of traders came out to us from ashore in boats from whom we bought bread and other things that we needed.  In the afternoon both the English and Scandinavians danced on the deck.

    Saturday, 27--The emigration inspector came on board to examine both ship and passengers; they subjected the captain and myself to considerable interrogation.  When they returned, the captain, the doctor, Brother Smith, and I accompanied them; while ashore we also made a quick visit to Cork.  Returning to Queenstown we dined in a large hotel, bought several articles for the emigrants and went on board in the evening, bringing with us a large quantity of water.

    Sunday, 28--More water was brought on board, and we held a meeting on the after deck, at which Elder Smith spoke English, Elder Fagerberg Swedish, and I both Danish and English.  Later we held four meetings on the lower decks and administered the sacrament.  Soon after that, anchor was weighed and a tug boat hauled us out into the open sea; this gave me an opportunity to write a few lines to President Franklin D. Richards, informing him that the English steward had left us, and also three of the crew, namely, the third mate, the boatswain and a sailor.

    Monday 29--I accompanied the doctor visiting the sick, who were given medicine.  We administered to a number of sick persons, and commenced to organize choirs, both among the English and Scandinavians.  We also started schools in which the English were to teach the Scandinavians to read and speak the English language.

    Tuesday, 30--We again distributed provisions among the emigrants, which this time was more expeditiously done than before.  Quite a number of the passengers suffered with stomach disorders, and about a dozen children were down with the measles. [p.10]

    Wednesday, July 1--A child belonging to Brother Jens N. Christensen from Aalborg, Denmark, died with brain fever.  We made a rude coffin, held a large meeting, at which we spoke both English and Danish, and then slid the body of the little child into the sea.  This was the first death on board.

    Thursday, 2--we made arrangements with the mate to have washing done twice a week and to have the clothes hung up to dry, after which I visited the sick, accompanied by the doctor.

    Friday, 3--Conversed freely with captain about the rights and privileges of the passengers, as both the sailors and officers treated the emigrants roughly and uncivil.  It came to harsh words between us, as I stood up for the rights of the people, exhibited my papers, and demanded that our people should be humanely treated and also have the portion of the water due them.  I succeeded in getting some concessions, though the captain was hard to move.

    Saturday, 4--Met in council with brethren of the presidency and the Steward, at which we discussed the best methods for cleanliness and the general comfort of the people, after which I accompanied the doctor in his visits among the sick.  We counted 51, who were sick with the measles.  In the afternoon the English Saints gave a concert in commemoration of the American independence.

    Sunday, 5--We held meeting on the deck and preached on the first principles of the gospel.  I appointed two men to keep order on the deck and two to look after lost property and restore it to the proper owners.

    Monday, 6--A Swedish child died with measles early in the morning; the parents were overcome with grief, as it was their only child.  We had three barrels of English beer brought up from the hold, which was distributed among the sick.  A number of the bottles were broken, owing to the fomentation and strength of the beer.

    Tuesday, 7--We held funeral services over the remains of the dead child, Elder Fagerberg officiated and preached the funeral sermon.  The wind blew heavily from the northwest and many of the Saints were seasick.  We met a large frigate from New York and exchanged signals with her.

    Wednesday, 8--We again distributed provisions to the people, and I visited the sick.  The measles are spreading rapidly; I secured medicine for the sick and we administered to a number of them. [p.11]

    Thursday, 9--The weather was good, and it rained part of the day.  The measles among the children seemed to abate some; we administered to several who got better.  We passed a vessel from London, bound for new York, with passengers.

     Friday, 10--Calm weather and rain prevailed this day.  We hunted in the hold and found the soup cans, intended for the sick, and condensed milk for the children, which we immediately distributed.  This gladdened the hearts of the sufferers.  During the night another child died with the measles; the parents were from Slagelse, on Sjaelland, Denmark.

    Saturday, 11--We held funeral services on the deck over the remains of the dead child.  The mate acted in a very ungallant manner, and disturbed our peace without cause.  It rained, but the wind was light.  A sister by the name of Nielsen, from Sjaelland, Denmark, died in the afternoon with lung disease.  We laid her on a board and brought her up in the machine room.

    Sunday, 12--We sang and prayed on the deck, then committed the body of our dead sister to the waves, after which we held meetings at four places on the ship, two on each deck.  Elder Smith and I preached in two and Elders Gaferberg [Fagerberg] and Peter Hansen in the other two.  I spoke both English and Danish.  We also administered the sacrament.  After the meetings we sang hymns and visited the sick, many of whom seemed to be improving.

    Monday, 13--This was our washday, and the first mate acted ugly and brutal towards our people.  He cut the strings and threw the clothes down on the deck.  And just as I was passing with the doctor he (the mate) grabbed Sister Sanders (from Grenaa, Denmark,) in the breast which caused her to scream.  I seized him and pulled him away from her with main force and upbraided him for his brutality.  While held the mate a number of the sailors and many of our people gathered around; also the captain.  I reminded the captain of his promises to me in Liverpool to the effect that he would permit me to settle any difficulty that might arise between the crew and the emigrants and that the sailors should not be permitted to abuse the Saints.  Incidentally I also remarked that if the ship’s officers and crew did not treat the emigrants right and humanely there were experienced sailors enough among them to manipulated the ship and bring it [p.12] safely to New York.  The captain then called the mate into the cabin and gave him a tongue lashing; he afterwards kept him three days in confinement.  It rained hard during the day.

    Tuesday, 14--We again distributed provisions.  Our effects were successful, but it took most of the day to complete our task.  We also visited the sick.  The wind was favorable and we made eight knots an hour.

    Wednesday, 15--We had a contrary wind.  There was dancing on the deck, and the mate, who was at liberty again was angry, especially with the captain, and sent a lot of water out on the deck, in order to annoy the Saints.

    Thursday, 16--We held a meeting on the deck, in which Brother Barlow spoke in English and I translated; afterwards I spoke both Danish and English, endeavoring to teach the people about proper deportment and sociability.  Later in the evening I went up and had a conversation with the first mate.  I succeeded in softening his feelings towards us, but he was angry with the captain and put the blame on him.  I then went on the middle deck, where one of the English brethren died with erysipelas.  We laid him out and brought him into the machine room.

    Friday, 17--We held funeral services on the deck over the remains of our dead brother before they were consigned to the deep; the old brother left a wife to mourn his death.  We had contrary wind and saw a large vessel en route for New York.

    Saturday, 18--Two children died with measles; we held a meeting and then buried the little ones in the sea.  The wind was good.  I compared tickets with the captain’s list, and found that there were 24 more tickets than names in the book.

    Sunday, 19--The weather was stormy and many of the passengers were sick.  A child form Randers, Denmark, died; we held meeting on deck; the English sang, and I spoke both in English and Danish, and then the body of the dead child was entrusted to the waves.  Contrary wind.  The sailors now behaved a little better toward our people than they had done before.

    Monday, 20--We secured from the hold some bullion soup, wine and brandy for the sick and weak, and distributed the same among those who needed it; and as we began to fear scarcity of water, we made out a list by which we could distribute the water sparingly.

    Tuesday, 21--We again distributed provisions to all the passengers visited the sick and gave some of them wine.  A child died with measles, [p.13] and we buried it in the evening, after holding a little meeting or funeral exercises.  During the day we saw a number of vessels.

    Wednesday, 22--We had contrary wind, and our course in consequence was northward.  Owing to icebergs in our immediate vicinity, the weather was also cold.  A child belonging to Jorgen Karlsen, of Valdsted, Jutland, Denmark, died with measles.  Prior to its burial in a water grave we held a meeting on deck.  In the afternoon we held another meeting on deck with the English Saints.  We also held three meetings on the lower decks for the Danish Saints; all the meetings were good and gave encouragement to the Saints.  A Danish woman gave birth to a large and beautiful child, and everything connected with the event came off successfully; a Swedish sister fell in a fit and another sister fell down the stairs and fainted; we administered to her and she recovered.

    Thursday, 23--We had good wind, and saw a large iceberg; also several vessels.  The captain gave us chicken soup for the sick, and we held a meeting with Scandinavians, at which Elder Fagerberg and I preached.

    Friday, 24--A number of sick persons were moved from the lower deck to better places in the fore part of the vessel; I administered to a number of them.  The English Saints entertained us with singing and telling anecdotes. We were now on the banks of Newfoundland with 35 fathoms of water.  The weather was fine.

    Saturday, 25--Good wind.  We saw eight fishing smacks and three larger vessels, at anchor.  We encountered a tempest and rain, during which one of our sails was torn and Brother Peter Christiansen, from Vendsyssel, Denmark, broke his leg through the ship’s anchor sliding on to him.  Others of the Saints had narrow escapes from being hurt.

    Sunday, 26--The storm continued, though scarcely so severe as on the first day, but the sea was very rough; the wind tore one of the larger sails, blowing portions of it into the sea.  We buried two Danish children who had died the previous night; one belonged to Brother Jens [Carl] Osterman [Ostermann], from Grenaa, and the other to a widow from Sjaelland, Denmark.  Still another Danish child died the same day.

    Monday, 27--Rain and contrary wind.  We buried the dead child.  The doctor and captain insisted on amputating Brother Christiansen’s broken limb, but I objected, and so it was bandaged instead.  We distributed special food and drink among the people, in order to alleviate their [p.14] sufferings and cheer them, but a great number of the Saints felt downhearted and discouraged, and some fainted through weakness.  During the violent heaving of the vessel a number of beds or berths fell down with people, boxes and valises that were in them, and everything of a moveable nature that could possibly get loose, was tossed about in the ship.

    Tuesday, 28--I was taken sick with fever, diarrhea, and severe pains in the stomach.  The doctor and captain made another attempt to amputate Brother Christiansen’s broken limb, but he protested so earnestly that they gave it up.

    Wednesday, 29--My sickness continued.  Elder James Smith and Hans Petersen [POSSIBLY: Hans Pedersen] visited the sick.  The weather was better and the wind favorable.

    Thursday, 30--Two children died and were buried in the sea.  One of them belonged to Johannes Olsen from Vendsyssel, Denmark.  I began to recover from my sickness, but several of the Saints on the lower deck were seized with fever.

    Friday, 31--I was better, but Brother Peter Hansen was seized with the same sickness that I had suffered with.

    Saturday, Aug. 1--A child belonging to Knud Christensen, from Aalborg, Conference, Denmark, died and was buried at sea.  I was still very weak from the effect of my sickness.

    Sunday, 2--Heavy wind.  Another child belonging to Brother Osterman died and was consigned to a watery grave; the family was from Aarhus Conference, Denmark.  Another child belong to Brother Nebel of Copenhagen Conference, Denmark, died and was buried in the sea.

    Monday, 3--An English sister, 54 years old, and another of Brother [Johan] Nebel’s children died and were buried in the ocean.  I was gradually getting better, though still weak, but I was overwhelmed with sadness because of the suffering and deaths among my people.

    Tuesday, 4--Three children died and were buried at sea.  One of them belonged to Hedvig D. Hahl, [POSSIBLY, Dahl] another to Henrik Hansen and the third to Niels Christofferson; the two latter were from Oernes Conference, Denmark.  I had by this time regained my health and held two meetings with the Saints on the deck.

    Wednesday, 5--I visited the sick, improvised a new hospital on board to which we removed a number of the sick.  By actual count we found that 150 of the surviving passengers were sick.  The cause of this terrible [p.15] condition was mainly this, that the water had spoiled and had become impure.  Sickness had also in the first place been brought on board at Liverpool.

    Thursday, 6--A little girl belonging to Brother Osterman [Ostermann] died and was buried in the sea.  We held a meeting on the deck.  The wind was favorable, though it rained considerable during the day, and it was also foggy off and on.  We made an inventory of the company’s baggage and counted 1,118 pieces.

    Friday, 7--Six of our children (One English and five Scandinavian) died and were buried in the sea.  We held services as usual before the burial and I spoke first to the English and afterwards to the Danish Saints.  I could scarcely control my feelings on this sad occasion; the innermost feelings of my heart were touched, and there was scarcely a dry eye in the assembly.  We all felt our situation most keenly; our losses and sufferings seemed to be greater than we could bear; for there were still many sick nigh unto death among us.  In the afternoon we held a general meeting for the Scandinavians and we spoke plainly to them concerning the situation on board and how carful they ought to be after landing, with their food and water.  Later, I held a council with the ward presidents and gave them the necessary instructions.  Toward evening we took pilot on board, which cheered up the drooping spirits in part, though we were still 300 miles from our destination.

    Saturday, 8--Good weather prevailed; but we had contrary wind.  The sick in the hospitals were improving; an English sister gave birth to a daughter.  The Emerald Isle is a three master frigate with three decks; the captains’s name is Gillespie, that of the first mate Check, and of the second mate McFarlind; the doctor’s name is Creeg.  The whole roster of sailors numbered 36, nearly all bad and ill tempered fellows.  We had a captain by the name of Kerby along as a cabin passenger.  The officers were continually quarreling among themselves.

    Sunday, 9--We held general meeting on the deck.  I blessed the English child born on board; it was named Emerald after the ship; after this I married Peter Nielsen, from Sjaelland, Denmark, to a sister from Hjorring Denmark, after which we preached first in English and afterwards in Danish.  The first mate disturbed us, as he was angry, and quarreled with the captain while we held our meeting, and the sailors assisted in annoying us [p.16] all they could.  Our people felt the insult keenly, particularly the English Saints, who came near defending their rights with force.  The wind was favorable all day.

    Monday, 10--A child belonging to a Brother Thorsen [Thoresen] died and was buried in the sea.  The weather was now warm, and the wind insufficient to give us speed.  The fever spread among the passengers and two more children died.

    Tuesday, 11--To our great joy and delight we saw land in the morning, and later a tug boat met us to take us in.  This inspired the passengers with life and new hope.  We buried the two children who had died the previous day in the sea.  I made a visit through the ship in the interest of cleanliness and wrote letters.  We passed Sandy Hook, soon after which the doctor and quarantine officers came on board.  Upwards of 30 of our sick passengers were take on shore in a steamer and placed in hospital.  The first mate who got mad and picked a quarrel with the captain was arrested and confined to his own room.

    Wednesday, 12--Doctor and officers again boarded the ship and examined the passengers, to ascertain if there was any contagious diseases on board.  The doctor took eight persons with him to shore and placed them in the hospital.  I also landed with him, and then took a steamer for New York, where I found Elder Hiram B. Clawson, the emigration agent, William C. Staines and Heber John Richards, to whom I gave a report of my company, and I took lodging at a hotel.

    Thursday, 13--I went to the bank with drafts and drew $26,777.25 in greenbacks and $1,000 in gold, after which I took passage on a steamer back to the quarantine landing, whence a boat took me to the Emerald Isle.  Soon after I came on board anchor was lifted and a tug boat took the vessel in to the city wharf.  Here I landed together with the captain and the doctor and put up at the Stevens Hotel.

    Friday, 14--I went to Castle Garden and received the emigrants who were landed from the Emerald Isle.  After passing through the general routine at the landing offices, we boarded two steamboats which took us a couple of miles up the river to a large shed by the railway station, where we commenced to weigh the baggage and make other preparations for the overland journey.  [p.17]

    Saturday, 15--We continued the weighing of goods.  A child died and was sent into the town for burial.  It was a very busy day for us, and we used a railroad car for an office, where four of the brethren assisted me with the business affairs of the company.  In the evening the train left with the emigrants for the west.  I remained behind to finish the business together with Brother Scholdebrand [John Skolderand].

    Sunday, 16--Worked hard at my office in the railway car.

    Monday, 17--We left New York by rail and traveled to Suspension Bridge.

    Tuesday, 18--We continued the journey to Detroit, Michigan, and provisioned the company of the road; stopped in Detroit three hours.

    Wednesday, 19--I arrived in Chicago in the morning, and worked there on the accounts until the company came along in the afternoon; I then got the Scandinavians in better cars, they having rode in the poorest cars all the way from New York.  We continued to journey and crossed the Mississippi River.

    Thursday, 20--We arrived in Council Bluffs in the evening and camped in the open air.

    Friday, 21— Brother A. Larsen from Omaha came to us in the morning and helped us to cross the river on a steamer, and also showed us the way to the station, where Sister Kjar died.  It cost us much trouble to get the Saints in the crowd ed cars, as these were poor and uncomfortable.  Some of the Saints were left to come with the next train.

    Saturday, 22—We continued the journey from Omaha westward.  Assisted by Brother Scholdebrand I was busy with the accounts.

    Sunday, 23—We crossed North Platte river.  A Sister Hansen gave birth to a child (a girl) in the cars.

    Monday, 24—We traveled through the Black Hills and passed through Laramie City.  Some of the saints were very sick on account of the heat and the ride.

CAMPED ON THE NORTH PLATTE

    Tuesday, 25—We arrived at Benton, the terminus of the railroad, where we met two companies of Church teams, about 100 teams altogether.  We traveled with these teams about seven miles and camped on the North Platte; during the night we had to sleep the best we could without our baggage.

    Wednesday, 26—Teams went back to Benton after our baggage.  After they returned, we all got very busy with washing our clothes, raising [p.18] tents, etc.

    Thursday, 27—I was busy with accounts, and all were busy making ready for the journey with the Church teams.

    Friday, 28—Accompanied by Captain John G. Holman I went to Benton to make purchases for the company.

COMPANY ORGANIZED

    Saturday, 29—I again went to Benton and bought goods for $400.  On my return to the camp I opened store in a wagon and distributed such provisions to the saints as they needed for the journey over the mountains.  Four persons who had died were buried this day.

    Sunday, 30—We loaded the wagons and held a meeting in the evening.  The instructions from President Brigham Young were read, and the company was organized.  I was appointed chaplain of the company that went with Captain Holman’s train.  There were about 60 wagons, with 12 persons to each wagon.  Church Agent Pyper gave instructions to the company.

    Monday, 31—Accompanied by Brother Carl C. Asmussen I went to Benton and bought some medicine which we thought might be useful for the sick on the journey.  We also bought guns and ammunition and other things for a number of the brethren.

    Tuesday, September 1—We commenced our journey in the wilderness.  I traveled free with the Brothers Christensen, on condition that I should help them on the journey. . . .[p.19]

    Friday, 25--We arrived safe and well in Salt Lake City. . . . [p.21]

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Life History of William James Kimber
Kimber, William James.  Life history (formerly in Msd 2050), p.1.
LDS Historical Department Archives

 . . . I left England starting from Liverpool the 20th of June, 1868 on a sailing boat named Emerald Isle.  We sailed for eight weeks before landing at Castle Garden in New York, August 14, 1868.  Much sickness and some deaths occurred on the vessel due to drinking bad water.

 The members of my family which came with me were:  Father and Mother, Charles and Elizabeth.  We left New York for the west, going by train to Council Bluffs which was located on the Missouri River.  We crossed over the river in a ferry boat in a rainstorm.  Here we remained for a few days.  We then loaded into cattle cars and traveled to Fort Benton which is about four miles from North Platte.  This was then the end of the railroad.  The time was August 25, 1868.  Men who had teams and wagons met us there.  The captain of the company was James Rathall from Grantsville.  The teamsters names were:  James Kirk of Tooele, Utah; Armis Bates of Tooele, Utah; John Rydalsh, Grantsville; and Lou Hales from Grantsville, Utah.  We had mule teams.  There were about 800 people came when I did.  I don’t remember much of our trip across the plains.  At Devil’s Gate a fish was caught and it was cooked for my mother’s breakfast.

    We got to Salt Lake City, Utah about the 25th of September 1868 . . . . [p.1]

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Autobiographical Sketch of Christian Larsen
Larsen, Christian.  Autobiographical Sketch, pp.1-2.
LDS Church Historical Archives
 

 . . . I was ordained an elder and appointed to labor in the North Zealand Branch where I labored until the spring of 1868 when I was released to emigrate to Zion.  We left Copenhagen on Saturday June 13 and seven days later (June 20) we embarked on the packet ship Emerald Isle at Liverpool.  We had a most unpleasant voyage of eight weeks.  I shall never forget the horrors of the [p.1] weeks; the worst, it is said, of all other emigrations.  At Benton we met the Church teams and many of us had our first experience of traveling with ox teams.  We arrived in Salt Lake City on the 25 of September, where we were met by acquaintances and taken to Brigham City where on the 23 December 1868, I was married to Mary Ann Larson who arrived with us and had experienced all the hardships of our famous voyage . . . . [p.2]

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Autobiography and Diary of Christian Nielsen Lund
Lund, Christian Nielsen.  Autobiography and diary (Ms 1900), pp 11-13.
LDS Archives

 On the 19th of June, 1868, we went on board the sailer, Emerald Isle, and toward evening we glided out of the harbor of Liverpool, about 1000 souls on board.  This voyage, which lasted 56 days was exceedingly unpleasant.  Bad water, poor provisions brought sickness and death.  We cast overboard 37 children and 4 adults, and many contracted diseases and died during the first few weeks after our landing.  Elder Hans Jenson Hals [PROBABLY Hans Jenson], now Bishop of Manti South Ward, was our captain or leader and done the very best he could for us.

     At the dawn of day on August 11th we beheld for the first time the shores of America.  As we sailed into the beautiful harbor of New York where could be seen on either side the lovely villages and mansions on the hillsides peeping through the green foliage and pleasure steamers crossing and recrossing.  We were charmed with the grandeur of the scene.

     After having endured a long and very unpleasant voyage I was so overjoyed in seeing land, I went to a secluded place and offered my gratitude to my Heavenly Father for his kind care over us in leading us safely to see the land hallowed by him to bring forth his work in the [p.11] latter days.

    On Friday, August 14th, we landed in Castle Garden and started the same evening by rail for the West.  While on the ocean, a Sister Anna Maria Jenson [Jensen] from Odense, a poetess and afterwards my mother-in-law, presented me with the following verses composed by herself.  [THE VERSES ARE IN DANISH AND NOT TRANSLATED]

    We now journeyed on by rail through the eastern and western states touching Chicago, Omaha, and other cities, and arrived at a place in the Platte River, 700 miles west of Omaha on the Union-Pacific Line by name of Fort Benton, about 500 miles east of Salt Lake City to which point the said railroad was now finished.

    August 25th, here we were met by the church teams that should bring us the balance of the way to Utah.
 On September 1st we commenced our journey with ox team, Brother John G. Holman of American Fork was our captain, and after a quite agreeable journey we camped on the evening of Sept. 24 in the Mouth of Parleys Canyon, [p.12] and about 9 o’clock in the morning of Sept. 25 Friday we entered Salt lake City--and camped temporarily in the Tithing Yard. [p.13]

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Autobiography of Margaret Robertson Salmon
Salmon, Margaret Robertson, [Autobiography], Our Pioneer Heritage, comp. by Kate B Carter, vol. 11 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1968), p. 252-253.
 

 . . . We remained in Ireland two and a half years and then set sail for America.  We embarked on the Emerald Isle, said to have been the last sailing vessel that ever brought a company of Saints.  This voyage proved a very disastrous one, there being 38 deaths on board during the eight weeks which we were upon the ocean; on account of the ill-favorableness of the wind, which often blew us back and kept us much longer than had the wind been in our favor.  One of the 38 who died while at sea was my bright-eyed little sister Elizabeth, three years old.  I [p.252] can never forget the look of agony on my mother’s face when her little girl’s body was put overboard, one of four that day.
 

    We arrived at Castle Garden, New York Aug. 11, where we boarded the train for Omaha.  Arriving at Omaha, we camped at Fort Benton, awaiting Captains Mumford and Holman, who were to bring the wagons to take us to Utah.  Mother walked nearly all the way as father was sick most of the time and had to ride.  Mother helped to care for many of the sick on the vessel and on the plains.  There was much sickness all the way to Zion.

    My grandpa, Uncle Robert, and Aunt Maggie Salmon came to meet us up Echo Canyon and conveyed us to their home, where for the first time that summer we slept under a roof, as we had left our home in Ireland on the 4th of June and did not arrive at our destination until the 22nd of September.  Well do I remember the first night in Utah; I slept upon a large oilcloth sack which was full of clothes and many times during the night did I roll off upon the floor.  But early in the morning I was up and we were greeted by our Uncle Willie and Aunt Maggie Calderwood, who brought us some beautiful biscuits, fresh milk, butter and cheese.  We children thought that we had come to the land of plenty after having lived on the hard sea biscuit for so long.  When we had sickened on them, Mother made them into puddings, for they were so hard we could not bite them.  My mother saved a sack full over our allowance. . . . [p.253]

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Forest Monarch

Hansen Family History
Hansen, Joseph.  Hansen Family History (Ms 4519), pp. 7-9,12 Acc. #26144.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives
 
 

 . . . On the 20th of December 1852 the company comprising 297 souls left the Port of Copenhagen and sailed northward on the Baltic Sea.  The sea was very rough through Ostegat and Skagrack Channels, but far worse upon the North Sea they being tossed back and forth by the wind and waves, requiring two weeks to reach Hull, England.  Many times they thought they would surely "go down, but he who controls the winds and the waves did not forsake them.  Disembarking at Hull they crossed England on the Railroad to Liverpool.  This was the first and only time that my father rode in a railroad train.  A ship, the Forest Monarch had been chartered.  Captain Brown in command.  This was what would now be called a very small ship, a three mast schooner which had carried other Latter-day Saints across the Atlantic, and I might say ship owners were very pleased to carry Latter-day Saints immigrants or elders.  Some saying it was the best [p.7] assurance of a safe trip that was known, as it was a well known fact that for many years no ship had been lost between European parts and America carrying Mormons.  On Jan. 8, 1853 as nearly as we can determine, the Forest Monarch with 297 Danish immigrants, with a few others from the British Isles left Liverpool for New Orleans, U.S.A.  Among the luggage of my parents was two wooden boxes in which they had packed clothing.  These boxes were three feet six inches long by two feet six inches wide.  One was twenty-six inches high, the other thirty inches high.  I give the dimensions in detail, because my mother's bed was made upon these boxes, and since one was four inches higher than the other, it would be a rather uncomfortable bedstead.  A rope was fastened at a convenient height lengthwise of the bed to which she could hold when the ship rocked too heavily.  On the 14th of February my mother presented her husband a daughter as a birthday remembrance, that being his thirty-first birthday.  She was given the name of Geraldine.  This was indeed a severe experience when we contemplate the above described bed, the meager means of sanitation, inadequate food and general discomfort.  We can only roughly calculate where this birth occurred, but probably near mid Atlantic.  Another babe was born about the same time to Sister Hannah Dennison, wife of Hans Dennison who was named for my father and the name of the ship.  Viz:  Jens Monarch Dennison.  I have heard my mother tell of friends washing baby things as best they could and she and Sister Dennison would finish drying them by the heat of their bodies.

 After a long tedious voyage they landed at New Orleans sometime near the latter part of March, having been on the ship eleven weeks.  Spring had come and the orange trees were in bloom and all nature was clothed in resplendent beauty in contrast to the dreary surroundings they had so recently left.  They remained in New Orleans a short time waiting for a river boat sufficiently large enough to carry the company up the Mississippi River. When the boat [p.8] was secured they again set sail up the Mighty Father of Waters.  This was a real pleasure trip where they could be on dock [deck] and enjoy the beautiful scenery on both sides.  Reaching St. Louis they landed and remained there a month when they again embarked on a steamer which carried them up the Mississippi to Keokuk, Iowa, where they landed and from this point they were to start across the plains. . . . [p.9]

 . . . they reached Salt Lake City on September 29, 1853. . . . [p.12]

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Autobiography of Peter Madsen
Madsen, Peter.  Autobiography (Ms 8214) pp. 18-22.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

 . . . I had sometime before loaned some money to Apostle Erastus Snow for travel from Denmark to Utah.  It was some about 200 or $300 he got, which was promised to me again when I should emigrate.  I had to leave mother, 2 brothers, 3 sisters, my wife had also to leave, mother, brother, sisters and some good old friends.  Some feel sorry for us to have us leave them, but we was glad in the hope of the future.  We went from home in peace and came to Copenhagen, where we had to be a few days until everything got ready for sailing.  We started December 20th from [p.18] Copenhagen, and came to Kiel that evening, now on railroad to Altona.  We sailed from Hamburg, the 24th and came to Hullon England, the 28th.  But on those 4 days we had the hardest and most dangerous time on the whole long way we came.  It looks like we should have been swallow up of the water but the hand of God was over us.  Not a life was lost, but some part of the ship was broken.  I was much sick and fasted in 3 days.  We came to Hull in England the 28th.  The next day we came on rails to Liverpool.  On the 31st we came on a big sail ship which brought us to America.  Jan. 1st 1853 was we pulled a little way out from the City.  Here we lay still to the 16th.  Here in this time we had singing and prayers and meetings and dancing; births, and deaths, and marriages.  On the 16th we started for America.  I was much seasick the first days [p.19] but when I got more used to circumstances I got well again.  John E. Forsgreen was our president and leader on the whole journey.  On the ship we had many different thing to meet, some pleasant and some not so very pleasant.  Our food was not of the best kind and the water was so little and simple.  Also on March 17 we came to the City of New Orleans.  We stay here only a short time.  Then we came on a steamship.  There should take us to St. Louis, here we came on the 29th.  Here we had to stay for a month.  Now some of us went to work.  I work on the grading of a new railroad a few days.
 Now it came to pass on the 19th of April 1853 that my first child was born, a daughter.  We named her Josephine Ephramine, but she died on the 30th and was buried the same day.  Now on May 1st we started for Keokuk.  The day after all our things was hauled about a mile [p.20] from the city, where we had to be until our oxen and wagons, and provisions was gathered.  Now some got ready and started on the 18th, others the 21st of May. . . . [p.21]

 . . . We reached Salt Lake City, here we came to September 30th. . . . [p.22]

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Manuscript history of the John H. Forsgren Emigrating Company
Translated from Danish.  (Typescript)  (Ms 4592), pp. 1-15, 35.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives
 

     Monday, December 20, 1852.  At 12:30 p.m. we sailed from Copenhagen for Kiel on the small ship "Obetrit".

    Tuesday, Dec. 21.  We laid at anchor most of the day.

    Wednesday, Dec. 22. The anchor was lifted this morning and we again proceeded on our way; in the evening we arrived at Kiel. There was a good deal of sickness among the brethren and sisters on this trip, but the Lord was kind to them all, and only one needed the help of a doctor. We heard that a very large ship which had sailed at the same time that our ship sailed had driven in the storm, lost one of its boats, and received much more damage than ours.

    Thursday, Dec. 23.  At 6:30 a.m. we left Kiel on the railroad, and arrived at Altona at 9:30, where we were very kindly received. Through the courtesy of Morris & Company we were served warm food and drinks, which were very refreshing. The remainder of the day we stayed in Altona.

    Friday, Dec 24.  We felt strengthened today by both spiritual and bodily food. At 2 p.m. we sailed on the steamship "Lion for Hull, England. We all got on board all right, with the exception of Sister Knudsen, who was sick and could not go with us. After having sailed until 8:45 in the evening, we dropped anchor at Cuxhaven, as the captain dared not sail farther on account of fog and storm. We remained at anchor all Christmas Eve, and throughout the night.

    Saturday, Dec. 25. We remained at anchor until one o’clock in the afternoon, when the anchor was lifted and we sailed to the coast of Holland called Nye Werk. Here, after sailing for three-fourths of an hour more, we again dropped anchor. At midnight the anchor was again lifted and we proceeded on our way towards England.

    Tuesday, Dec 28.  After sailing all of Sunday and Monday, and most of today we arrived through the grace and kindness of God at Hull, England at 5 o’clock in the evening. We had come through a storm the like of which the captain of the ship said he had never been out in. Some of the ship’s cargo was ruined, and the wind was so strong that our clothes were nearly blown overboard. The Lord helped and strengthened all of us both in body and soul so that we could continue our journey without delay. [p.1]

    Wednesday, Dec 29.  At 12 o’clock noon we boarded a railroad train for Liverpool, where we arrived at 9 o’clock that evening. We were all happy and well; and were shown to a place where we received warm food and drink, and a night’s lodging.

    Thursday, Dec 30.  We stayed at the same place.

    Friday, Dec. 31.  We came on board the ship which the Lord had chosen to carry us to New Orleans. It was a freight called the Forest Monarch, a large and strong vessel. While on board the ship today some of the Saints suffered from hunger. This day closes the year 1852, during which many great blessings have come to us. My prayer is that they may also continue throughout the coming year, through our Lord Jesus Christ, amen.

    Now, in the name of Jesus Christ, the only Begotten of the Father, I humbly write something in the new year, and turn my attention to writing the most important happenings that God will let occur to his people in this year; and I pray that the blessings and grace of God may be with and continue over us from now and until all eternity, in the name of Jesus Christ, amen.

    Saturday, January 1, 1853. The first day of the new year had come, and the Lord blessed us again with the necessities of life. In the evening a gathering was held, and the blessings of the Lord were with us. A child [a girl] was born to Brother W. Andersen’s wife.

    Sunday, Jan. 2.  The blessings of the Lord were with us again this day, and meetings were held on board ship.

    Monday, Jan. 3.  The blessings of the Lord were over us still; the weather was good, and Sister Knudsen arrived on board ship.

    Tuesday, Jan. 4.  The Lord’s blessings were also over his children. The same with us on Wednesday, the 5th, and Thursday, the 6th.

    Friday, Jan. 7.  Inasmuch as a good order had not been instituted in connection with the preparation of food, cleaning, and water, and some had complained, Brother Julius Herman Christensen called all the brethren together. The following was proposed and unanimously accepted:

    1st. That Brothers Hans Christian Hansen and F. H. Petersen [Pedersen] should supervise delivery to the kitchen of the necessities for the preparation of food at dinner.

    2nd. That Brothers Ole Christian Nielsen and Ole Svendsen should supervise the cleaning on board ship.

    3rd.  That Brothers William Andersen, Mads Christian Jensen, R. Johnsen, Ipsen, Wilhelm  Andersen, C. T. Sorensen, Christian Nielsen, Aagren, Niels Pedersen, Niel Mikkelsen, Niels Peter L. Domgaard, Frederick Jensen, and Ole Svendsen should be named as captains over those who divided out the day’s dinner to the brethren and sisters. [p.2]

    4th. That Brothers Andersen Hans Larsen, R. Johnsen, Christian Bernsen, Knud Nielsen, Christian Christiansen, and O. Chr. Nielsen should be appointed captains over those who were to give fresh water to the brethren and sisters and supply the necessary salt water to the kitchen.

    5th.  To be of help in preparing food in the kitchen were chosen Brothers Hansen and Andersen, and Sister Frederikke.  In the evening a meeting was held.

    Saturday, Jan. 8.  The blessings of the Lord were also with us. Elder [John E.] Forsgren and Brother Willard Snow, Hansen, and Prebi (who had arrived here from Utah on his way to Denmark), came on board and in the evening held a meeting. Brothers Snow, Forsgren, Christiansen, and Prebe spoke to the Saints. There were four couples on board who desired to enter into the contract of marriage, and Brother J. [John] E. Forsgren performed the ceremonies ; the Saints gave their unanimous consent. Those who were married were: R. Johnsen and Birgithe Grorette; O. Chr. Nielsen and Christine Gotfredsen; Christian Bernsen and Marie Andersen; and Christen Hansen and Cissel L.  A child of Brother Sorensen, Dykes Villard Sorensen, was blessed by Brother John E. Forsgren, and then Brother Forsgren closed the meeting with prayer. Following the meeting the brethren and sisters enjoyed the enjoyed the evening in dancing and music.

    Sunday, Jan. 9. A meeting was held; a spirit of peace and quiet prevailed and God’s blessings and spirit were over us all.

    Monday, Jan. 10.  A meeting was held on board. At 10 o’clock this evening Christen Jensen, age 82 ½ years , passed away.

    Tuesday, Jan, 11.  Brother Forsgren again came on board. Later in the day word came to send the body of Christen Jensen ashore where it would be buried. A meeting was held in the evening, and Brothers O. Chr. Nielsen, R. Johnsen, S. Thomsen, and Elder Forsgren spoke. A good spirit was present at the meeting; great blessings were over us, and all the brethren and sisters raised their hands in agreement to live in harmony with each other, so that they also might be obedient to the ship’s officers, and that the blessings of the Lord might be with us.

    Wednesday, Jan. 12.  The blessings of the Lord were with us, but about 4 o’clock a son of Brother N. P. Domgaard, (Lauritz Elias Domgaard), passed away, and ten minutes later Christian Nielsen, age 26, passed away.

    Thursday, Jan. 13.  The blessings of the Lord were again with us. In the afternoon the bodies of those who had died were taken ashore, to be buried at Liverpool. A meeting was held in the evening at which Elder Forsgren spoke words of sympathy and inspiration to us. Brothers Johnsen and Aagren also spoke. [p.3]

    Friday, Jan. 14.   Another meeting was held this evening. A good spirit was present among the brethren and sisters, and we have learned considerable. Complaints had almost ceased; some few, who had been sick for quite a while, were still ill. Brother Christiansen read a few passages from the Book of Mormon, prayer was held, and we all retired to our own.

    Saturday, Jan. 15.  Nothing outstanding happened, and the day closed with the blessings of the Lord.

    Sunday, Jan, 16.  The weather was fine. We have now been on this ship for 16 days. Many great and important things have been revealed to us. The Lord has inspired his servant, Elder Forsgren, with his spirit, and murmurings and complaints which had been among us have ceased, and we have commenced to progress again. A meeting was held in the forenoon at which Brothers Christiansen and Christensen spoke encouragingly to us. About 11:30 this morning the anchor was lifted, and about 12 o’clock a steam tugboat came and pulled us out until about 4 o’clock in the afternoon, when it left us. It was cold and had begun to rain a little. All the Saints were well except eight who were more or less sick, some because of the water. We have lost 3 persons, before named, and the Lord has given us two--which makes one less than when we left Copenhagen. In the evening Elder Forsgren spoke to us, and we partook for the first time on this voyage the holy Sacrament. The meeting was opened with prayer by Elder Forsgren. It rained and blew a little in the evening. Brother Jeppe Bensen, who had been bitten in the leg while in Hamburg, by a dog, had to remain in Liverpool as his leg became badly infected and swollen; and his leg smelled so terribly that it would have infected the whole ship, and no one would have been able to attend to him.

    Monday, Jan. 17.  The weather was good with a slight wind.

    Tuesday, Jan. 18.  The same.

    Wednesday, Jan. 19.  The same. In the evening and during the night the wind blew very hard.

    Thursday, Jan. 20.   The weather remained about the same. Brother Hans Larsen fell and knocked his arm out of place, but Brothers Forsgren, Hansen and Domgaard took hold of it and Elder Forsgren put it in place, and anointed it with oil. In the evening the Saints danced and sang.  Brother Christiansen played on his violin, which brought joy to his listeners. Brother Forsgren, Knud Christensen, Christian Christiansen, E. Christiansen, Aagren, Lars A. Justesen, and Hansen spoke. The gathering closed with a song, and prayer by Brother Forsgren. [p.4]

    Friday, Jan. 21, 1853.  The wind and weather were good, although it blew quite hard. In the evening Elder Forsgren spoke; Sister Hansen and her son, and Sister Piil were blessed, and prayer was held. In this meeting Elder Forsgren proposed, and it was unanimously accepted, first, that talks be given on the building up of Zion, and the thousand years reign, and that questions be asked on these subjects; and second, that four brethren talk, each of them being given half an hour. It was unanimously voted that these four brethren should be Aagren, Ole C. Nielsen, H. J. Christensen, and Christian Christiansen, who were all elders, and that these should be given Monday evening at 7 o’clock.

    Saturday, Jan. 22.  The wind did not blow quite so strong. In the evening President Forsgren spoke a short time out on the deck, and prayer was held there.

    Sunday, Jan. 23. There was only a slight wind today, but we still moved forward. At a meeting held in the afternoon Elder Forsgren spoke and read a revelation which was given to Joseph Smith in Nauvoo on July 12, 1843. The meeting was opened by Elder Forsgren, and closed with prayer by C.  Christiansen. In the evening Brother Knud Christensen offered prayer.

    Monday, Jan. 24.  The wind was very good, and we had a little rain in the afternoon. A meeting was held this evening, as arranged. It opened with a song, and prayer was offered by President Forsgren. Brothers Aagren, O.C. Nielsen, H. J. Christensen, and C. Christiansen talked on the building up of Zion and what we should do in the thousand years reign. Following these talks Elder Forsgren spoke extensively on the same subjects. It was then proposed and unanimously accepted that on Thursday evening at 7 o’clock talks should be given on the priesthood, beginning with the aaronic, or lesser priesthood. Brothers M. Chr. Jensen, Pethr [Peter A.] Forsgren, Jens Knudsen, and Sorensen were unanimously proposed and accepted to give these talks. The meeting closed with prayer by Brother H. J. Christensen.

    Tuesday, Jan. 25.  The weather was good. With a strong wind this morning one of the sails was torn to pieces. In the afternoon the wind came up so strong that most of the sails had to be furled; the wind was accompanied by hail and rain, and made it very difficult to steer the boat. The storm continued for some time. Towards evening we saw a ship which had lost part of its bowsprit. Brother P. C. Nielson fell and received a hard bump.

    Wednesday, Jan. 26.  We had a good wind with occasional clouds and rain and hail. In the evening Brother Forsgren spoke a little, and prayer was offered by Brother Justesen. Sister Sorensen fell and hurt her knee. [p. 5]

    Thursday, Jan. 27.   The weather was very good; the sun shone high and warm in the heavens. The wind rose in the evening, and it lightninged. As arranged last Monday, our speakers this evening were Brothers J. Knudsen, P. Forsgren, M. Chr. Jensen, and Sorensen, but they all desired that Elder J. E. Forsgren should speak on the assigned subject and thus instruct them all. This he did. It was proposed and unanimously accepted that the following Monday, if weather permitted, talks should be given on the gathering of Israel and the building up of Jerusalem. And it was unanimously accepted that Brothers N. Mikkelsen, V. Andersen, N. P. Domgaard, and Christensen should handle these subjects. The meeting was opened with song, and prayer by Elder Forsgren, and closed with prayer by Brother Aagren. In the evening prayer was held in the cabin.

    Friday, Jan. 28.  We had good wind and weather and the blessings of the Lord were over us. In the evening prayer was held in the cabin.

    Saturday, Jan. 29.  We had good wind and weather. In the afternoon it happened that the "Hae sail halyard broke. In the evening Brother Hans Christian Hansen offered prayer.

    Sunday, Jan. 30.  The wind and weather were again good. Brother K. [Knud] Christensen offered prayer this morning.  In the afternoon a meeting was held on the deck. After the opening song, prayer was offered by Brother J. [John] E. Forsgren, who then spoke. Following him, Brothers W. Andersen, O. Svendsen, and C. Christiansen spoke, and Elder Forsgren said a few more words. The meeting closed with a song, and prayer by Brother C. T. Sorensen. The brethren and sisters rejoiced in the words of comfort and instruction which had been given them. In the evening Brother C. M. Olsen prayed. The weather and [UNCLEAR, PROBABLY, was] good and we came into the zone of trade winds.

    Monday, Jan. 31.  The weather was good and the wind very fine. In the morning Brother C. Christiansen offered prayer. As per arrangements, a meeting was held this evening. Brothers Niels Lauritz Christensen, W. Andersen, N. P. Domgaard and N. Mikkelsen were the speakers, as appointed last Thursday evening. Brother Christiansen also talked on the appointed subject, and said that he had many questions to give which he would like answered. Brother Forsgren spoke next, and at the close of his talk asked Brother Christiansen to give the questions which he desired answered. They were given, and then Brother Forsgren proposed that the following be answered (which was unanimously accepted):   How shall the devil be bound? and with what chain shall he be bound?   Why shall he come up out of the ground and lead away the people, and who are the people he will lead away?[p. 6]   Thereafter, it was unanimously agreed that Brothers William Andersen, R. Johnson, O. Svendsen, and F. H. Petersen should speak on these questions next Monday evening. The meeting was opened with prayer by Elder J. E. Forsgren, and closed with prayer by Brother Christiansen.

    Tuesday, Feb. 1.  We had good wind and weather. In the morning Brother K. Christensen offered prayer, and in the evening Elder J. E. Forsgren. The air became very warm toward evening, and it rained a little.

    Wednesday, Feb. 2.  The wind and weather were about the same. Brother H. C. Hansen offered prayer this morning, and Brother K. Christensen in the evening.

    Thursday, Feb. 3.  The weather and wind were good, with occasional storm clouds. This morning Brother Ipsen informed us that his child had died, and at 10 a.m. it was cast into the sea. We met this evening as per previous arrangement and heard Brothers W. Anderson, M. [Mikkel] Johnsen, O. Svendsen and H. F. Petersen speak on the appointed questions. Elder Forsgren spoke a few words of warning and advice to us, and then Brother Christiansen spoke. He said he had been about to see how obedient the brethren and sisters were in attending meeting, and found B. F. Holzhansen and [Christoffer] Bernhardt Hansen laughing and playing in one end of the ship about the same time that meeting was on. He wished that the brethren and sisters would keep their children clean and not let vermin of any sort spread over the ship. It was proposed by President Forsgren, and unanimously accepted that next Sunday be observed as a fast day. The meeting was opened with prayer by Brother Forsgren, and closed with prayer by Brother Christiansen.

    Friday, Feb. 4.  The weather and wind were fine the whole day. The blessings of the Lord were over us. In the morning Brother Justesen offered prayer, and in the evening Brother F. H. Petersen offered prayer; all were well.

    Saturday, Feb. 5.  Brother C. Christiansen offered prayer. The weather was good.

    Sunday, Feb. 6.  As arranged, we observed fast day. Meeting was opened with prayer; the Spirit of the Lord was with us in rich abundance. Several stood up and acknowledged their faults; many talks were given which were inspirational and up building. The morning was closed with prayer by Elder  Forsgren, and the congregation dismissed for one-half hour. The meeting was opened again by Brother Christiansen. The Spirit of the Lord was again present. The holy Sacrament was administered; the closing prayer was offered by Elder Forsgren. I was also present and felt lifted up, and received rich blessings. [p.7]

    Monday, Feb. 7.  This morning Poul Poulsen, a son of Brother Anders Poulsen, died, and his body was cast into the sea. In the afternoon a son of Brother H. C. Hansen became so sick that he was nearly dead, but after having been blessed twice by Elders Forsgren and Christiansen, and several of the brethren, he began to get better, for which I am thankful to my Heavenly Father. At 7 o’clock in the evening the brethren and sisters assembled in meeting, which was opened with prayer by Elder Forsgren. As per arrangement, four brethren should have talked on the resurrection, but inasmuch as they had only been notified just before meeting, and as it was very warm, it was decided that they should speak the following Thursday evening on the resurrection. They were Justesen, H. C. Hansen, C. Christensen, and N. Pedersen. Elder Forsgren spoke to the congregation, and the meeting was closed with a song, and prayer by Elder W. Andersen. In the there was some very strong lightning. [UNCLEAR]

    Tuesday, Feb. 8.  We had a heavy rainstorm, with lightning and thunder. Following the rainstorm there was a dead calm, but soon the wind came up again.

   Wednesday, Feb. 9.  We had good weather, but not a good wind. (Brother Sorensen’s affair).

    Thursday, Feb. 10. The wind was about the same. In the evening we held the appointed meeting, which was opened with prayer by Elder Forsgren. The brethren talked on the resurrection, as appointed, following which Elder [John E.] Forsgren also talked on the same subject. It was decided to have talks on the resurrection the following Monday evening; and to have a day of fasting and prayer next Sunday, just like the past Sunday. Elder Forsgren closed the meeting with prayer.

    Friday, Feb. 11.  Brother Christiansen offered prayer in the evening, after which Elder Forsgren talked to the Saints and warned them; following this he prayed with and for us.

    Saturday, Feb. 12.  Nothing of importance.

    Sunday, Feb. 13.  The brethren and sisters met as appointed for fasting and prayer. Brothers Christiansen and O. Svendsen spoke. Brother Sorensen stood up and acknowledged his faults, and after him his wife also acknowledged her faults and prayed the congregation to forgive her. Next Brother Christiansen arose, and spoke to Brothers Andersen and Justesen, and Brother Andersen stood up and explained that he had talked with Brother F.  Holzhansen, who had broken the laws of God and never came to meeting, and who had turned to sin and worldly ways and would not turn therefrom, but who still said that [p. 8] he served God and had always done so. He had asked Brother Holzhansen to come and talk with Elder Forsgren, but had not done so. Brothers Andersen and Justesen had talked with him, but there was no hope for his becoming better and repenting. Brother Andersen gave this testimony alone, as Brother Justesen was sick and could not be to meeting. Brothers William Andersen and N. Mikkelsen next stood up and corroborated the testimony which Brother Andersen gave. Brother Christiansen proposed that Brother Holzhansen be cut off from the Church, which was seconded by Brother H. J. Christensen, and unanimously agreed by the congregation.

    Thereafter Brother Christiansen said that there had been complaints about Brother Ramus Andersen and his wife, that they did not live as they should, and were not united. This was also established by Brother N. Mikkelsen, who said that he had talked with Brother Ramus Andersen’s wife, and she had told him that she did not recognize him as a servant of God. Brother H. Johnsen said that he had talked to Brother R. Andersen, but that his counsel had not been received. After Brother Christiansen and Forsgren had talked to them and asked them if they would repent, and if Brother R. Andersen would conduct himself according to his calling and nothing more, Brother Andersen stood and asked the brethren and sisters to forgive him and remember him in their prayers.

    R. Andersen’s wife acknowledged her faults also, and asked for forgiveness. It was unanimously agreed to forgive them. After prayer by Brother Christiansen, the meeting adjourned for half an hour. It had been opened with prayer by Brother A. Aagren. The afternoon session was opened with prayer by Brother M. Johnsen. Several stood up and acknowledged their faults, and rich blessings rested over the congregation. Brother Forsgren closed the meeting with prayer. I felt very good and strengthened in my faith, as I felt the same as some of those who had spoken.

    Monday, Feb. 14.  We had only a very slight wind. A meeting should have been held in the evening, but Brother Forsgren called the elders of each mess together and talked to them, and said that inasmuch as the weather was so warm that it would be harmful to have a meeting below decks. It was unanimously accepted to discontinue holding meetings in the evening. This afternoon a child was born to Brother Jens Hansen’s wife.

    Tuesday, Feb. 15.  A sailing vessel was close by this morning but soon sailed past us. There have also been several other vessels on previous days which have sailed past. I have been enjoying very good health. This afternoon the call rang out "land (the island Desirade), and in the evening [p. 9] we passed by Guadeloupe. [Guadeloupe]  This evening a child was born to the wife of Poul Christian Larsen. A good wind sprang up towards evening.

    Wednesday, Feb. 16.  The wind and weather were good. Elder Forsgren talked to the assembly in the evening.

    Thursday, Feb. 17.  Wind and weather good.

    Friday, Feb. 18.   I saw a large flock of birds.

    Saturday, Feb. 19.  In the morning I saw the eastern point of the island of St. Domingo, called Altavella. In the evening we passed Pt. Gravois and Cape Tiburon.

    Sunday, Feb. 20.  We passed C. [Cape] Tiburon, and could see the whole of it, although the mountains were so high that the clouds came down their slopes, and in one place the top of a mountain could be seen above the clouds. A meeting was held in the morning, which was opened with prayer by Brother C. Christiansen. N. Chr. Christiansen, Christian Christiansen, Chr. Willardsen, and Peter A. Forsgren spoke. The afternoon meeting opened with song, and prayer by C. Christiansen.  Elders Forsgren, C. Christiansen, Aagren, R. Johnson and Sister Petersen Spoke.  The afternoon meeting was closed with prayer by Elder Forsgren.

    Monday, Feb. 21.  I could still see the western part of the island of St. Domingo. The wind was not very good. In the afternoon Ipsen’s child died.

    Tuesday, Feb. 22.  We also saw a little of St. Domingo.

    Wednesday, Feb. 23. Beautiful weather. At 3 o’clock this afternoon we sailed over a bank just north of Jamaica. The water was so clear that we could see the bottom. After sailing two or three hours we had to change our course and head southward over the bank, over which we luckily passed in safely. The weather was quite calm, but a better wind came up in the night.

    Thursday, Feb. 24.  We passed by Jamaica, a high land through the center of which is a stretch of high mountains. There was hardly any wind this afternoon, and we tacked but slowly. Towards evening it began to rain; a good wind arose and we sailed rapidly.

    Friday, Feb. 25.  Also good wind. We could still see Jamaica. In the evening the lee sail blew down.

    Saturday, Feb. 26.  The wind was also good.

    Sunday, Feb. 27.  The wind was still good. A meeting was held this morning. After a song, Elder Forsgren offered prayer. Brother Forsgren, H. J. Christensen, and M. Chr. Jensen spoke to the up building and teaching of the Saints. Elder Christiansen gave the closing prayer. Meeting in the afternoon was opened with song, and prayer by Elder Christiansen. Brother M. Johnsen spoke [p. 10] to the edification of the Saints, and Brother Christiansen counseled us to go forward and "not destroy the ice which is over the rivers, will come over some of us.  Elder Forsgren spoke next, and counseled us to refrain from carelessness, and to serve God so that neither earthquakes nor destructions would come over us and the Lord not stay His hand to protect us. I feel my weakness and pray God to help me. Elder H. J. Christensen closed the meeting with prayer. In the evening we passed by Cape St. Antonio.

    Monday, Feb. 28.  A child of Brother Poul Chr. Larsen died in the evening. We had a good wind.

    Tuesday, Feb. 29.  It rained hard during the night; we had a contrary wind until in the afternoon, when we had a little better wind. The brethren met, as called by Elder Forsgren. Elder Forsgren spoke and counseled on the things which would be necessary in sailing up the river, with regard to the necessities of life, and on what should be done with the poor who did  not have money enough for the rest of the journey. There had been some doubt among the Saints as to their money, so it was explained to them. This brought peace to them, and several stood up and declared their willingness to offer their money and what extra they had, to Elder Forsgren, to handle as he saw best. Elders Christiansen and H. J. Christensen spoke also, and bore witness to Elder Forsgren’s honesty in handling their money. It was unanimously voted to offer all for the welfare of Zion and the building up of the Kingdom of God. The meeting closed with prayer and thankfulness to the Lord for His grace and spirit which had been with us, by Elder C. Christiansen. I felt uplifted in spirit and desired to serve God.

    Wednesday, Mar. 2.  The wind has changed, and it is necessary for us to tack again.

    Thursday, Mar. 3.  The contrary wind continued.

    Friday, Mar. 4.  The same.

    Saturday, Mar. 5.  The same.

    Sunday, Mar. 6.  The wind was good. A meeting was held in the forenoon, which was opened with song, and prayer by Brother Chr. Nielsen, and closed with prayer by Elder C. Christiansen. Elders H. J. Christensen C. Christiansen and J. [John] E. Forsgren spoke. In the afternoon Elders O. Chr. Nielsen, Father C. Christensen and J. E. Forsgren spoke words of counsel; N. P. Domgaard spoke, and then Brother Rasmus Christensen said that he had dreamed that he saw the sun as it was when two hours high in the Heaven. On each side there was a crown; and on one side was a man on a horse. The man held a sword in his hand. Then he saw that God reached out his hand and hit at the earth twice. This woke [p. 11] him up and he prayed to the Lord. The meeting was opened with prayer by A. Aafren, and closed with prayer by Elder J. E. Forsgren.

    Monday, Mar. 7.  In the morning we could see the land of America. We came into the Mississippi River and sailed up it until about 4 o’clock in the afternoon, when we anchored. Shortly after, Elder Forsgren went ashore to put in order the necessary preparations for the rest of our journey. In the evening Brother Jorgensen’s wife died.

    Tuesday, Mar. 8.  A casket was made this morning for Sister Jorgensen, and about 12 o’clock noon we went ashore and buried her on an island where there were many tree stumps. The land here was very rich; there was a lighthouse. This is the first land I have trodden on, and I prayed to God, on my face, that He would bless me. We remained in that place the rest of the day. I wrote home to my parents.

    Wednesday, Mar. 9. I wrote to Brother Chr. Larsen.

    Thursday, Mar. 10.  We still stayed in the same place.

    Friday, Mar. 11.  A child of Brother Pedersen died.

    Saturday, Mar. 12.   The wife of Brother C. Christensen died.

    Sunday, Mar. 13.  Brother Ipsen, Elder, died.

    Monday, Mar 14.  At 1 a.m. Jens Christian, son of Elder M. Chr. Jensen, died. The body was buried. Shortly after noon two tugboats came and towed us until in the evening, when anchor was dropped. It rained heavily today.

    Tuesday, Mar. 15.  We again got underway, towed by the two tugboats, and continued until late forenoon, when the tugboats left us. In the afternoon we got under way, towed by one tugboat. The first house we saw was one in which two black men lived. The house was built on poles, and outside of it was a sort of house which could float on the water. We saw this on the right hand side; on the left side was a lighthouse, and farther in were several buildings. We sailed up the river, which was so wide that four large ships could sail side by side. Trees could be seen on the banks of the river.

    Wednesday, Mar. 16.  We saw many small buildings; I heard the birds singing, and it seemed just like spring. There were ducks and geese, turkeys, pigs, horses, and cows. And I saw melons; there were fields of beets, just as in Denmark; and the trees looked just as they do in the spring. The banks of the river were covered with driftwood; but everything looked full of life and very good. There were white people who lived in these places; and I saw children who were black. There were both men and women who were black. Many small, beautiful buildings were built on poles, and we passed by a church. [p. 12] There were many animals, and in one place I saw some people driving in a closed-in wagon. On the left side there was a factory, and elsewhere the earth was cultivated. In one place they were plowing with four oxen hooked together.

    Thursday, Mar. 17.  This forenoon, about 10:30; we arrived at New Orleans. (Andersen’s case.) I was up in the bow with Elder Forsgren and several others, and bread was purchased for the brethren and sisters. In the evening a child of Brother Christian Ipsen Munk died. A meeting was held this morning, in which Elder Forsgren talked to the brethren and sisters, and warned them against going up in the town, as there were many ungodly people there and it was the worst place they could go. After his counsel, he advised them to give Mr. Danziger a gift. Elders Christiansen, H. J. Christensen, and N. Mikkelsen spoke. The latter said he wished to return good for evil, and he wished to give him a gift. It was unanimously agreed to give him twelve American dollars. The meeting was closed with prayer by Elder Forsgren.

    Friday, Mar. 18.  In the afternoon Brother Hans Larsen’s child died and was buried in New Orleans, together with Brother Munk’s child. A child was born to Brother Dinnesen’s wife.

    Saturday, Mar. 19.  All of our belongings were brought on board a steamship to which we were transferred, and at 4 o’clock in the afternoon we sailed for St. Louis. It was a good ship. Brother W. Andersen and his wife left us at New Orleans. After everyone was well; but Brothers C. Christensen and Anna Beckstrom were not entirely well.

   Sunday, Mar. 20. No meetings were held. Provisions were dealt out to the brethren and sisters. The ship stopped in the afternoon to take on a cargo of sugar. We sailed again in the evening.

    Monday, Mar. 21.  We continued on our way and had good weather.

    Tuesday, Mar. 22,    Wednesday, Mar. 23.  The same. The same, also, until Tuesday, Mar. 29.

    Tuesday, Mar. 29.  In the afternoon we arrived at St. Louis, with all well except Brothers C. Christensen and N. Hansen. No accidents had befallen us on this journey. The blessings of God were over us and all were well.

    Wednesday, Mar. 30. We left the ship, and went into the town to a place which had been prepared for us,--this for the sake of our health, as it was not wise to go up the Missouri River.

    Thursday, Mar. 31.   Friday, April 1.  Nothing of importance.

    Saturday, Apr. 2.  In the evening Brother C. Christensen’s son died. [p. 13]

    Sunday, Apr. 3.  Brother C. Christensen died in the afternoon; in the forenoon Sister Dinnesen passed away.  A meeting was held this afternoon, which was opened with prayer by Elder Chr. Christiansen. Elder J. E. Forsgren spoke a few words, and then announced that there were three couples who wished to enter into the bonds of marriage.  It was unanimously sustained by the congregation.  The three couples were: Sören Olesen and Berthe Pedersen, Gerhardt Jensen and Else Marie Christensen, Frederick Jensen and Johanne Christensen.  Elder Forsgren next performed the ceremony.  The meeting was closed with song and prayer by Elder Forsgren.

    Sunday Apr. 10.  In the morning the brethren and sisters gathered in meeting, which was opened with prayer by Elder H. J. Christensen.  Elder M. Johnsen spoke and counseled with a spirit of love; he was thankful for the privilege of talking.  Elder J. E. Forsgren spoke and explained several things to us.  The blessings of the Lord were over us.  The meeting closed with song and prayer.  In the afternoon another meeting was held.  Several brethren spoke and the Lord’s blessings were with us.  The sacrament was administered.  Elder Forsgren wished to know if the brethren and sisters were willing to travel to Keokuk.  All were, and signified so by the raising of their hands.  Brother Dinnesen’s child was blessed by Elder Christiansen.  The meeting closed with song and prayer.

    Sunday, Apr. 17.  The brethren and sisters again met in meeting. Elder Forsgren offered the opening prayer. Elder Christiansen read part of the revelation given December 16, 1833, and spoke of many things pertaining to the Holy Ghost.  His address was delivered with power, and a confirming of these truths; he counseled us with a spirit of love. Elder Forsgren spoke next, and touched on many things. He said that he did not place his confidence in the money of the brethren and sisters, but in God alone. He explained many things, especially regarding wives. There were several who were afraid that they would not be able to retain their wives; and he said that when there was a wife who did not wish to have him, he would let her go; and he said that a man should be the head and not be led by a woman, but, however, should be willing to receive good advice. Elder Forsgren continued to give us many things of enlightenment, and explained also that if his brother should die, that it would be his right and duty to be answerable for his call and to see that his wives were sealed to him. Elder Forsgren said that Miss Mathiesen wished to come back into the Church, and he wanted to know if the brethren and sisters would hear her. It was unanimously voted to let her speak. She then stood up and said that she wished to become a member again and asked forgiveness [p. 14] for what she had done against Erastus Snow. Elder Forsgren spoke again, and then it was unanimously voted that Miss Mathiesen had not made a true acknowledgment and could not be received into the Church without having the fruits of repentance. The meeting closed with song, and prayer by Elder C. Christiansen.

    In the afternoon another meeting has held. Elder C. Christiansen offered the opening prayer. Elders Christiansen, J. Christensen and W. Andersen gave many wonderful and inspirational thoughts, following which the Sacrament was administered by Elder Domgaard and priest N. L. Christensen. Hymns were sung and rich blessings were with us. The meeting was closed with prayer by Elder C. Christiansen.

    Tuesday, Apr. 19.  A child was born to Brother P. Madsen’s wife.

    Thursday, Apr. 21.  135 of the brethren and sisters left for Keokuk, accompanied by Elders Forsgren and C. Christiansen.

    Sunday, Apr. 24.  We held a meeting, which was opened with a song, and prayer by Elder H. J. Christensen, who also spoke shortly and said he wished to hear the brethren speak. Brother M. Johnsen stood up and spoke a few words, then Elder K. Christensen talked. He felt that he was not satisfied, and had only occasionally had a happy day since we arrived at this house. Elder H. J. Christensen talked briefly; he said that he knew that a man who was righteous was not forced to have a wife who was unrighteous, and the same for women. Elder W. Andersen also spoke briefly. The meeting closed with song, and prayer by Elder H. J. Christensen. No meeting was held in the afternoon. Brother Poul Chr. Larsen’s wife died this afternoon.

    Tuesday, Apr. 26.  Brother Poul Chr. Larsen’s wife was buried. Elder Forsgren returned to us.

    Friday, Apr. 29.  Two still-born children were born to Elder C. Christiansen’s wife. They were buried the same day.

    Saturday, Apr. 30.  Brother P. Madsen’s child passed away, and was buried. In the afternoon the rest of us left for Keokuk.

     Sunday, May 1.  We arrived in Keokuk in the evening and remained there overnight.

    Monday, May 2.  We formed our camp, and in the evening Elder Forsgren called the brethren together in a meeting. He said that when we were camped in this fashion that we should have a sergeant. Brother H. C. Hansen was unanimously appointed to be that man who should have charge of the camp. Elder Forsgren closed the meeting the prayer. . . .  [p.15]

    Friday, Sept. 30.  In the evening we entered the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, the land of Zion. . . . [p.35]
 
 
 

Journal of Christian Nielsen Munk
Munk, Christian Nielsen. Journal (Ms 1535), pp. 4-7, 9; Acc. #18953.

     Sunday, January 16, 1853.  We sailed form Liverpool under favorable circumstances, the wind being in our favor.  After 16 days voyage, we encountered the trade winds and after that made better progress, the wind blowing from east to north. Brother Anders Ipsen lost a little child who was buried in the sea.

     Sunday, February 13.  During the night between the 13th and 14th of February, a little child was born on board.

    Tuesday, Feb 15.  Another child was born on the ship.  On this day we obtained our first glimpse of the West Indies.  Brother Anders Poulsen lost a little child who was lowered into a watery grave.  A baby girl was born while we laid at anchor.

    Saturday, Feb. 19.  We enjoyed our first view of San Domingo, [Hispaniola] which island we passed on our right, but it was far away.

    Sunday, Feb. 20.  We first saw a great country with high mountains which proved to be the kingdom of San Domingo. [Hispaniola]

    Tuesday, Feb. 22.  Anders Ipsen lost a baby girl, who was buried at sea. [p.4]

    Thursday, Feb. 24.  We obtained our first glimpse of another mountainous land (Jamaica) and also saw land (Cuba) looking towards the north.  Jamaica was on the south.

    Sunday, Feb. 27.  On the night between Feb. 27th and 28th we saw a beacon light on the island of Cuba.

    Monday, Feb. 28.  Brother Christensen lost a child 15 days old.

    Monday, March 7.  We had our first glimpse of the American continent early in the morning, but in the afternoon at 4 o'clock, anchor was cast in the roads.  On the same day we lost an aged sister from the island of Fyen, Denmark.  She was buried on a small island a short distance from the main land.

    Friday, March 8.  Hans Petersen lost a year old baby girl, who was buried on the same island.

   Saturday, March 12.  In the evening, the wife of Christian Christiansen of Copenhagen, died. [HER NAME WAS KAREN OR CAROLINE.]

    Sunday, March 13.  Anders Ipsen, a much beloved brother died; he was a first elder who labored as L.[Latter] D. [Day] S.[Saints] Missionary on the island of Bornholm.  He also was buried on the little island.

    Monday, March 14. [-] Christian Jensen lost a little boy who was buried at sea.  Brother Christiansen from Copenhagen lost his wife who was buried on the little island previously mentioned.  On this day anchor was weighed about noon and we were hauled in by two steamboats, but the water was so shallow at the mouth of the Mississippi that the keel of our vessel scraped the ground.  We dropped anchor in the evening.

    Tuesday, March 15.  Anchor was weighed and we were hauled in by the same steamboats which served us the previous day.  We again dropped anchor about noon some distance up the river, here we saw large and small islets covered with luxuriant verdure.

    Wednesday, March 16.  We had our first real view of the American mainland; as far as the eye could reach it was covered with forests.  We also saw many dwellings and animals, such as horses, mules, cattle, sheep, geese and hogs.  Most of the houses which we saw were built of lumber.  The land on which they were built was low and exposed to inundations from the river. [p.5]  We saw considerable fieldwork being done such as plowing, planting and sowing.  We remained at anchor during the night, which was very dark.

    Thursday, March 17.  Anchor was weighed and we were tugged by a steamer into New Orleans.  A little girl who had been sick for sometime died; she was buried at New Orleans.  Christian Munk also lost a child.

    Friday, March 18.  Brother Larsen lost a child which was buried at New Orleans.  During the night between the 18th and 19th of March, Sister Dinesen [Dinnesen] gave birth to a child.

    Saturday, March 19.  We landed from the ship Forest Monarch and boarded a river steamer which took us a short distance up the river, where we left it and boarded a larger steamer and commenced our real river journey.  Brother Andersen and his wife were left in New Orleans.  Our little son Peter became very sick, but was better a week later.

    Tuesday, March 29.  We arrived at St. Louis.

    Wednesday, March, 30.  We landed from the steamer "Grantover and secured lodging in the north part of the town in a four-story house.

   (Four couples of our Saints were united in marriage in the beginning of January while we stood by off Liverpool, namely: Nielsen, Mikkel, Skousen, Christian Berentsen and Brother Hansen.)

    Sunday, April 3.  Brother Dinisen [Dinnesen] lost his mother who was buried in St. Louis.   She was born on the island of Sjalland, [Sjaelland] not far from Copenhagen.  On the same day three couples of Saints entered the state of matrimony, namely:  Sören Ramelhöi, Gerhard Jensen and Frederik Jensen.  On the same day a little child died and soon afterwards the father passed away and was buried in St. Louis.  Paul C. Larsen lost his wife who was buried in St. Louis.  Brother Peter [-] lost a little child who was buried in St. Louis.  Also a Swedish man not a member of the church, died and was buried in St. Louis.  His name was Beckström.

    While we stopped in St. Louis some of us obtained employment in the town and earned a little money.

   Thursday, April 21.  The first part of the Forsgren company, consisting of about 120 persons, boarded the river steamer "Di Vernon and sailed up the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers to Keokuk, Iowa.  This river trip lasted abut 24 hours.  We landed at Keokuk and made our temporary quarters in a warehouse during the night, but the following day which was Saturday, April 23rd, we pitched our tents a short distance up the hill from the town of Keokuk by the side of a camp of English Saints.

    Friday, April 29.  Sister C. Christiansen gave birth to two still born children. [p.6]

    Saturday, April 30.  The rest of the emigrants who had crossed the Atlantic ocean on the Forest Monarch left St. Louis and arrived at the camp near Keokuk May 2nd.

    Sunday, May 8.  Two of our company were united in marriage, namely: Peter A. Forsgren and sister Knudsen, Elder John E. Forsgren officiating.

    Wednesday, May 11.  A meeting was held and after counseling together it was decided that active preparations should commence for the journey across the plains.  Elder John E. Forsgren was chosen as captain of the whole company, while Christian Christiansen was chosen as captain of the first fifty and Herman J. Christensen captain of the second fifty.  Next, Father Christiansen was chosen as captain of the first ten, Brother Justensen as captain of the 2nd ten; made Chr. Jensen captain of the 3rd ten and Hans Dinesen as captain of the 4th ten. . . . [p.7]

    . . . Friday, Sept. 30.  We arrived in Great Salt lake City and camped in the central part of the town. . . . [p.9]

   

------------------------------

Diary of Christian Nielsen - December 1852 - March 1853
Nielsen, Christian.  Diary of Christian Nielsen December 1852-March 1853 (MS 5710)  pp.8-18+
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

   

     . . . Jan 16.  Sunday.  In the forenoon meeting.  During our meeting it was to our joy, that we heard the sailors lift the anchor, in order that we should be sailing at noontime.  We were sailing along with a steamship (likely roped to it) until 4 o'clock, sailing along the coastline of Liverpool, about more than 2 miles.  Finally the steamship left us; but we could not see the shore for fog.  The wind was in our favor, and we did good sailing through the night.

    Jan 17.  We could see land on both sides of us; toward the south a mountain range, and toward the north, Iceland (then Danish).  We had fine weather.  Toward evening we could see the light blink from a lighthouse.

     Jan18.  Now we are out of the St. George Channel and can only plentifully view air and water.  We had sailed well during the whole night.  The wind had blown favorably.  We are now sailing in the Atlantic Ocean.
     Jan 19.  Good weather.  No news; but most of us are seasick.

    Jan 20. Storm during the night.  Today the ship is slingaring [UNCLEAR], so that I was seasick and had to go down to our room.  We saw a two-masted ship north from us.

    Jan 21.  During the night good wind, and good sailing.  In the evening, strong wind.

    Jan 22.  The wind blowed favorably to us; many, that had been seasick, came on the deck; and we viewed 10 ships in sight (perhaps all old-time sailing ships.)

    Jan 23.  Sunday.  During the night fine weather.  Only a little wind.  The air is milder.  At noontime many dolphins were swimming around our ship.  In the evening we held a meeting.

    Jan 24.  A quiet night, and a beautiful morning.  In the evening the wind blowed, and the waves got bigger. [p.8]

    January 25.  The wind blows harder.  Hail and rain.  Waves go high.  The water is remarkably lukewarm.  We see 3 frigate ships.  One of these ships were damaged by the heavy winds towards evening.

    Jan 26.  The ocean quite calm.  A few persons were on the deck; but it hailed and rained.  The wind calmed down.  The whole night and the following day (Jan 27) we had good wind for our sailing.  We think that the sun now is giving more heat during the day.  Toward evening it thundered.  We saw some frigate ships.

     Jan 28.  During the night good and favorable wind.  2 frigates and one brig ship in sight.  In the afternoon these ships were far back of us.  Only one ahead of us.

    Jan 29.  During the night, good wind blowing in the right direction.  During a hard rain in the afternoon some little damage was made to our ship.

    Jan 30.  Sunday.  Wind moderately blowing during the night.  Fine morning.  Many promenading on the deck in summer costume.  Many walk on the deck barefooted.  We have now come to Passaten [LOCATION UNCLEAR] so called, where the general climate is warmer. At 5 o'clock in the afternoon we had a meeting on the deck.

    Jan 31.  Beautiful weather.  Like summer in the forenoon.  I saw many dolphins around the ship.  Today I dressed in summer clothing.

    Feb 1.  Good wind for us; the air warm; in the evening some rain, in connection with whirlwinds (whirlwinds) that  created some little damage to the ship.

    Feb 2.  Winds moderately blowing warm air; but we were badly bothered by insects, and especially were passengers from Ireland, and was said, carried the insects with them from Ireland; and now, that the air was warmer, all kinds of insects multiplied!

    Feb 3.  Fine summer air; wind blowing moderately.  A child, born in Hull, (England) had died and was buried in the ocean.

    Feb 4.  Warm air and good wind for us.  The deck was full of passengers that laid down and bathed themselves in the sun.  We were still badly bothered with insects.  In the afternoon I saw some big fish around the ship.

    Feb 5.  Fine weather and a pleasant wind blowing.

    Feb 6.  Sunday.  More fresh air during the night.  More wind in the right direction, and the ship is sailing very fast.  The day is set to be a day of fast and prayer.  We had meeting nearly all day.  In the evening the sacrament was administered.  Several church members voluntarily, humbly acknowledged that they had transgressed some of the gospel commandments.  Many of the brethren spoke, and the Spirit of God was manifested; but I was not that day as glad, as I would liked to have been, [p.9] as I felt that I had been somewhat sidetracked by some of the brethren, ever since we commenced our journey.  I did not find the love present in the hearts of some church members, as I thought they, as church members, would be in possession of; but I am thankful to my God, that he has opened my eyes, so that I can also see my own weaknesses, and see that I was also at fault myself, by insisting upon having my wishes, as to the management of the emigrant’s journey-affairs carried out.  We had the whole day a fresh breeze blowing, with lightnings in the northern skies.

    Feb 7.  Fresh, cooling winds.  Today I saw the first "flying fish" as sild--a small fish [HERRING] well-known by Danish people.  Afterwards I saw them flying over the near surface of the water like they were birds; but fish are they.  In the afternoon I again saw a great many dolphins around the ship.  A half-year old child died during the night.

    Feb 8.  The day was uncomfortably warm.  In the evening the were lightnings in the sky.

    Feb 9.  During the night a cooling wind blowed.  In the morning I saw exceptionally big fish near the ship.  During the day the air was warm, and no wind blowing, so we nearly laid at one place all day.  Big fish were seen in the water after sundown.

    Feb 10.  Not hardly any wind blowing and very hot.  We can nearly walk around without any clothing and be about the same scarcely dressed during our sleep on the top of bedding around around [SIC] the big masts on the deck.

    Feb 11.  A little wind.  The two ships that followed us yesterday, have gone on ahead of us.

    Feb 12.  Little wind.  2 ships southeast from us.

    Feb 13.  Sunday.  Held the meeting as a fast and prayer meeting, where each of us could speak freely; and several brethren expressed themselves in relation to evil things, that had been committed; and they wanted to clear their conscience and be forgiven by the Lord.  In the evening a child was born.

    Feb 14. In the morning a frigate ship passed us and similar ships will always pass us on account of the still air we now have; hardly no wind.  At 2 o'clock in the afternoon we had land in sight in the southwest.

    Feb 15.  We were near one of the West Indian Island.  (Three of these islands were at that time Danish possessions).  Another child was born.

    Feb 16.  A fresh wind blowed all day in our favor, and we sailed well forward.  Another sailing vessel was seen ahead of us.

    Feb 17.  Less wind.  After the noon hour we could see the smoke from a steamer North of us. [p.10]

    February 18.  Good wind blowing favorably for us.  At noontime a three masted ship passed us to toward the north.  In the afternoon an exceedingly great flock of birds was seen, and occasionally great big birds flew near to the ship.

    Feb 19.  In the morning and again towards evening, we saw land to the north.  The wind blowed our way forward both during the night and the day.  An hour before evening a Svale bird came flying to us and stayed with the ship until evening.  The isle now to be seen is St. (Santo) Domingo.

    Feb 20.  No wind hardly during the night and during the day a burning heat.  In the evening the air temperature was enjoyable.  It is Sunday today.  We had a meeting in the forenoon.  St. Domingo was in sight all day.

    Feb 21.  St. Domingo is still seen all day, but the sight above our heads are greatly changed.  The birds, that we see in great flocks fly down to pick food from the surface of the water, (perhaps little fish) are birds, that we have never seen before.  The sun is at noon hours nearly perpendicular about our heads.  The heat in the atmosphere is very depressing and the sweat rolls from our bodies in big drops.  The moon is now north from us, and shines exceptionally clear, so we can see ships on the ocean at great distances.  We got tired in our legs by viewing the moon and the North Star and the different star complexes etc.  A child, that had been very sick died in the afternoon.  Many of the passengers slept on the deck during the night.

    Feb 22.  St. Domingo is yet in sight. A little cooler.  Toward evening good wind.

    Feb 23.  In the morning we lost the St. Domingo island of sight, as our sailing ahead was good.  At noontime there was not much wind.  We sailed over a sand-bank in the ocean, where the water was only a few fathoms deep.  In the evening, we had a frigate ship sailing back of us, but  it was soon ahead of us, as we mainly had to depend on good wind to move fast.

    Feb 24.  The Island of Jamaica is seen south from our ship and that big island has exceedingly high mountains, reaching up to the clouds, or even higher.  The mountains on Santo Domingo had a similar height.  Today there was no wind at all, but likely caused by little, waves not hardly seen.  Our ship tipped a little from one to another and at evening it had finally turned clear around in the water and was actually going back again.  After the sails were arranged, and a light breeze again was blowing at 9:30 o'clock, we sailed forward again towards our destination, and we soon were said to be in the Caribbean Sea (east of Central America and north of part of South America.) [p.11]

    February 25.  Wind blowing moderately.  The air was cooler.  The big isle of Jamaica could today no longer be seen .  The isle has heaven-high mountains.

    Feb 26.  The sailing was about as yesterday.

    Feb 27.  Sunday.  We have still good wind and are dong good sailing.  We had meetings in the forenoon and in the afternoon.  Late in the evening we passed the west side of Cuba, where there was a light tower.  As we had been sailing a long distance south from Cuba, that was the reason for, that we had not seen the light from the tower before.

    Feb 28.  We are today in the Gulf of Mexico and we are now sailing in north and northwest direction.  The wind blows very favorably to us.  Some of the emigrants doubt the correctness of certain doctrines, that the missionaries have been preaching, and I earnestly pray to God, that he will protect me, so that I always will be able to know, what principles are true gospel and what his holy will is.  Some great fish was seen in the evening.  Toward evening the youngest child on the ship died.

    March 1.  Today the wind does not blow so good to us.  The wind direction is not so good.  We had lightnings and rain last night, and the wind blowed against us.  We had to sleep in our rooms under the deck.

    March 2.  The wind velocity is greater; but it is cold today. [p.12]

    March 3.  Today we did not have much wind.  In the evening no wind was blowing.

    March 4.  Today better wind, but it tore one of the sails.  The air is getting considerably cooler, and we have to dress heavier.  We have a strong wind today, but during the night there was no wind.

    March 5.  Elder Forsgren sent words -a message- down in the ship to us to get our things tied up solidly, as he expected a storm to come up; and in the morning the wind turned, and a very strong wind blowed the whole day, with wind blasts between the even wind, and many water waves went over the deck, where some children were playing, but none of them was hurt.  During the night we slept well in our bedrooms, in spite if the ship’s, slinging and tipping from one side to another.  We depended fully upon God's protection. During the night the sailors let the boat drive in the direction of the wind (that likely was about the direction, that they ship master and sailors, wanted to go).

    March 6.  Sunday morning we had a good wind, but later on during the day the wind stilled off, so there finally were no wind to provide sailing.  It was said that we at that point were only about 10 miles from the shore, where the Mississippi River flowed into the ocean in the Gulf of Mexico.  We held our Sunday meetings in the forenoon and the afternoon. [p.13]

    March 7. During the night we had a little wind, so we could come nearer to land, and in the morning there was cried Land!  We could see several ships laying for anchor at the mouth of the river, and we were soon sailing in the very mudret [DANISH WORD FOR: the mire] water, and where we remained waiting for a pilot to come out to us, to direct our ship to the place, where our captain could throw anchor, which was done at 3:30 o'clock in the afternoon.  A great many big ships were seen laying for anchor, and smaller boats were in constant activity between the big ships transferring passengers and freight, etc.  New Orleans is a city laying abut 25 miles from the outlet of the Mississippi River.  Our ship’s captain and Brother Forsgren went up to New Orleans to arrange to have some steamship come out to us and take our ship further in towards land.

    March 8.  In the evening, March 7, an old woman died at eleven o'clock.  In the morning a coffin was provided, and some of the sailors, and Brother [Poul Christian] Larsen and other brethren, went in a boat with the coffin in which the corpse was nicely placed and had her buried.  When these men came back, they carried with them some green tree branches and green plants. [p.14]

    [March 9 & 10.  No statements].

    March 11.  A child died through the night.

    March 12.  In the morning at 5 o'clock, Christensen's wife (Her maiden name is not stated) died. (He had likely been working in a soap factory in Denmark, as he is mentioned as Saebesyder). [UNCLEAR]  At 5 o'clock in the afternoon Brother Forsgren and the captain came back in a steamship from New Orleans.  Forsgren brought back fresh meat and ship's bread that the same evening was distributed among us.

    March 13.  Sunday.  Last night another man died among us, [Jens Peter] Ibsen from Bornholm.  Two of his children died on our journey to here.  We are still laying outside the mouth of the Mississippi River.  The air is always foggy - at least while we have been here.  We can't hardly see a ship’s length ahead of us.  Sometimes the wind can drive the fog away for a little while.  The steamboats make a great noise, as they go up and down the river, and the bells ring, so that it can be heard, where they are laying.  It is seemingly very unhealthy to live here, for persons, that are not used to a similar climate.  Five of our company have died here, and several of us are sick.  The water in the river is not at the present time deep enough, so we can be floated in.  Our ship's last [DANISH WORD FOR: load] is partly sacks of salt, that for the greater part of same will be thrown overboard today, to make the ship lighter.  We are told that two steamboats will come tomorrow to drag us over the mudret ground in the water; and we hope that we with God's help will be able to soon continue our journey.  I have today seen new grown fresh carrots, turnips and cabbages. [p.15]

    March 14.  A little boy died last night and was this afternoon buried in the river.  We were this afternoon dragged a short distance by two steamships; but they got stuck in the deep mud at the bottom of the river and had to lay still during the night, until the water raised higher, so they could proceed again.

    March 15.  During the night the water raised higher, and we were dragged froward about four English miles.  We throwed out our anchor and laid at that sport until sundown, when our frigate ship was roped (perhaps chained) to one side of a steamship, and another frigate ship was similarly placed on the other side of the steamship that had the two frigates on drag during the whole night.  At the sides of the river we could only see big growths of water plants and little trees.

    March 16.  In the morning we had a clear view of fine houses, orchards and flower gardens, and the little birds were singing in the trees.  About all nature was smiling to us [p.16] Seemingly the passengers on Forest Monarch had all been transferred to the big ship, where we came together with people of different nationalities; but, regrettably, the majority of these other passengers showed very low in civilization and in moral conduct, so that they nearly all schemed to do us what harm, the could; and as we could not even be sure of our life, we doubled our night watch.  Two of the sailors aboard came to our defense when they slung their insulting words towards us.  But if was very regrettable, that many unclean things were perpetuated by some individuals of our people.

    March 17.  Last night, about midnight, it rained hard and was very dark, so they had to anchor the ship until morning, when as we again were sailing, the views of the river shores were grand and became prettier and prettier, as we proceeded forward.  Late in the forenoon we could see the big city of New Orleans.  The frigate ship, that, as well as our ship, had been towed to the steamship, was placed ½ mile below the city, and the steamer that, as stated, also dragged our ship, was laid to shore to take into its hulk tons of wood (or coal) to burn for steam processing, which work was accomplished in about one hour; but during that time we could step from the ship and set our feet on American ground.  That was the first time that I had "landed in America.  We succeeded in coming up to New Orleans about noontime.  During the afternoon many Danish people came aboard to find out if there had not come any Danish emigrants, that they possibly would know; or otherwise, to hear the latest new from Denmark.  In the evening a child (from Bornholm) died.  The child had been sick a long time. [p.17]

    March 18.  The last two nights there has been so-called "blind alarm on our ship, but God be praised, nothing bad happened; but we must ever be on our watch.  We had today to take our clothes and things up on the deck, to be examined by the tariff service men.  In the afternoon another child died, and it was decided that we should stay on the ship through the night.

    March 19.  In the forenoon we went aboard on a steamship, that took us about ½ mile [LIKELY DANISH MILE, WHICH WOULD BE ABOUT 2 ENGLISH MILES] higher up at the city frontage near the outskirts, where there in the river laid a great many steamships.  We came now aboard a three-decker that should on the mighty Mississippi waters take us 300 up to St. Louis.  These ships are only built as practical river ships, and could not be used for open-sea service.  These ships are very long and wide.  They look like a three story building, with flat roofing and alton [UNCLEAR] on the top.  The pilot stays in a finely and solidly built salon at the front of the ship form which he directs the ship.  He must be on the outlook all the time, as big tree stocks may come floating down the river and catch in some sheep wheel, and to almost-unavoidably break some, if the revolving wheels are not stopped by the sailors concerned, that the pilot, or the lookout sailor, has signaled to.  At 5 o'clock in the afternoon some big ship's sailed up through the river; but we were sailed a little down the river to a ship, that was placed below Forest Monarch, where we took a big lot of sacks of salt aboard.  It was about 7 o'clock in the evening when we again sailed up the river.  We should be given "quarters"on the lower deck, near the machinery, where there was plenty of space, we were told; but they filled so many of the rooms with salt sacks, so many of us could only get very narrow spaces for sleeping accommodations; and I and my family were so unlucky that we could not find any place where we could lay down.  Late in the evening I found a place on the side of some up built fixture, where we crept up; and we had a good rest in that quarter and we were very pleased that we  found that good space for sleeping accommodations.  Next day we took our old neighbor, W. Anderson, and his family with us to our good sleeping quarters, from which we have a fine view out over the left side of the river shore.  We can sit here unhindered to write and read and talk to each other, and during our sleep at night we don't risk to be stepped on or pushed aside etc.  The last night that we stayed on the frigate ship, a child was born! [p.18]

     March 20.  Sunday.  I laid in my bedding in the morning and enjoyed greatly the fine view I had out over the river shore, as we sailed up the river: [-] hundreds of houses and gardens and orchards, and people walking, dressed in their Sunday clothes.  But although it was Sunday, many persons were fishing at the river shore.  Many little boats pramme [DANISH WORD FOR A FLAT-BOTTOM ROW BOAT] were seen coming floating into the Mississippi from side streams, into that mighty river.  These boats, (or small ships) were built like houses with a roofing at the top, and had both kitchen and sleeping rooms.  (Brother [-] writes in technical details very interestingly about construction of these boats, built for housekeeping, as well as for sailing.)  At our sailing up the river much freight was taken aboard at different places.  There was too great disturbances aboard to, that we could hold a gospel meeting.  Some of the bed-spaces had to be taken for the placing of freight.  I and my family and others, realized, that we could not, on account of circumstances, hold a meeting.

     March 21.  No special news.  As we sailed up the river, the mighty river stream run through wide stretches of forest, where nobody lived, and where actually millions of people could live, on both sides of the stream.  At different places certain forest spaces were cleared of trees, and ground plants burned off, so that the land could be worked for ordinary agriculture purposes.  (Brother [-] in detail a description of the natural riches to be converted through hard labor and often in a [-] way during future years, for the sustaining of mortal life, of millions of men).  He writes: "We see at different land stretches little houses built and some of the little houses are evidently at present not occupied.  The forest counts hundreds of thousands of big trees, can be the greatest value to us as timber for future generations.
 
 
 

------------------------------

Diary of Christian Nielsen - February 1853 - April 1858
Nielsen, Christian.  Diary. February 1853-April 1858. (Ms 1619)  pp.7-14, 55; Acc. #202707
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

     . . . March 22.  The large forests continue to be seen.  Many small houses and huts are seen; also some small towns; also bigger plantations with lines of little houses, in which Negroes that are doing the plantation work, live.  At other places the small houses are in poor condition.  The ship soon laid into a small town on the east shore of the river with high hills east of the city but the ship soon sailed forward again.

     March 23. We see everyday different makes of steamships.  Some have their "wheel in the middle of the ship, others at the back, that operates similar to the waterwheel at a flour mill.  We see several small towns and single houses in the fields.  Today we sailed into the shore at two places where many pretty buildings were erected.

    March 24.  Today we have again sailed into two small cities.  We see many forest fires and we saw a sunken steamship in the river.  Seemingly some small ships without machinery are sailed into the borders and are occupied as dwelling houses.

    March 25.  LANGFREDAG - Friday before Easter Day.  In the middle of the forenoon we passed a small town with may prettily built houses.

    [March 26.  No Notations.]

    March 27.  Easter Sunday.  We passed several nicely built-up towns.  I have not felt well during the last few days but I am now feeling better for which I am thankful to God.

    March 28.  We passed many pretty towns and in one of these we saw a pretty church building and several factories, and a saw-mill.  At one place we could observe a mining terrain from which hard coal was mined.  (The part of the working that could be seen is described).  I saw at one place several little boats with flat bottom and with steam-worked wheels on each side.  In the evening we sailed into a small town where they (sailors) took packed barrels and similar merchandise aboard. [p.7]

    March 29th.  It is supposed that we today shall come up to St. Louis.  We are sailing today passing many big rocky hills, and some are very high.  I cannot tell what kind of rock it is, and likely other passengers do not know either.  We have a chance to see many things and observe many different people from different nations.  At about half an hour past eleven we are sailing out for St. Louis.  The name of the ship that we have our lodging in since we left New Orleans is "Grand Tower.  I saw a kind of steamships on which people that are riding in wagons can drive out on the ship without unhitching the horses or getting off the wagon, and thereafter be taken over to the opposite side of the river.  Today, for the first time, I viewed to upper facilities of our ship that is so practical and beautifully constructed that I would be short of words to describe the same.  The ship's deck is longer and wider than the deck on the greatest war ship.  The ship we were first passengers in, the Forest Monarch, was one of the biggest frigate ships and was 80 skridt (paces) long and "Grand Tower, 130 skridt. [HOW MANY FEET LONG IS NOT STATED].  People working by the day receive high wages in New Orleans, 4 or 5 rigsdaler [DANISH MONEY, CORRESPONDING TO 8-10 DOLLARS].  There are always a shortage of working men, and many men look finer in their work-dress than many well-dressed people in Denmark do in their Sunday dress; and they work smoking their cigar, many of them.  The meals that ordinary working men get are so good and fat that if the men and women that are working for big farm owners in Denmark should live that high, then the owner of the farm would soon have to give up his property.  The sea-faring men that are doing the work on English ships are getting quite good meals, but everything is "weighed and measured; but American sailors are often served more than they can eat and what there is left over is thrown overboard!

 March 30.  From the ship we were given lodging in a big four story house near the river.  Each room is crowded with as many as can be placed in the room and our lodging is paid for one month.  We have our lodging in the second story. [p.8]

    [April 1st.  No notation.]

     [April 2nd.  No notation.]

    April 3rd.  Sunday.  During the night there had been a fire in the city that we could see form our beds.   A very old woman died [probably related to Christensen that had died before; the Christensen that in Denmark had worked in a soap factory.  The record does not give definite statement].  Three pairs of people were married [names not given]  Sobesyder Christensen's youngest child had died.  [That child's death had likely already been recorded, but without statement as to who the child's father was].

     [From the 3rd of April until April 8th are no records given.]

    April 8th   A young man by the name of Beckström, who during our journey had lost his memory and power to realize anything, died at the hospital.  He was not a baptized church member, but had selected to journey with us to America.

    [From the 8th of April and until April 15th are no notations made.]

    April 15.  Many different nations' people live here in St. Louis.  Many Germans live here as they here have more political liberty than in Europe and the same arguments are stated by people from other countries.  Everybody are given the privilege to work at things that they are most interested in and can best make a "living" at.  Seemingly every working man and working woman are doing real well here so we do not find any real poverty-struck people here, that cannot get any thing to eat and so forth.  Many thousands of emigrants arrive here every year but the greater part of the emigrants are journeying from here further up the country, taking passage up the river or otherwise.  The city is for the present 1 ½ miles (6 Danish miles) in reach one way, and at some places ½ mile reaching out form the city in width-span, but there are yet many open places in the city.  There are found factories of many different kind.  Many houses are built of wooden boards as people must build the way they can best, or the way they want to; but the wooden board houses more often cause fire then brick houses and several burned down houses are seen in the city.  There are many beautiful parks in the city with artificial water springs, at which places the fire department can attach their long water hoses to the water pipes, in case of fire, and so forth. [p.9]

    [April 15 continued] Although the parks are well cared for, the streets are not kept clean at many places.  Many streets are not paved at all, but are only kept passable as ordinary country roads.  Outside of the more prominent buildings are the street fronts only paved with brick work that are kept clean by sweeping.  At certain places in the street can people throw their dirt, together with dead dogs and cats, etc., to be cleaned up by public sanitary cars; and the streets are sprinkled, when needed, and it often necessary to sprinkle the streets as fine sand, similar to white ashes, are blowing in on the streets.  If there is too much mud on the street, then the house owners throw a plank or two to walk on.  The curve for the water to run in are sometimes several feet deep and the sanitary condition often is miserable so that it is no wonder that  many of the citizens are attacked by "yellow fever and other infectious diseases.

   The population of St. Louis claim membership in many different religion, societies, or churches, Catholic or Protestant, or in any.  There are many church buildings in St. Louis.  As well known, the United States grants religious liberty to all and in political respect, liberty to all, if criminal acts are not committed.

   The temperature is not very even here.  It may be hot weather today, but with a biting cold wind tomorrow! People go dressed about as in Denmark, but workers are usually nicer dressed, and not so heavy dressed.  Wooden shoes are not used by workers here.  The foods, cooked or fried, are too fat for Danish people.  The beer is too strong, but is not generally drunk by working men.  Between houses are often big lots, that could be cultivated and planted with fruit trees, or with vegetables.  The fruit trees, that are planted here are in flowers now.  The fields outside the city are not cultivated yet.  Chickens and swine move about at pleasure; but work horses, mules and cattle are all kept in good condition.  They have here often five or six pairs of oxen lined up to pull heavy loads that are directed by a driver with a long whip; but seemingly the driver can manage the oxen or horses by commanding words, instead of using the long whip much.  (The writer gives a description in detail of the hitching to wagons of two, or more horses, and of the harnessing of horses and oxen).  Although there often is a surplus of lumber planks that come swimming down the river to St. Louis from the lumber mills and lumber cutting places from many mills above the city, and people can get less good planks or good cuts gratis, most people would rather buy No.1 planks as they have the money to buy them with. [p.10]

    (April 15 continued)  There is a great many steamships laying in the water here, so sail ships cannot get in here, and many thousands of men are working at the shores on the goods brought to the city, or on the goods to be taken to some steamer for other points of destination and every worker is busy!  Similar conditions were prevalent in New Orleans, but possibly even in greater degree, as besides steamships, thousands of ships with "sail" laid into that city with different kind of goods, and took aboard other kinds of goods for shipment.  (The writer describes next the great wickedness that existed among some of the sailors, and among some workers aboard ship, so that at one place, where the frigate ship laid to the Mormon emigrants hesitated to leave the ship, as a man could even risk to be killed by some drunkard.)  Nearly all the sailors became intoxicated, after they had got inland; but one of the sailors and the captain were exceptions, and when the captain came back aboard, he got very angry to see the disorder in everything, and he punished the officer next to him, even corporally, for not keeping sober and see to that everything were in order aboard the ship while he had gone inland, which order he had received from the captain.

    One of the sailors by the name of Philip, who had been nice and polite to our church members during our stay on the frigate ship, deserted the frigate when we left the ship, and he left us half a mile higher up the river, where he likely went to work on some other ship.

    But now I shall explain some more points in relation to St. Louis.  It is, as if the whole city of St. Louis and adjoining fields were placed atop one great rock with mine cuts and stone cuts at different places near the city.  The interesting stone formation can be cut for different purposes; for building purposes; for street coverings, and for other industrial doings.  The whole stone formation is formed of individual layers on top of each other, and the stone is easily chiseled.

    [There are no notations for the dates between the 15th and 19th of April].

    April 19.  A child was born [if male or female is not recorded.]

April 20.  There is often a house fire in St. Louis, and there were two fires in the evening.  The last one was at 11:30 o'clock, but I could not personally observe it.

    April 21.  The half part of our company are now on a steamship, laying farther north; and about eight days from now, we, who are still here, expect to be following after them.  We are now more comfortably situated, and almost feel like we were in another world. [p.11]

    April 22.  After the noon hour there was another fire in the city.  I was at the place, where the fire was.  It was  house, built of boards, that burned down.

 April 23.  No notations.

     April 24.  Sunday.  A woman died (perhaps Paul Christian's wife.  His name is recorded in connection with her.)  During the time we have been here, we have had meetings on Sundays, and since the 17th of April I have been in good feeling, and I have, God be thanked, had peace in mind, and otherwise felt well bodily.

     April 25.  No notations.

     April 26.  In the evening many big stables of lumber burned down.   That was the biggest fire that I have seen here.

    April 27.  I will now write some more about the city.  Generally speaking, the span of life for men is very short, and 80 years old is considered a very high age.  There are but few that get that old.  I have visited two cemeteries, graveyards, on the west side of the city where the same good order of arrangements is seen, and grave-monuments are of different fashions, and made of the kind of stone described in the notations for April 15th; and many of the metallic frames around the graves are very nice and artistically made; but one old graveyard is in very poor order as I shall briefly describe.  One of these graveyards has been closed up for additional burials for the present, likely mainly for the reason, that the grave-space had been taken up and this cemetery is boarded in and with a lock on the gate; but on the side of the gate are steps build up for visitors to get over the fence.  The ground has evidently not been leveled in any measurable degree anywhere in the cemetery lot, as there are several low places with stinking water and wild grass is growing up over most of the terrain.  It looks like that when the dead have lain several years in their graves, they then are dug up again and their skeleton or bones used for some certain purpose.  Many graves seemingly had been dug up, the coffins broken, and the body tipped out or taken away.  One coffin was again lowered in the open grave and part of the coffin is reaching up over the surface of the ground.  Pieces of rotten meat from the dead bodies were laying, stinking on the surface.  One person had been buried in a low place where there now stood water, but the name marking reached up from the grave. [p.12]

    (April 27 continued) Many roads from the West lead into St. Louis and they are well leveled and prepared for traffic.  These roads are about the same width as corresponding roads in Denmark, but the water ditches on the sides of the road are not always so well fixed, and there are not any trees planted on the sides of the roads.  The roads are not graveled, but planks at some places are used for road beds, when compellingly necessary, as planks can be had plentifully.  We stayed in St. Louis 4 months and 4 days.

    [April 28 and 29.  No notations.]

    April 30.  About sundown we sailed from St. Louis on a steamer.  We went in to several towns on our sailing up the river and took in hard coal from one of these towns.

    May 1st.  Sunday evening.  We went in towards a town called Keokuk, at which place we took our things out from the steamer.  Some brethren had before us gone to a "camping" place for emigrants at Keokuk and they came and took us to the place where, before our arrival, emigrants from England had found "quarters".  We were to be taken to that good company of church members.  At Keokuk "open air quarters.  In Iowa.

    May 2.  In the morning I went out to see our "open air" lodging place that looked well to me.  We came first to the place where emigrants from England were placed, and thereafter to the spot where we Danish emigrants should have our quarters, which begins a little way north from the town and goes up along the river, until we came to a "downhill" area with a quite big forest growth and from which place we could help ourselves to all the wood we needed for making fire and for other purposes.

    [May 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.  No notations.]

    May 8th.  Sunday.  Our "territory" for quarters gets wider day after day.  Each day additional wagons loaded with emigrants come to our quarters, and tents are put up to be the abode for emigrants.  Also today emigrants arrived.

    [May 9. No notations.]

    [May 10.  No notations.] [p.13]
 

    May 11.  There were appointed captains for the different companies, or camps, and each camp counted the emigrants in 10 wagons. 1 head captain and four other captains were appointed at that time, and the different companies were admonished to assist each other (seemingly there were appointed 4 captains for each 10 wagons).  The recorder writes, that he was in the third company (No. 6 wagon) under Captain Justesen.  (Keokuk seemingly was a central place, where Latter-day Saints from England and other European countries, and from the states in America, at that time generally camped during their forward journey to Zion (Utah), and likely also a place, where other emigrants journeying to California, Oregon or other territories camped.  The recorder counted that day 250 wagons at that place but many wagons had already left the camping place. . . . [p.14]

     . . . September 30. . . . The houses in Salt Lake City looked like Beehives.  The women in our company of wagon load of people had dressed in their nicest dresses, with decorative fineries attached.  Already out five o’clock in the evening we could see down to the got small city Salt Lake City, and we could view part of the great Salt Lake; and it looked to us , like the city was built on a stretch of morassy ground.  But we were eager to drive ahead.  It was dark, before we came in to the city.  We had thought, that we would have had a drive through mud on the least stretch of drive to the city, but we were pleased, that the road was dry and good.  AT the outside of the city some man brought to us a big watermelon.  I did not know what kind of fruit that was.  Well it was cut up in small pieces for us , and those of us that had a chance to taste the fruit, thought it had a fine flavor and tasted good. [p.55]
 
 

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Autobiography of Maren Jensen Cutler Norton
Norton, Maren Jensen Cutler, [Autobiographical Sketch] in Ancestry and Descendants of Mads Christian Jensen, 1600-1960, comp. By Kathryn S. Jensen (privately printed) pp. 48-49.

    I, Maren Jensen, was born January 28, 1846, in Hjorring, Denmark.  My father was a miller by trade, also a millwright, and his work kept home from him most of the time and the cares of home and children were left for mother, everything to attend to both indoors and out, but we were always happy.  When I was five years old, my parents joined the Mormon Church.  Then persecution began.  The mob was very cruel to the Saints, and when we had meetings on Sunday, they would gather around the house, and as soon as meeting closed, they would take the brethren and treat them very cruelly.  Many parents did not feel that they could endure such treatment longer, so they sold their homes and all their household goods and prepared to emigrate in the year of 1852.  In November we left our home and went to Copenhagen.  On the fifth of December the same year, we sailed for England with the first company of Mormon Emigrants that emigrated from Scandinavia.

    We landed safely in Hull.  We then prepared to sail for America.  We sailed on a sailing vessel, which travels much slower than a steamship.  We were on the Atlantic eleven weeks and three days, and had very little to eat.  They gave each of us a tin plate, tin cup, and a spoon when we started and we kept them as our own.  Then a man came around with two large pails, one in each hand, and gave us our rations.  Every other day we had split peas boiled without seasoning, and often burnt at that.  The next day we had barley prepared for food, and boiled the same way.  The grown [p.48] people had one cup each day, us children half a cup. Then we had what they called sea-biscuits.  They were as large as a small saucer and were made of shorts or some course meal of some kind, and so hard we could only gnaw them, but we were glad to get the one each for the grown-ups and the one-half for children.

    We had no water except what was carried on the ship, and they used to haul it up, out of the bottom of the ship every morning, and we could have only so much a day.  I was seven years old at this time--the oldest child in the family and I used to take the little tin pail and get our allotment for the day.  We never sat down to a table while on board the ship.

     Then one day a steamboat came and took us on board and we soon landed in St. Louis, Missouri.  The day we got on that boat, I went to the kitchen door.  Then is when I saw the first negro woman, and she gave me a slice of white bread and a piece of roast beef, and a piece of pickled beet.  I never tasted anything so good.  I ran to mother and gave her some of it, and she enjoyed it too.  While in St. Louis, we had better food. . . .

     . . . On the twenty-ninth of September, we arrived in Salt Lake City. . . . [p.49]
 
 

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The December 1852 Migration
Zobell, Albert L. Jr.  Under the Midnight Sun: Centennial History of Scandinavian Missions.  1950. pp. 48-49

    Two hundred ninety-four Saints (including children) joined President Forsgren as he left Copenhagen to come to Utah after filling his mission.  A great multitude, comprised of the Saints and the curious, were at the wharf on December 20, 1852, to see the company sail on the steamship "Obotrit for Kiel.  And the curious were blasphemous at seeing "that Swedish Mormon Priest (meaning President Forsgren) take so many of their countrymen with him.  However, no violence resulted.

    There were storms encountered on the way to Kiel, and after a railroad trip to Hamburg, the Saints boarded the steamship "Lion which sailed for Hull, England, on Christmas Day.  A severe storm was raging on the North Sea, a storm which claimed about one hundred fifty ships, and the people of Hull were greatly surprised when the "Lion appeared on the horizon.

    After a train ride to Liverpool, the emigrating Saints went aboard the packet ship Forest Monarch, which was hauled out of the dock and anchored in the River Mersey on the last day of the year.  Here the ship lay at anchor for two weeks awaiting favorable winds.  In this interval three of the company died, two babies were born, and three fellow-passengers aboard ship embraced the gospel.  One night the ship became entangled with another ship, and sustained some damage.  A few days later, during a heavy storm, the Forest Monarch got adrift, pulling up both anchors, and at just the right moment was saved by two tugboats from running aground.  One emigrant had been bitten by a dog, and was counseled to return to shore and wait for the next [p.48] company.  So, when the sails were actually hoisted, January 16, 1853, the company under President Forsgren’s direction numbered 297.

    The Atlantic crossing was tedious.  The provisions were poor and the supply of fresh water was inadequate to reach New Orleans where they arrived March 16th.  Four deaths and three births occurred.

    The company tarried in St. Louis for about a month.  Here six of the emigrants died and two couples were married.  They sailed up the Mississippi again to Keokuk, Iowa, and it was here that they had their first experience out on the American Plains.

    Now they received their oxen and wagons for the journey to Zion.  Some of the Scandinavians, disliking the American way of driving oxen in yokes, hitched up these beasts of burden in regular Danish fashion.  But they had forgotten one little thing-that the oxen were American.  The oxen were half-frightened-to-death, and started out in a wild run.  A council meeting was called at which it was decided that it would be easier for the emigrants to learn American ways than it would for the oxen to learn to work with the Danish harnesses.

    Many of the oxen, too, had never hitched up before, and this, coupled by many inexperienced drivers, soon added up to many upset wagons in the gulleys and ditches.  With thirty-four wagons and about 130 oxen, the company rolled out from the camping grounds near Keokuk on May 21st.  In the overland journey, a number of the emigrants died, and many children were born, and a few of the company lost the faith and dropped by the wayside.  Finally, on September 30, 1853, the company arrived safely in Great Salt Lake City. . . . [p.49]
 
 
 
 

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Franklin

Autobiography of Hans Christian
Christensen, Hans.  Autobiography (formerly in Msd 2050).  pp.27-32
LDS Church Historical Department Archives
 
 

 . . . We left Aalborg on the 6th day of April 1862 with a large company of emigrating Saints on a steamer which was to take us to Kiel and on the route we stopped at the Aarkus and Fredericia to take on board the emigrating Saints from those conferences.  It was my first voyage and caused me, like many others, a fore taste of seasickness.  On our landing in Kiel we were sent on a train to Altona or Hamburg where we got on board the sailing vessel Franklin with Elder C. A. Madsen as our leader.  There were a larger number of Saints emigrating from Denmark that season than has ever been before or since.  We sailed directly from Hamburg to New York, and were divided up on four sailing vessels.  We were detained in the harbor for several days waiting for favorable wind to go down the river Elven, [Elbe] but had at last to be hauled out by a steamer.  We were in the neighborhood of four hundred Saints on board. [p. 27]

Quite a number of them being young people.  We were organized into four districts, with a president for each district and meetings for prayer were held in each district morning and evening.  After a few days we got over our seasickness and a part of the time was spent by the young people in music, and dancing.  Our food was prepared in a large kitchen and rations were issued to each mass according to their number.  The food was of an inferior quality or else our appetites were greatly demoralized.  The bread consisted of dry cakes, brought with us from Hamburg which lasted until we landed in New York.  We called them "ciks."  The water also was very poor.  A few extra things could be got for those who were sick.  I enjoyed good health and to me the trip was a pleasure.  There was one feature which made the trip very trying and disagreeable to some of the Saints.  A few days after we had started, the measles [p.28] broke out among the children.  Many died, and hath to be buried in a watery grave.  Sister Kjer and her daughter who I had promised to assist, and with whom I traveled was sick much of the time.  I assisted them as well as I could, and they were well satisfied with my treatment.  We landed at Castle Garden, New York, on the 30th day of May and continued our road westward partly by train and partly by steamer until we reached Florence, Nebraska, which was the outfitting place for the season, where we arrived in the early part of June.  Here we laid in camp six weeks, waiting for the church trains to arrive. . . [p.29]

     . . . About the 15th of July the church trains commenced to arrive, they had four yoke of oxen on each wagon, soon after their arrival they were loaded partly with iron and other heavy merchandise, and twelve persons to each wagon with their baggage provisions and tent, we traveled in Captain John Murdoe’s [p.30] company, who started from camp on the 24th of July. . . [p.31]

    . . . . We arrived in Salt Lake City in the latter part of September and our hearts swelled with gratitude to God for his kind protection over us, both on land and sea, until we had safely landed in that beautiful city of the Saints. . . . [p.32]
 
 
 

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Reminiscences of Paul Poulson
Poulson, Paul.  Reminiscences (formerly in Ms 2050).  p.1
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

     . . . On Jan. 24, 1862 was baptized a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

   On the 4th of April 1862 left Weibye [Denmark], my native town, for Utah in connection with my mother, sisters and 2 brothers.   Arrived in Aalborg the same day.

    On April 6 we left Aalborg in company of 412 with other emigrants on the ship Franklin, leaving Hamburg, April 8.  Had a very time on the ocean.  Had headwind nearly all the way and much sickness among the emigrants.  43 children & 3 adults persons was buried in the ocean.

    Arrived in New York May 29, leaving New York June 1, arrived at Florence, Nebraska June 8.

    On July 14 a company of emigrants known as the Independent Company with C. A. Madsen as captain left for Utah.  The company consisted of 44 wagons from 1 yoke to 3 yokes of oxen for each wagon.  This journey was a very hard and tiresome.  One of the whole [-] including my mother had to walk all the way, 1,000 miles.  Arrived in Salt Lake City Sept. 22, 62. . . . [p.1]
 
 

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Autobiography of Soren C. Thygesen
Thygesen, Soren C., Autobiography, pp.48-49.  Translated from Danish in about 1930 by a Brother Christiansen in Manti, Utah.  Donated by Alton L. Thygesen.

    On the 19th of June 1861 we had a son born, he was named Thyger Christian. I earned a likelihood for myself and family by working as a carpenter, millwright and miller until the year 1862 The 5 of April at which time we left Freiler and went to Aalborg [p.48].  On April 6th we left Aalborg by the Steamer Albion and sailed to Aarhus and Frederesia where we took aboard more emigrants and finally landed in Kiel Germany.  Next day we went by rail to Hamburg where we boarded the sail ship Franklin.  We left Hamburg April 15.  On the 17, our 9 months old son died he was buried in  Hanover Germany where we lay 2 days.  From there we continued our journey across the North Sea through the English Channel and across the Atlantic Ocean to New York where we arrived on the 24 of May 4 o'clock in the morning.  This day our oldest daughter 3 years old died.  I don't know whether she was buried on land or sea.

(My mother died in March 1856.)

    On the 31 of May we left the ship and was taken to Castle Garden.  We left New York in the evening per railroad and traveled day and night until the 6th of June when we landed in St. Joseph got onboard a steamer and sailed up the Missouri River to Omaha where we arrived on the 9th.  Here I saw Indians for the first time and observed them holding their meat over the fire with a stick while roasting it.  In the evening of the 9th we arrived at Florence where we stayed 39 days, got our provisions on the church account.

    June 15, we had a large meeting in the open air.  Joseph Young and one of the apostles were there and addressed the meeting.  They said there were 7000 Saints in the camp.  One day a severe storm passed over us with heavy thunder and lightning and a strong wind.  It blowed over several wagons 2 person were killed and one wounded.  We left Florence on the 19 July and moved 4 miles further west where there were more grass and on the 25 of July we had a meeting which was addressed by some of the Apostles after which we continued our journey westward and landed in Salt Lake City on the 27 of September.  I did not see Brigham Young as he was on trip to the southern settlements.

   We were advised to go with the teamsters home and help to strengthen the outside settlements and I concluded to go to Ephraim in Sanpete County.  The first man who received and entertained us was [UNCLEAR, POSSIBLY Jens] Thomsen, and I got employment as a carpenter.

    On December 4, I bought a cow for $45.00 what a blessing one I never could have obtained in my native land [p.49].
 

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Excerpt Jens C. A. Weibye
Weibye, Jens C. A., [Excerpt], An Enduring Legacy, vol. 4 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1981) pp. 319-320.
 

 . . . We went on board the Franklin in the evening of Tuesday, April 8th, and I was appointed to locate the emigrants in their bunks below deck.  These bunks, 160 in number, were so wide that three persons easily could have room in one of them side by side.  After getting our baggage in order, we received our rations of provisions.  These consisted of beef, pork, peas, beans, potatoes, pearl barley, rice, prunes, syrup, vinegar, pepper, coffee, tea, sugar, butter, rye bread, sea biscuits, water, flour, salted herring, salt and oil (for the lamps).  We lighted eleven lanterns every night, six of which belonged to the ship and five to the emigrants.  We hired an extra cook in Hamburg for ninety rigsdaler - two of our brethren served as assistant cooks.  We thus had out dinners nicely cooked in about the following routine, viz., Sunday we had sweet soup; Monday, pea soup; Tuesday and Wednesday, rice; Thursday, pea soup; Friday, barley mush; and Saturday, herring and potatoes.

    Some of the emigrants carried measles with them from home and the disease soon spread to all parts of the ship; no less than forty persons, mostly children, were attacked at once.  Many of the emigrants were also suffering with diar-[p.319]rhea, which caused much weakness of body.  We lost the appetite for sea biscuits, but learned to soak them in water or tea from eight to ten hours, which softened them so that they were more palatable.  The sick were served twice a day with porridge made from barley, rice or sago, and almost every day pancakes could be had by the hundreds for the sick who could not eat the ‘hard tack’.  Wheat bread was also baked for some of the old people.  We held a council meeting almost every night, and the sanitary conditions of the ship’s apartments were attended with great care.  Three times a week the decks were washed and twice a week the ship was thoroughly fumigated by burning tar.  A spirit of peace prevailed and very few difficulties occurred.  The captain and crew were good-natured and obliging, and so were the cooks, who even served the sick when they were not on duty.

    We held at times meetings of worship on the upper decks, and every morning at 5 o’clock the signal for rising was given by the clarinet or accordion.  At 7 a.m. and 9 p.m. a similar signal was sounded, calling the Saints to assemble in their several districts for prayer.  Most every day we amused ourselves a short time by dancing on the deck to music played by some of our brethren or members of the crew.  We could have had an enjoyable time, had it not been for the sorrow occasioned by the many sick and dying among us on account of the measles. . . . [p.320]
 

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Reminiscences and Journals of Jens Christian Anderson Weibye
Weibye, Jens Christian Andersen.  Reminiscences and journals (Danish mss.) (Typescript) (Ms 1432),  reel 1, bx. 1, fd. 1, pp. 472-529 and (English typescript)  (Ms 4723), bx 3, fd. 3, pp. 253-60,262-72,274-85,333.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

 Thursday April 3, 1862: I stayed at home and arranged many things.

    Friday 4th: I again stayed at home and arranged the various things for emigration.  It was quite cold and moist.

    Saturday 5th: I was unusually busy until noon.  Then our clothes were packed and they were put on a car and taken to Aalborg.  At 2:30 in the afternoon I drove with my family in a car (Extra-Feder-Vogn) to Aalborg where we arrived at 8:30 in the evening and stayed at the home of Christian Frederiksen in Svinglen in Aalborg.

    Sunday 6th: At 3 o’clock in the afternoon we went on board the ship "Albion in Aalborg, and at 4 o’clock we left and came to Aarhus on April 7th at 2:30 at night, and sailed from there again on the steamship to Fredercia at 9:30 in the morning and left there at 11 o’clock.  It was a beautiful sight to sail between Jutland and Funen and Slesvig, but when we in the evening almost came to Kiel the ships sailed on ground so that it was held there, and we all (about 700 emigrants from Vendsyssel, Aalborg, Aarhus, Skive, Fredericia and Funen) go in one side and then backwards all men to get the ship ok again.  We now lying quietly and drove a little back into the steam, and then we went to Kiel where we arrived at 9 o’clock in the evening.  Some of the emigrants went into town to lodge, and some stayed on the ship.  I and 4 brethren stayed in the Railroad Hotel for the night.

    Tuesday 8th: In the morning many of our families in town at 9:30.  Then we went to the railroad station in Kiel, and at 11:15 we left there with an extra railroad train and rode these 14 miles to Altona until 2:15 in the after noon.  There the Saints waited until evening before they could be ready to go on board ship.

   I had to stay with the money bag until the middle of the afternoon, and then I and Madsen drove to Hamburg to President J. Van Cott at the English hotel and got 1,400 rigsdaler changed and got gold for silver.  I came back in the evening and found my wife and children among the Saints on a boat and we now entered the ship and I got an order from C.A. Madsen [p.253] to distribute safety belts to Vendssysel Conference and was also assigned to be cash master for income and expenses and also to write a journal of the most important that happens.

    Wednesday April 9 1862:  We arranged our things somewhat and the ship people arranged their things on the ship.  It was somewhat unfamiliar to us. Some were satisfied and some were very dissatisfied with the stairways and the toilets and lightning, and many of their clothes had disappeared.  (It had been mixed with the emigrants' clothes on the ship "Humboldt which had been with us from the Aarhus and Fredericia Conferences)  I lost some of mine and my wife's and children's clothing so I must buy some again in Hamburg.

    Thursday April 10th:  In the morning Brother Jens Jensen's wife of Høien fell through the steerage and down into the cargo and hurt her head very much and also her shoulders so she had to be carried into the berth unconsciously. In the evening I went with President C.A. Madsen to Hamburg to make some purchases as we have lost some of our clothes which came with the emigrants on "Humboldt and in the evening when we came home on the ship Elder R. Mikkelsen (steward on the ship) had fallen down through the upper deck to the between-deck and hurt his loin so that he had to be carried in the berth, and he can hardly move.

    Friday 11th:  Some assignments were made.  Painter Buemann as steward.  Elders S. Staerk and [Lars Anderson] Skoubye [Skouby] are cooks.  Christen Olesen [Olsen] and Carl Chr. Jensen lamp trimmers. C. Andersen watch master.  We are now divided into 8 districts and 20 berths in each district, and we are 259 adults, 131 children, 19 sucklings. Altogether 409 Saints.

 Accounted for 324-1/2 full persons 8 district presidents were called:
  J. [Jacob] P. [Peder] Jacobsen  1                      J.C. Kornum 2
  N. [Niels] Mortensen 3                                      L. [Lars] P. [Peterson] Fjeldsted 4
  C. [Christian] P. [Peder] Borregaard  5 J.         C. L. Frost 6
  T. [Thomas] Larsen 7                                          J. Andersen 8

 J. [Jens] Fr. [Fred] Mortensen clothes master. [PROBABLY, anton] A. Lund English interpreter. Winkelman and Jacob P. [Peder]  Jacobsen German interpreters. Niels Chr. Andersen in charge of the washing. NL. JG. [p.254]

Saturday April 12 1862:  I was assigned to help the steward with the accounts and delivery and L. [Lauritz] Larsen from Aalborg spiritual leader.

     Sunday 13th.  We didn't have any meeting on board until evening. We had a council meeting (midship) and Madsen set me apart as his first counselor and L. [Lauritz] Larsen as his second counselor and Joh. Chr. Jensen to wake the people up every morning at 5 o'clock with clarinet music, followed by 1 or 2 numbers on an accordion and likewise to have prayers at 7 o'clock in the morning and at 8 o'clock in the evening.  Much more was discussed for the benefit of the company as cleanliness etc.   NF. JWm.

    Monday 14th.  All well on the ship with the exception of a little sickness in the stomach as the result of the travel and the changed food.

    Carl Chr. Jensen was appointed steward instead of Buemann and Mathias Jensen as lamp trimmer in his stead.  We hired an extra cook for 90 rigsdaler, and he came on board and started the job today so that we can get good food that our health can be preserved, that we might reach the goal.

    We are lying here waiting for a good wind that we can sail out.  I am now through with exchanging money for the Saints and also with the payment for clothes as tents, bed sacks, cloth bound trunks, water containers, tin goods, rifles and other things to be used for the Saints' emigration.

    I have received the following loans and delivered them to others:

From Jens C. Kornum 100 rigsdaler  to Apostles Lyman and Rich to Faaer 150 rigsdaler

From Thomas Willestrup 50 rigsdaler

From Maren Andersen Hald 100 rigsdaler  to O.N. Liljenquist 100 rigsdaler

From Thomas Willestrup 50 rigsdaler  to C.A. Madsen  200 rigsdaler

From Peder Jensen Mylbak 150 rigsdaler [p.255]

[PAGES 256-260 CONTAIN LISTS OF NAMES OF SAINTS WHO GAVE MONEY FOR CLOTHES AND EMIGRATION]
 

Itemized money received for the Saints' emigration and clothing.

    Tuesday April 15 1862:  In the afternoon at 2:30 the ship Franklin left.  It is a big 3 masts ship guided by Captain Robert Murray and 3 mates, Hiram Clawson, William Henwood and Collin and the carpenter.  There are two black cooks or 1 cook and 1 steward and 1 waiter for the captain and 16 seamen, American, German, English.  We were driven out by 2 steamships 7 miles. "Vorwerts in front and "Alice on the side. At 8 o'clock in the evening we cast anchor and were lying quiet that night. At 2:30 at night the steamships left us.  We had a quiet night with the exception of a little sickness. Our child Anemine was also sick, and Sister Else Jeppesen is sick and both Grethes have been sick, both my wife's sister and our daughter Petreane Margrethe.

    My wife was somewhat seasick between Aalborg and Aarhus and likewise little Grethe and big Grethe and Sister Else Jeppesen, but I was well all the way on the journey with the exception of diarrhea on April 13th and 14th.

    Wednesday 16th:  In the morning we dropped anchor and crossed until 10 o'clock and then we crossed anchor again.  We are now lying quiet between Hanover and Holsten and can see the lovely region and green dikes.

    We held a council meeting and assigned Elder Jens Chr. Terpe as District President of the First District to replace Jacob P. Jacobsen. I gave out butter last Monday and rye bread and crackers today. Today Brother Hens Jensen's wife of Høien was again on the deck moving after her fall, and likewise Brother R. Mikkelsen was out of bed for a little while.

    On April 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th: we had big hails and likewise snow and storm and much cold.

    April 16th:  The Saints play and dance on the deck. At :30 in the afternoon we crossed anchor and began sailing, and during the same time President C.A. Madsen and I married 4 couples, viz. Niels Peder Lønstrup and Else Cathrine Jensen, Jens Frederik Mortensen and  Mette Marie Hansen, Søren Pedersen Staerk and Ane Sophie Pedersen, Chr. Peter Sørensen and Marie Mikkelsen. Madsen married the first and third couple and I the 2nd and 4th.  (It was the first I have married). [p.260]

    Today it is 2 years since I got married and 8 years since I got baptized.  Then L. Larsen and I went with C.A. Madsen and married Peder Peders Selde and Marie Magdalene Einersen.  At 7:30 we cast anchor again. Today we have sailed [-] miles from Glykstad where we stayed for the night.  In the evening we had a council meeting and set Marie Kjølbye apart as a nurse. Today Sister K. Svendsen's purse disappeared on the deck with 43 dollars, but it was found by President Madsen.  [-] Thursday, April 17th.  At 4 o'clock in the morning Brother Søren Chr. Thygesen's child of Aalborg Conference (Thyge Chr. Thygesen 9 months) passed away. Today I handed out butter, bread and crackers. We weighed anchor and sailed a little, and then we cast anchor again.

    April 15 and 16 1862:  We had good weather. From 4 to 7 o'clock we again went west against the wind. In the evening we held a council meeting and decided to hold a council meeting every evening at 8:30 midships.  A little rain.
                                                                                                                                               

    Good Friday 18th:  In the morning at 5 o'clock we weighed anchor and went west of the steam against the wind 1-1/2 miles to Koks-Havn [LOCATION UNCLEAR] until 9 o'clock in the morning. At noon a boat came and brought with it the dead child to Koks, and there it will be buried. We are now here waiting for favorable wind, for now we are at the end of the Elben, some miles from Hamburg and we have the large ocean west of us, viz. the North Sea. Another child was brought to Koks who died on the 19th, viz, Brother Søren Sørensen's of Hune.

    The undersigned hereby admit to owe Peder Jensen Nylbak of Vendsyssel Conference  150 rigsdaler Danish, which sum or the value of it I oblige to repay as soon as I can.
                                                                                                                                            C. A. Madsen

Onboard the ship Franklin April 29 1862.

     The undersigned hereby admit to owe Thomas Anderon of Willestrup, Vendsyssel Conference 50 rigsdaler Danish, which sum or the value of it I oblige to repay as soon as I can.
C. A. Madsen

 The undersigned hereby admit to owe Jens Jensen Loth of  the Vendsyssel Conference 350 rigsdaler Danish, which sum or the value of it I oblige to repay as soon as I can.


Jens Chr. Andersen Weibye

The undersigned hereby admit to owe Peder Jensen Mylbak of Vendsyssel Conference 50 rigsdaler Danish, which sum or the value of it I oblige to repay as soon as I can.

Jens Chr. Andersen Weibye
($186)

Onboard the ship Franklin May 10 1862.

[ON PAGES 262-264 OTHER ACCOUNTS OF INCOME AND EXPENSES FROM DECEMBER 1 1861 TO APRIL 1 1862 LISTED IN DETAIL AS WELL.]

     Saturday April 19 1862:  I distributed bread and water. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon Søren Sørensen's child died from "hune" (Joseph 3 years old).  He was sick for 7 days. At 5 o'clock in the afternoon I married Brother Mathias Jensen and Sister Metine [Mettine] Sørensen of Ugilt.  South western wind and some rain.

     Sunday 20th: (Easter Sunday) I delivered butter, bread and water. At 2:15 in the afternoon Lars Peter Christensen's child of Faurholdt (Maren 5-1/2 years) died from measles. Seven days sickness.  In the afternoon we had preaching in First and Second Districts. In the evening L. [Lauritz] Larsen married Brother Carl Chr. Jensen and Maren Jensen, both of Vendsyssel Conference.  Today there was requirement in Koks after beer.  There is some sickness here onboard, viz. diarrhea which in some people has become dysentery.  In the evening we held a council meeting and it was decided to double the guards during the night so that 4 men walk on the corridor for two hours and follow the ladies and help with the sick, and L. Larsen and I supervise the watchmen.

     Monday April 21st:  Very beautiful weather; the wind was northeast. At 10 o'clock in the morning we laid anchor and sailed in direction of North-Northwest.  At 11:30 Brother C.A. Madsen married Brother Christen Olesen [Olsen] and Sister Birgithe Marie Christensen of Vendsyssel Conference. Today the health aboard the ship is better and many are on the deck. At 2 o'clock we again laid anchor. In the evening I married Elder Thomas Larsen and Sister Andrea Jensen, both of Aalborg Conference. We sailed one mile today.
                                                                                                                                         

     Tuesday 22nd:  At 6 o'clock in the morning Brother Steffen Jensen Baek's wife of the Aalborg Conference gave birth to a son after an hour's sickness.  He was named Chr. August Baek.  It went very quietly.

     At 9 o'clock we laid anchor and sailed west. At 1 o'clock we could see the island Helgoland on the right side, one mile from us.  This is how the island looks from the sea. [HERE THE AUTHOR HAS DRAWN AN ILLUSTRATION] [p.265]

     In the afternoon President Madsen married Elder J.C.L. Frost and Sister Johanne Marie Hansen.

    Wednesday April 23 1862.  We sailed and many were seasick, and I was also somewhat seasick but not as much as many others. However, I was not more sick than I could walk. Sister [Carol Marie] Truelsen's child Carl Andersen died at the age of 2-1/2 at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. I didn't attend a council meeting in the evening. My wife was very seasick. Sister Ane Jensen from Aarslevhede helped us the most. We crossed the headwind.

     Thursday 24th:  At 7 o'clock in the morning Brother Anders Chr. Jensen's child of Gaardsholdt died, Jensine Jacobine 3 month old from measles. We crossed the headwind.

     Friday 25th:  I delivered butter, bread and water. In the evening Brother Jens Andersen of Vedum died. (He was the richest of the emigrants on this ship. He has owned 12000 rigsdaler and done much good.)  He was 49 years old and was sick for three days.

     Saturday April 26.  Favorable wind, but almost calm. In the afternoon at 2:30 blacksmith J. Peter Jacobsen's child of Ugilt Chr. Holm died from measles one year old.

    At 6 o'clock we could see England from a distance of 1 mile, and then we turned and crossed along the countryside to the canal. During the night my wife had a bad cough I gave her two drops of "Belladonna."

    Sunday 27th:  During the night one of the sailors fell asleep at his job, and the captain came and boxed his ears. Then he caught the captain and threw him against the deck and held him and he cried for help, but then came the mate and helped the captain, and the mate now stands with iron around his hands above the captain's cabin with the hands bound. When he in the morning had the opportunity to cut himself loose he was immediately surrounded with iron around the feet. At 6 o'clock in the afternoon 12 sailors went to the captain to intercede for the sailor, but it didn't help, although they prayed for him and were much against the captain.[p.266]

    I    n the morning Brother Niels Christensen of Aalborg Conference died from diarrhoea. He is 62 years old. In the afternoon Brother Niels C.C. Stamhuus' son Christian died from measles at the age of 7-1/2.  In the morning we could again see England. Good weather but almost completely quiet.  On Monday morning April 28th.  Sister Abigail Jensen's child (foster-child) of Aalborg Conference 9 months old [died.]  She has been weak right from her birth. (The name is Dorthea Jensen).  It is beautiful weather today, favorable wind, and we are sailing in the canal one-half mile from England, and at 12 o'clock noon we are just outside of Dover in England and can see the city and the castle on top of the hill. England looks very beautiful, white mountains along the sea and green hills and valleys on the country side.  At 2 o'clock in the afternoon Brother Laurits [Lauritz] Larsen's son of Høien, Martin Johan 2 years old [died] from measles, and then we could see the coast of France. We could see England all day and in the evening. Pleasant wind today.  In the evening Peder Mikkelsen was set apart as President of the First District to replace J.C.Terpe as he is sickly.  Ane Jensen of Aarslevhede and Mariane Pedersen of Vedum were set apart as nurses aides to Margarethe Frantsen instead of Sister Hviid and Marie Kjolbye.

    Tuesday April 29th:  At one o'clock at night Brother Anders Larsen's son Jens 2-1/2 years old died from measles. Today we can see England again. At 12 noon we passed by the island of Write  close to half a mile. And at the same time Brother Christoffer Thomsen's child of Gaardsholdt Oline Marie 5 years died from measles.

    Our daughter Anemine is very sick today. We could see today, but the channel is very wide. Today there were some seasick people.

    A very good wind today and in the evening. In the evening it was decided in the council to hold prayers every evening at 8:30 and council at 9 o'clock. [p.267]

    Wednesday April 30 1862.  In the morning we sailed out of the channel and into the Spanish Lake.  Today the measles have come out on our child Anemine.  Today Frederik Jacobsen's daughter Sara Marie died from measles at the age of 6.

    Thursday May 1st:  Good wind. Sailed about 3 miles an hour. Many were sick. I stayed in bed in the afternoon.

    Friday 2nd:  During the night Niels Mortensen Lynge's daughter Maren Kirstine died of measles at the age of 5. And in the morning Niels Lynge's son Ander Peter Fjeldsted died from measles at the age of 6 months. In the afternoon Frederik Jacobsen's daughter Ingerlise Thomine died from measles at the age of 9. (On board the ship 37 are suffering from measles. 7 grownups and 17 children have diarrhea today.)

    Saturday May 3rd:  Today we sailed more than 2-1/2 miles an hour.  In the morning Niels Lauritsen's daughter Mette Kathrine died from measles at the age of 7-3/4. In the afternoon Niels Stamhuset's son Søren Peter died from measles age 1-1/4.

    Sunday May 4th:  In the morning Anders C.P. Moller's son Niels Peter died from measles at the age of 2-1/2.  In the afternoon Blacksmith Jas P. Jacobsen's daughter Rasmine Laurine died from measles at the age of 2-3/4.  Today good wind and a little rain.

    Monday May 5th:  During the night Ane Kirstine Bassibaek's daughter Thomine Kristine died from measles at the age of 2-1/2. In the morning Christoffer Thomsen's son Carl Chr. died from measles at the age of 2-1/2. At noon Jens Peter Nielsen's son Niels Chr. died from measles at the age of 4.  Today we are 23 degrees out in the Atlantic Ocean, and there are 50 degrees to New York. Altogether 73 degrees across the Atlantic Ocean.

    On Tuesday May 6th: We sailed 47 Danish miles in 24 hours.  It is very cold. The sickness is decreasing. This evening Joh. Chr. Jensen's son Jens Jai died from measles at the age of 6 years. [p.268]

    Wednesday May 7 1862:  In the morning Anders Chr. Haardsholdt's daughter Ane Marie Jensine at the age of 1-3/4 died from weakness after the measles, and a little later John Chr. Jensen's daughter Marthine Josephine died from measles at the age of 2-1/4. In the afternoon Lars Christensen Sataun's son Anton died from measles at the age of 3-1/4.

   

    Thursday May 8th:  Less good wind. This evening an envious spirit appeared in the council regarding the distribution of the stores as well as wheat bread and pancakes to the sick, but President C.A. Madsen chastised them as they deserved.  Sailed about 30 Danish miles today.

    Friday May 9th: Today contrary wind; sailed a little forward. In the evening Peder Poulsen's son of Aalborg Conference Poul Chr. 2-1/2 years old died from measles and the same evening Anders C.P. Moller's son of age 4-1/2 died from measles. It was raining, sailed quickly north this evening.

    Saturday May 10th: Our child Anemine is improving a little, but our little Petreane Margrethe is sick. Today it is the third day.

    Sunday 11th:  I have now had diarrhea for 12 days, but now it has stopped.  In the morning Lars Peter Faurholdt's son Ole 2-3/4 years old died from measles.  Today we are sailing in the right direction.  It is blowing a lot, so we are rocked a lot. Four sisters bake 120 pancakes to the sick and 2 of them bring them around.

    Monday 12th:  Today it is very cold and less pleasant wind. Madsen gave us much good counseling in the Council and likewise good teachings.

    Tuesday 13th:  In the morning Lars Chr. Jørgensen Elling's son Jørgen Chr. died from measles at the age of 3.  We are sailing well today, but it is very cold.  In the council meeting in the evening I informed the Saints to which the paragraph "Emigration Expenses" had been used to cover the expenses of the conference as well as expenses of the emigrants' travel. [p.269]

    Wednesday May 14 1862:  It is very cold today, but we are sailing fine. In the afternoon Peder Poulsen's son of Aalborg Conference Ole Ferdinand 5 years old died from measles.  Today it was decided that I shall share a car with Brother Jens Chr. Christensen Poel of Vendsyssel.

    Thursday May 15th:  Today we are sailing fast in the direction of Southwest, but it is extremely cold. In the evening Painter Harald Bueman's [Buemann’s] foster-daughter Ane Adoptine [Adophine] died from measles at the age of 2-1/2.  This evening it is blowing extremely strong, but however not a storm.  Madsen taught us to join together as a family to have our clothes together. We in the Vendsyssel Conference are divided into 17 families.

    Friday 16th:  The weather was almost completely quiet, we are sailing Southwest.  At noon today Niels Mortensen Lynge's son Jens died at the age of 3-3/4 from measles, and in the evening the son of Jens Petersen of Aalborg Conference Jens Anton died from breast weakness at the age of 2-1/2.  This evening the fog started on New Fundlands Banks. (The Fishbanks).

    Saturday 17th:  Fog and cold. In the afternoon Blacksmith J.P. Jacobsen's son Jens Ludvig Theodor died from measles at age 6.  We sailed today in 35 fathoms of water and we have sailed for many days where it has been too deep to sound.

    Sunday 18th:  At 9 o'clock we are through the fog and have sunshine and milder air and are going Southwest.  At noon Niels Jensen Somonsen's son died from diarrhea after the measles at the age of 3-3/4.  In the afternoon we had a good meeting on the quarter-deck (back deck) in the free air which was very enjoyable.  I also preached to the congregation which consisted of more than 100 people.  At 4 o'clock in the afternoon the fog returned.  And then Jens Nielsen Blegerhavs daughter Karen Marie died from measles at the age of 4-1/4. [p.270]  In the council meeting in the evening I loaned Steffen Jensen Baek of Aalborg Conference 5 rigsdaler and Christen Pedersen Lindholm of Aalborg Conference 14 rigsdaler.  Then Jens C. Kornum gave me 1 rigsdaler which was also loaned to Steffen Jensen Baek.

    Monday May 19 1862:  Today we are sailing fast and take a good course, but it is very foggy and cold.  Good teachings were given in the evening council meeting by Madsen and others.

   Tuesday 20th:  Much fog and cold, but we are sailing well.  In the afternoon Frederik Jacobsen's daughter Elisabeth died from measles at the age of 2-1/2.

    Wednesday 21st:  In the morning we heard the cry to go up and see a stone cliff from which we were a ½ Danish mile away and had this vision before my eye and it looked to be 10-15 yards high, but a little later in the day when the sun started shining on it, it proved to be an iceberg, and in a telescope it could be seen from 3 until 10 o'clock in the morning when we in clear weather half a Danish mile from it passed by an island which bordered on New Scotland. What a joy it was for us to see land, but it didn't last long before we sailed out of sight.  In the afternoon there was a conflict between C.A. Madsen and Christoffer Thomsen about a rifle which made Madsen angry and he became too hot-headed and pushed C. Thomsen twice.  In the evening In the evening [SIC] Joh. Chr. Jensen's daughter Johanne Dorthea died from measles at the age of 4-1/4.  Tonight no wind.

    In the council it was accepted by the brethren that Elder R. Mikkelsen will be my assistant with the delivery of goods.  At 11:15 in the evening some were alarmed when they were informed and smelled there was fire in a tree, but it was soon found out that it was at the tree at the passengers' cooking galley but it was soon put out by the help of the water hoses on the ship to our great joy. [p.271]

    Thursday May 22 1862:  It was clear sunshine in the morning.  We are sailing westward, but it is very cold almost as in Trondheim in Norway C.A. Madsen said.

    We are sailing on the 61 grade and we have about 110 Danish miles to New York.  Now it is foggy and cold again.  We are now sailing Northwest.  In the council meeting in the evening it was mentioned that Jesus used a wrap on the dove merchants and Petrus [Peter] cut the High Priest's servant's ear off etc.

    Friday 23rd:   In the morning we sailed north.  Sunshine and clear cold air.  At 9 o'clock we could see New Scotland and at 11 o'clock before we turned were two Danish miles near it and could see buildings and forests just before Liverpool in Scotland which looked very beautiful.  We are now sailing southward and at 1 o'clock we were again out of sight.  In the council meeting in the evening President C.A. Madsen presented the following to sustain as Authorities in Zion and here.

1. Brigham Young President, Seer and Revelator of the Church of  Jesus Christ.

2. Heber C. Kimball as his First and Daniel H. Wells as his Second Counselors.

3. The Twelve Apostles with Orson Hyde as President.

4. C. A. Madsen as Captain of the Company.

5. J. C. A. Weibye and L. Larsen as his counselors.

6. J. A. Weibye as Cashier and Secretary of the Company.

7. L. Larsen as manager of the Company.

8. Peder Mikkelsen, J.C. Kornum, Niels Mortensen Lynge, Lars P. Fjeldsted, P.

   Borgaard, J.C.L. Frost, Thomas Larsen and Johan Andersen as District Presidents.

9. Then to sustain each other as brothers and sisters.  All the underlined proposals were unanimously accepted. [p.272]

    Saturday May 24 1862.  In the morning we sailed West and Southwest which is the right course.  It was decided in the Council that those who would have President C.A. Madsen to get some food from New York to Florence should in advance to me (J.C.A. Weibye) 1-1/2 rigsdaler for each person above 8 years and one rigsdaler for each from 1 to 8 years old.  And those under the age of one year should not have any goods.  And 14 rigsdaler for payment on the railroad etc. for each from 12 years to the highest age and 7 rigsdaler for children between 5 an 12 years, and all children below the age of 5 travel free through America.

        The undersigned hereby confess to owe Else Marie Jørgensen of Hjørring forty rigsdaler Danish which amount I bind myself to repay her as soon as I can after her arrival to Zion, either in money or goods.

    But if she dies in Denmark or arrives in Zion and does not require it paid, then after death I shall pay it to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Zion.
Jens Chr. Andersen Weibye
Onboard the ship Franklin May 10, 1862.
(21 dollars 25 cents American)

    The undersigned hereby admit to owe J.C.A. Weibye fourteen dollars which amount I undertake to repay him either in money or values as soon as I can.  Onboard the ship Franklin May 20 1862.

Christen Pedersen
Testified by A. Engberg.

 The undersigned hereby admit to owe J. Chr. Anderen Weibye six dollars which I hereby pledge to repay him either in money or values as soon as I can.  Onboard the ship Franklin May 19 1862.
Steffen Jensen Baek
Testified by A. Engberg

The undersigned hereby admit to owe Jens Chr. Andersen Weibye of Vendsyssel Conference 18 rigsdaler Danish which amount or the value of it I pledge to repay as soon as I can.  Onboard the ship Franklin May 10 1862.
Ane Margrethe Pedersen
(American value 9 dollars 55 cents)

Onboard the ship Franklin May 25 1862.

Captain Murray.

   Dear Sir:  The passengers on the ship Franklin fulfill hereby a pleasant duty to thank you and acknowledge you for your courtesy to us, for your care for the sick, for the passengers welfare, for your helpfulness for your encouraging attitude, for your patient lenience to our awkwardness because of our unaccustomed experience with silver, for your knowledge and experience which we know have contributed to our fast and sacred crossing from Hamburg to New York.  As we are leaving the ship we wish that success and progress may crown your days on earth.

                                            J.C.A. Weibye.         L. Larsen.                 A.H. Lund
                                            R. Mikkelsen.           J. Andersen              C.C. Jensen
                                            Ane M. Frantsen      Ane Jensen

Sunday May 25th:  Sailed West, but it was very quiet.  The sun was shining clearly and it was milder than usual, and we also saw some small black birds like the "svales" in Denmark.

     In the afternoon we had a meeting on the deck midships under open skies.  T. Larsen, J.C. Kornum and I preached to them, and as it was almost completely quiet some, about 200 of the Saints, were on the deck to attend the meeting.  In the evening 6 brothers and 6 sisters were appointed to wash and make the sicks and the weaks clothing clean of lice and other unclean things with Brother L. Staerk and Sister Ane Margrethe Frantzen heading the Cleaning Committee. [p.274]

Monday May 2 1862:  Clear air but somewhat cold.  We are crossing Southwest, Northwest and again West.  In the council meeting in the evening President C.A. Madsen spoke much about teaching and contemplation to us and said that the most evil which has been here or some other place has appeared because of the question MINE AND YOURS.

And still none of us own anything, but all is the Lord's and we are housekeepers.  Madsen proposed to the council that he and I (J.C.A.Weibye) and Carl Chr. Jensen become chairmen of the purchase of foods for the company through the states and L. Larsen chairman to bring it by the help of 12 brothers, viz.

J.C. Kornum
J.F. Mortensen
Hans Christensen
N.C.C. Stamhuus
H.C. Hansen
T.C.P. Grysberg
Chr. Peter Sørensen
J.C.S. Frost
Jørgen Nielsen
Axel Einersen
Søren Jacobsen and
Jens Jensen Løth

A letter was read thus and it was unanimously decided to bring it to the mates.

Onboard the ship Franklin May 1862.

To the mates Clawson, Henwood and Collin.

     Gentlemen:  We the passengers, before we leave the ship, are happy to offer to you our thanks and gratitude for your kind and gentlemanlike treatment there according to our experience and it is unsurpassed and have rendered to our passage crossing the Atlantic comfort, pleasure and satisfaction in every regard.

    And with the most sincere desire for your welfare and happiness we leave you forever remembering our agreeable and joyful voyage under your care and company.
Respectfully yours,

                                        J.C.A. Weibye,     L. Larsen,         A.H. Lund,
                                        R. Mikkelsen,      J. Andersen,     Carl Chr. Jensen,
                                        Ane Margrethe Frantzen,              Ane Jensen. [p.275]

    At 11 o'clock in the evening Niels Jensen's child from Høien Jensine Kirstine died from measles at the age of 2-1/2.   dj = jd.

    Tuesday May 27 1862:  From last night at 10 o'clock until 8 o'clock this morning we have been sailing fine in the right direction towards West/Northwest, but now it is almost quiet and somewhat warm, fog and much rain.

   Today it is 7 weeks since we came on board the ship Franklin in the harbor in Hamburg, and from here on I will give a short description of our treatment, food and drinks etc.

    We 409 emigrants came here on Franklin Tuesday April 8th in the evening, and Madsen assigned me to distribute the berths (or beds which were so wide that 3 could lie on one without being jammed).  There were 160 beds one above the other, and we had our clothing taken care of and we had food delivered which consisted of meat, ham, peas, beans, potatoes, barley groats, rice, prunes, syrup, vinegar, pepper, coffee beans, tea, brown sugar, powdered sugar, chicory, butter, ryebread and crackers as long as this ryebread could stand the mold and then crackers, water, wheat meal for pancakes, herrings, salt and oil for the lamps.  We lighted 11 lamps every evening; the six belong to the ship and the 5 are the emigrants'.  We got an extra cook hired in Hamburg by the name of Christensen for 90 rigsdaler and two of our own brethren, Staerk and Skoubye [Skouby] are cooks.  From our own goods we had good food made as peas, sweet soup, rice boiled in milk and barley porridge.  We had sweet soup on Sunday, Peas on Monday, Rice pudding on Tuesday, Rice pudding on Wednesday, Peas on Thursday, Barley porridge on Friday and Herrings and potatoes on Saturday. [p.276]

    Some of the emigrants had brought measles with them from home which soon spread around all over the ship so that about 40, especially children, were attacked at the same time.  Besides, most of the emigrants suffered from diarrhea, some for two weeks and some in less time and some longer which exhausted us a lot.  And besides almost all of us lost the taste for the crackers which lasted for a short time or longer time.  At the close of the journey we soaked them in cold water or tea water.  After 8-12 hours we intended to eat them and they would be soft like a loaf of bread, made of rye flour and wheat flour in Denmark.  For the sick two times a day oat soup, rice soup or sego soup, and almost every day pancakes by the hundreds were baked for the sick and those who didn't like crackers.  Besides we had often baked white bread by the black steward for the old people who couldn't chew crackers.  We were divided into 8 districts about equally large.  We held a council meeting every evening, and many necessary things were done both regarding cleanliness and help to the poor which they needed for their journey through America.

    We washed the deck three times a week and twice it was fumigated with tar.

    The Spirit of Peace was among us, so I haven't heard any more evil during the 7 weeks more than once among so many people, and naturally each of us has our imperfections and human weaknesses.

    The captain, the mates (3), the carpenter (1), and the seamen (16) were very human to us as well as the captain's servant, the black steward and the black cook who often cooked for us in his time off as well as our own cook (Christensen) cooked and baked pancakes for us.

    We held meetings partly on the deck and partly on the between-deck with ourselves.  Almost every morning at 5 o’clock they blew the clarinet or played the harmonica to get people up, and sometimes both things were used, and likewise at 7 o'clock in the morning and 8:30 in the evening for prayer.  They danced on the deck almost every day, but mostly in the afternoon from 6:30 until 8:30, and then our own brethren played and two mates, the carpenter, the captain's servant or one of the seamen, so we had much joy when we don't think about the many deaths from measles.  Up to this time 3 grownups and 43 children [p.277] have died, almost all of them from measles.  These days the smallpox has broken out among us so four children have been attacked by it.  We have almost had contrary wind all the time.  Otherwise we would have been in New York many days ago as Franklin is an excellent ship.  We have sailed around all those we have been able to see.

    There has been very little seasickness among us.  It was only a couple of times in the beginning, once on the North Sea and once on the Atlantic Ocean.  We feel much better sailing on the Atlantic Ocean than on the North Sea between Hamburg and England.

    Now about myself and my family.

    I feel very fine on this my journey to Zion and thus does my family.

    We were all well when we came on board the ship, and I have been well all the time with the exception of diarrhea for two weeks.  My wife has also been well all the time, but however, she has continually been in bed since April 30th because our little Anemine became sick from measles on April 30th, and she has been lying with her to keep her warm.  Since then the measles have disappeared.  Now the sickness has gone to coughing, ear pain and weakness, and she has become very meager.  O God, wilt Thou heal her is our prayer in the name of Jesus, amen.

    On May 8th our child Petreane Margrethe became sick with a cold and has been lying in bed now and then since that and has been more or less sick and still is.  My wife's sister Ane Margrethe has been well almost all the time.  My old sister (72 years) Else Jeppesen has mostly been in bed and has been more or less sick.  My sister Sidsel Cathrine with 4 children Johanne Marie, Anders, Poul and Chr. have been well with the exception of a little seasickness.  My sister Maren with her husband Jens Jensen and children Jens, Ane, Anders and Ane Marie have been well with the exception that her husband had difficulty to stand the sea, especially in the beginning; then he mostly had to stay in bed, but now hope is enlivened much. [p.278]

    In the afternoon of May 27 1862 the seamen took the anchor up and lowered the anchors down on the side of the ship which is a good sign that we are approaching New York.  In the evening in the council it was decided that Brother C. Andersen (brother in arms) should be luggage manager on the train through America and have 4 brothers to help him.

    During the night we sailed well.

    Wednesday May 28th:  It was foggy in the morning.  We are sailing well in South West.  In the afternoon at 2 o'clock the lock boat No. 21 came.  We got the cargo on board which made us happy, and now we could start to see 8-10 ships which was very new to us on the Atlantic Ocean where we sailed for several days without seeing a ship.

    At 4 o'clock in the afternoon we could see North America's Continent, and at 5:30 we turned and sailed towards the Northwest towards the country.  It was very beautiful to see America's land and the many fires which burned during the night, for there is little room and it takes caution to sail.

    Thursday May 29th: At 2 o'clock at night Joh. Chr. Jensen's child Martinus Liljenquist died from weakness.  At 4 o'clock in the morning a steamboat came and took us and towed us, and at 7 o'clock and the doctor from the state Eiland and we were tested, and the dead child came on land.  At 10 o'clock in the morning we came so near to New York as Nørre Sundby is from Aalborg in old Denmark.

    We were now very busy to pack our clothes together to be ready to go ashore.  At 11 o'clock our clothing came by Franklin and on a large transport boat from Castle Garden, and at 12 noon we ourselves came on it and were there for two hours, but then we received a message from Castle Garden that we could not get off the boat there as there were so many dead people on the ship and some were still sick.  We now had to go back on Franklin again, but they sailed to the coast with all our clothing and beds with a very few exceptions, and 18 of our party were taken to a hospital on an island, shortly from New York of whom 10 were sick and 8 well in the same families. [p.279]

            Vendsyssel Conference                    Aalborg Conference
             Thomas A. Willestrup  X               Frederik Jacobson X
             Johanne Marie (his wife) Sick       His wife  Sick
             Karoline (his daughter) Sick          His son Peter  X
             Larsine Marie (his daughter) Sick His son Jens  Sick
             Niels Jensen Høien  X                   Thomas Larsen X
             His wife   Sick                               His wife Andrea Sick
             His daughter   Sick                        A. Chr. Christensen Biersted X
             Mariane Hansen  Sick                   His wife  X
             Her daughter   Sick                       His daughter  Sick

     We now stayed on the ship this night without getting any of our clothing back with the exception of 30 beds for more than 300 persons and still kind of a quarantine.  During the night Søren Chr. Thygesen's daughter Ane Kirstine Marie 2 years old [died] from measles.  She was buried in the water.

    Today we have received milk, bread, cheese and some more from New York which all tasted very well.  (Today it was Ascension Day) [p.280]

    Friday May 30 1862:  We remained on the ship Franklin in kind of a quarantine and could now see the lovely surroundings and the big traffic of steamboats and steamships and other ships by the thousands and see the beautiful cities which belong to New York, one of the biggest business places in the world.  The weather was very beautiful and it was exceptionally warm today just like yesterday, but it is also the first time that the heat starts this year.  We could see a large fire in New York which lasted several days, for it was oil that burned.

    Saturday 31st:  At 2 o'clock in the afternoon I for the first time set my feet on the land of North America or Joseph's Land of Inheritance.

    We now got into Castle Garden, a large round building which could hold many hundreds of people.  At 3 o'clock in the afternoon Apostle C.C. Rich together with J. Van Cott to visit us.  At 5 o'clock our clothes we had our clothes brought out from Castle Garden.  At 8 o'clock we went from there through the streets of New York.  Many pointed fingers at us, especially children, and said Djøtz, Djøtz, Djøtz!

    The railroad goes through New York and there are also streetcars in several streets.  At 8 o'clock we left New York on an extra train in 8 cars and besides 3 cars for our clothes.  We, about 350 people, might each have 100 lbs. free on the railroad.  Adult and children half, and still we had 5,750 lbs. overweight which cost $150.

    The weather was very beautiful and mild.  We drove through the whole night.

    Sunday June 1st: At 7 o'clock in the morning Ane Kirstine Bassibaek's daughter died, Maren Kirstine Marie 8 years old from consumption after measles.  At 7:30 we came to Albany and crossed on a steamboat.

    The child was buried there which cost 7 dollars.

    Brother Van Cott and Blackburn went with us there, but Van Cott remained there and took care of two letters for me, one to H.C.S. Høgsted in Hjørring and one to my wife's parents Peder Pedersen back in Rakkebye. [p.281]

    Sunday June 1 1862:  At 12:30 noon we drove from Albany in other railroad cars and arrived in Syracuse at 9 o'clock in the evening and slept in the cars during the night.  In the morning we bought bread. (We had with us from New York bread, butter, cheese, hot dogs, pork) and at 7 o'clock in the morning on June 2nd we left Syracuse in the same cars. (Bought a patglas in Syracuse at the price of 1 ½ dollars.

    At 10:30 we crossed a bridge at a small waterfall in a large city Rochester, and at 3 o'clock in the afternoon we crossed an unusually large bridge at Clifton where the railroad goes on top of the road across this bridge, and there you can see the gorgeous Niagara Waterfall which is about an English mile from there.  I and some others went to see this waterfall.  The water tumbled down so that it rumbled heavily and went up in the air again. [AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE IS PROVIDED AT THE BOTTOM OF p.282]

    We stayed at this railroad station until 7 p.m.  Then we got into other cars and drove all night.  (We were now in English possessions).

    Tuesday June 3 1862:  In the morning we drove across the Sumpige Areas and along the St. Clare Lake and arrived in the Windsor Station at 2:30 in the afternoon and crossed the St. Clare Lake in a steam-ferry (just as far as between Sundby and Aalborg in Denmark) to Detroit.  (Now we are again in the United States) where we immediately got into other railroad cars and left there at 4 o'clock in the afternoon.  The weather was beautiful and it was a beautiful fertile area.

    There I saw the first female Indian, a girl about 12 years.  We drove all night.

    Wednesday June 4th:  The weather was beautiful.  Around noon we drove along the Michigan Lake.  (There are big waves like the ones at Løkken in Denmark.) [AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE NIAGRA WATERFALLS IS PROVIDED AT THE TOP OF p. 283] [p.283]   We came to Chicago at 11:30 a.m.  We were in town to buy food, viz. 700 loaves of bread, butter and cheese for 273-1/2 passengers. We now got into other cars and left at 6 p.m. and drove all night.

    Thursday June 5 1862:  Beautiful weather.  At 8 o'clock in the morning our dear child, Anemine, started dying, and in 2 hours, viz. at 10 o'clock she gave up the spirit quietly (after 5 weeks of sickness) in Prairie City close to Quincey in Illinois.  The Poulsen sisters sewed burial clothes to her, a shift and a white dress, blue stockings and boots and a white mantle and a white ribbon around the body and about the wrists and a white sheet with cut holes in the edge.

    At 2:30 p.m. we came to Quincey, and at 4:30 we sailed from there on a ship 16 English miles up the Missouri River to Hannibal where we arrived at 6 o'clock the same evening.  I went to town to do some errands, and Brother Mitchel brought a coffin for Anemine.  The shape of the coffin on top of oak, brown, polished, Price $3, and in the evening he helped me to carry her 2 English miles to Samuel Coleman in Hannibal who promised to bury her the second day and put the following inscription on her grave. Price $2.50.

         Anemine Weibye
              born February 10 1861 in Hjørring in Denmark,
              in Europe by parents J.C.A. Weibye and S.M. Weibye.
              Died June 5 1862 in Prairie City near Quincy City
              close to Quincy in Illinois. [p.284]

    We slept in the railway-carriages during the night.

    Friday June 6, 1862:  At 6 o'clock in the morning we left Hannibal and drove across flat, fertile and almost uninhabited plains where we saw American soldiers who had raised their tents, partly at the towns and partly at the bridges to prevent the Southern people to break up the railroad or the bridges.  Today we drove 209 English miles from Hannibal to St. Joseph with the speed of an English mile in 3 minutes, but we often stopped for a long time, and for this reason we didn't arrive in St. Joseph until 7:30 in the evening.  I went to town to buy bread for the company.  It was very hot today.  We slept in the same cars during the night.

    Saturday 7th:  At 4 o'clock in the morning we got out of the cars and to a green plain at the Missouri River where we stayed until noon.  Then we went on board the steamship "Westward".  (Many of us were in the St. Joseph City, some to buy clothes and I and Brother Abraham Mitchel to buy food for the company).  At 10 o'clock in the evening we sailed from St. Joseph against the stream in the Missouri River.  We had very poor room on this ship (or steamboat).

    Sunday 8th:  We held a Whitsuntide party on the Missouri River and enjoyed the beautiful weather and this lovely wooded area.  On the whole way there is nothing else to see on both sides of the river but wood and forests, and the stream is so strong that it takes the soil with trees and everything else and takes it with it.  Wherever you saw you saw streaming trees which the stream takes.

   Monday 9th:  Beautiful weather.  At 6 o'clock in the morning we sailed by Nebraska City.  At 3 o'clock in the afternoon we came by Council Bluff and at 6 o'clock we came to Omaha where I went out to bread.  There Elder H.C. Hansen came to us and traveled with us to Florence where we arrived in the evening at 10 o'clock and got our clothes gathered together and stayed on the beach. [NOTE THERE IS AN ASTERISKED NOTE SAYING: Saw 4 Indians there.] [p.285]
  

    . . . At 10:10 we could see the Valley (Salt Lake Valley) and then right away across a small spring to the right, and at 10:18 we could see houses in the Valley, and now much up on a hill, and at 10:26 we cold see Great Salt Lake City.  At 10:30 we stopped on the hill and gathered until 11 o’clock and then off again down to the city, where we arrived at 2 o’clock in the afternoon.  Here many friends came and welcomed us of whom some were from Weibye. . . . [p.333]
 

------------------------------

Daybook of Jens Christian Andersen Weibye
Weibye, Jens Christian Andersen.  Daybook.  pp.17-2
 

 On Tuesday the 8th of April at 11 1/4 a.m. we left Kiel per rail and arrived at Altona at 2 1/4 p.m. and [p.17] late in the evening we embarked in ship Franklin for America.

   On Tuesday the 15th of April we sailed from Hamburg and came to Cuxhaven the 18th of April where we waited for good wind till Monday 21st when we sailed again and got into the British Channel on Monday the 28th, and our child Anemine was taken sick with measles, and continued sick until the 5th of June.

   Our daughter Petreane Magrethe was also sick for 3 weeks on board the Franklin.

   We came to New York on Thursday the 29th of May, having been on board the Franklin 7 weeks and 2 days.

    We had to lie in quarantine two days because of the much sickness on board, out of 409 emigrants died 3 adults and 45 children under 12 years, or nearly one eight died, mostly of measles or the effect thereof.

    Mr. Robert Murray was captain for the ship Franklin. [p.18]

    Elder C. A. Madsen was captain for us emigrants, and I was his 1st and Lauritz Larsen from Aalborg his 2nd councilor (appointed April 8.)

    C. A. Madsen selected me on the 6th of April as clerk, and cashier (treasurer) for the company till we come to Great Salt Lake City.

    On the 31st day of May p.m. we were taken from the ship Franklin to Castle Garden in New York in the United States of North America.

 In the evening of May 31st we started on the railway from New York through
                                                                         mile             mile
                                        Albany                      144             144
     Albany                       Rochester                  229
                                       Suspension Bridge     303             303
                                       Hamilton                      43
      Suspension Bridge  Paris                              72
                                       London                       119
                                       Windsor                      228
                                       Detroit                        229             229
                                       Ann Arbor                    37
     Detroit                       Jackson                      76 [p.19]
                                       Marshall                     108
                                       Kalamazoo                 141
                                       Niles   191
                                       Michigan City             227
                                       Lake Aation                248
                                       Calumet                      269
                                       Chicago                      284             284
                                       Mendota  88
    Chicago                      Galesburg                   168
                                       East Burlington           218
                                       Quincy                        269             269
                                        Hanibal                       20
     Quincy                       St. Joseph                   207             207

    Hanibal                      Florence                     255             255

    St. Joseph                  English Mile              1711

1.  Railroad wagon from New York to Albany  144 mile

2.  Railroad wagon from Albany to Suspension Bridge 303

3.  Railroad wagon from Suspension Bridge to Detroit 229

4.  Railroad wagon from Detroit to Chicago   284

5.  Railroad wagon from Chicago to Quincy   269

     Steamboat from Quincy to Hanibal   20

6.  Railroad wagon from Hanibal to St. Joseph  207

     Steamboat from St. Joseph to Florence   255

    Total Mile   1711 [p.20]

     June 1st 1862 we came to Syracuse
     2nd
     3rd  Drive the whole night and day.
     4th
     5th came to Hanibal

    On the 5th of June died my dear child Anemine aged 1 year 3 months and 25 days in Prairie City near Quincey, Illinois and was buried at Hannibal on the 6th of June.  This evening we arrived at St. Joseph and left in the evening of the seventh going up the Missouri River and came to Florence, Nebraska, on Monday evening the 9th of June, where we stayed 5 weeks till Monday the 14th of July.

    On the 13th of July we were organized at Florence, forty five wagons under C. A. Madsen as captain, and H. C. Hansen as sergeant of the guard.

    On the 14th of July we started [p.21] from Florence. . . . [p.22]

    . . . Traveling from Florence to Salt Lake City, from July 14th to Sept. 23rd. . . . [p.23]

    . . . On Tuesday the 23rd of September 1862 at two in the after noon we arrived in Salt Lake City. . . . [p.25]

------------------------------
 
 


The Humboldt was built in Germany

Humboldt (1862)

Reminiscences and Journal of Christian Anderson
Anderson, Christian.  Reminiscences and journal (Ms 1917), p. 7.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

Bertelsen, Annie E., Diary, (Typescript) Utah Pioneer Biographies vol. 5, pp. 31-32 (FHL)

 . . . Mar. 17, 1862--My brother John came from Jyland where he had been laboring as traveling elder in Aalborg Conference the last four years.  We went together to "Wester Broe where our brother Julius was staying, to visit him.  When John commenced to preach to him he said he did not want to hear it.  He was not in the church.  Neither was our brother Peter.

     Tuesday the 18th —  Accompanied John to the steamboat whereon he left for Falster where he was going on a visit previous to going to Zion, as he had been released from his station for that purpose.  While John was in Falster I was sent for by the head of the firm that I had been working for, for four winters, and he wanted to hire me by the month to take charge of the storehouse (they were wholesale dealers).  I went and made the contract and was to commence on the 1st of May.

     Wednesday April 2— My brother John returned from Falster.

     Thursday April 3— We went together to the office in Lorenzensgad as John wanted to see President Van Cott who presided over the Scandinavian Mission.  He told me that I could get the privilege to go to Zion that year if I could cook on the ship for the emigrants.  I knew but very little about cooking, but I was anxious to go to Zion, so I answered yes I would do my best, and thus I would get free passage across the Atlantic Ocean.  I got very busy getting ready as the company should go on the 7th instant.  I went and compromised with the Jew so he would not get disappointed.

     Monday Apr. 7th — Bid goodbye to my friends in Copenhagen and left on the steamship "Aurora which had on board a company of immigrants from Sweden.

     Tuesday Apr 8 — Landed at Kiel and joined a company of emigrants from Jutland and traveled on the railroad from Kiel to Hamburg, and went on board the sail ship Humboldt the same evening.

     Tuesday May 20 — Landed at New York after a rough voyage and considerable sickness and death among the children.

     We continued our journey on railroad from New York to St. Joseph, and from there on steamer up the River Missouri to Florence, where we had to stop and wait for the Church teams from Utah.

     Monday 27— Arrived at Florence where we stayed till July 24, and had a good time with lots of fun for the young folks who did not have much to do but play.

     July 24 — We commenced our slow journey across the plains with ox teams in Captain John Murdock’s company, I walked nearly every step from Florence to Salt Lake City, where we arrived Sept. 27th.  . . . [p.7]
 

------------------------------

Autobiography of Anders Persson Lofgreen
Lofgreen, Anders Persson.  Autobiography 1991.

     . . . At noon April 6, 1862 Brother Pehr Nilsson came and told us that we were to be in Malmö the next morning at 7 to go on board a ship to Copenhagen and then continue to Zion.  I had previously talked to a farmer to drive us to Malmö.  He was a neighbor of Nils Anders, where we now lived.  The short notice caused us to be very busy to lead our things we had and be on our way for we had no more time than we needed to go the 25 miles to Malmö.
 

     At sunset we bid farewell to our brother-in-law Nils Andersson and Parnila with the thought never to see each other again, for their faith in Mormonism was very weak for they were more against than for it.  Parnila judged us very hard for she said she was sure that our sick little daughter wouldn’t reach our destination.  But we went in the comfort and faith in the Lord who guides everything.  And a few days after our farewell our daughter was well again.

    In Malmö in time we went down to the bridge to wait for the ship which was out on a short testing run.  During that time I went uptown fixing a few necessary things and many people gathered at the bridge for curiosity to look at these damned Mormons leaving their land of birth.  Here my wife and children had to listen to the most rotten language that can be uttered by a person with her right mind.  It did not take me long before I was back but then these people had quit their foul language for then there were many Mormon families down at the port.  Some to go to Zion and some to help.

    About 9 o’clock the ship was back and in a short while all those who would to Zion were on board.  The whistle sounded and in the same moment the paddle started to move.  Thus farewell to our native country and to our friends.  About 3 o’clock we were on shore again in Copenhagen and here our company increased with Danish Mormons and we Swedes had to change ship to another large ship which would take us to Kiel.  We were soon ready to continue our trip.

    Towards evening my wife, with our 10 weeks old child on her lap, tired and sleepy of last night’s journey from Billegerga to Malmö, wanted to go to sleep as soon as possible.  This ship was not built for passengers and as such it had no accommodations for us emigrants.  Some women and children were shown below deck and nothing else could be found than making their beds of barrels, which was not too pleasant for these women, most of whom I am sure were used to good beds.

    This was not the only unpleasant thing, but our baby became sick and cried all night, so we lost that night’s sleep and rest.  I and my two eldest sons took our resting place on a big chain rolled together in circles.  My two sons rested well on it while I had to share my wife’s discomfort with our baby’s cries.
This was the second might we had no sleep or rest, but towards morning the child became quiet.

    Soon we were in Kiel very thankful to the Lord for his protection during our journey on the narrow path we had started out on.  The sea was calm as a crystal sea during our voyage from Malmö to Kiel.  Here we took our things onshore and were soon loaded on a railway.

    Here the Mormons increased again so we were 300 people.  Soon we were ready to leave and the iron horse started to breathe heavily and we were on our way in a south westerly direction towards Hamburg.  Thus we had reached Hamburg in two days.  Here we were transported in some flat boats out to a sail ship that would take us to New York.  It was late in the evening before we all were on board.  We were 500 persons who emigrated to America, 200 non-Mormons. [p.39]

    When all were on board we were shown our berths, we were to be two in each and as fast as we could we fixed them to get a nights good rest which we got, as the ship did not move during the night.  The next morning we sailed down the river, put out the anchor, took in water for the voyage over the Atlantic.  The next day, April 10, all sails were up and also the anchor and hurrah for New York with Humboldt. After one day we were told to fasten everything very well to walls, etc. We had hardly finished it when the ship started to roll quite hard and it was very difficult for most of our as we had never been on the sea before.  We could hardly reach our beds to lie down in.  The one who has never been on the sea can never imagine how it is in hard wind.  They threw up till the stomach was empty and then it went the other way.  After a couple of hours it was over but it took us a couple of days to get everything in shape again, and most of us very feeling fine.  A Danish brother by the name of Hanssen, who had been on a mission in Denmark and now was released to go home to Zion again, which was located at "Plain City, Weber County, Utah" was our president or leader from Hamburg to Florence (which was located some way north from Omaha).

    Now Hanssen split our company into four groups and put an elder in charge of each to see to it that no contention would arise and also to call the members together morning and evening to pray.  The elder was also in charge of the sick to help them.  A few were sick till death.  It was a terrible thing for the parents to see their small children be lowered into the wet grave to be swallowed up be different animals.  We had a satisfying voyage to New York despite these small things and others not worth mentioning.

    We had good food and enough water even though it became stale before we reached shore.  When winds and waves allowed, the young had their dances and games on the upper deck but sometimes a storm came very suddenly and the waves went over the boat.  At one of these occasions my wife was on deck with our son Nils, 6, and washed him, when the wave went over them and tore Nils from his mother, but she grabbed something to hold on to at once and was not in the same danger as our son Nils to be thrown from one side to the other under danger of being crippled.  But thanks be to the Lord for the good crew we had on board this ship, Alexander Humboldt. [COMPLETE NAME OF SHIP]  When the mother cried for help a sailor came and saved him.  From this time I was sick but not in bed.

    When our own rye bread which we brought from  our home was gone for we would supply our own food till we reached the ship Humboldt, then I could not eat the bread they offered us and therefore I was sick all the way, but my family could eat and drink everything and felt well.  When we began to come close to New York our president pretended to be poor and asked the Saints (Mormons) for contributions, so he could buy clothing when we arrived in New York.  I gave him 2 dollars.

   The 2nd of June we landed in New York and felt very happy to feel land under our feet so we could walk around as sober people.

    On the 4th we took the train and after many changes we arrived at St. Joseph. There we went on board a steamer and sailed for three days on Missouri River up to what was then called Florence.

    On June 11 we landed at Florence where we stayed in six weeks waiting for the ox train that would come from Zion to take us to our destination Zion (Utah Territory).

    While we were in Florence I realized that Brother Hanssen’s character was different than on the ship.  In our Sunday meetings they preached very strongly that we would pay what money we had to go with the Church train, if somebody kept more than was necessary to go over the [p.40] plains they would feel pain and ache in their legs.  It was likened unto Ananias and his wife who kept part of the money when they wanted to join the Apostles of Jesus.

       It was hard to listen to these sermons and our faith was tried in this and other things.  Because of my faith in the gospel and our leader (Hanssen) I obeyed his and the other leader’s admonitions and paid 50 dollars on my debt for the journey across the plains.  This money I paid to Hanssen.  While we camped at Florence some of the emigrants were making tents to be used by those emigrants that would go with the Church train and we worked hard to house all in the company, about 500.

    While we worked on the tents Hanssen was very busy buying up cows, oxen and wagons to some well-to-do (even some of his own country men who did not pay one cent for their trip across the plains) families who should cross the plains on their own.  That meant nothing but cows to his not-so-well-to-do countrymen in the Church train.

    One day it happened that Hanssen and one of his fellow brethren in the gospel were looking in his accounting book about something.  I happened to pass them and glance at the book where I saw the figure 37 at my name which caused me to stop and look at something else so I would not disturb them.  When they were through I went over to Hanssen and asked him what was meant by 37 at my name.  He could not answer to my satisfactions saying it was something that I had paid for my journey across the plains.  After some unpleasant words between I showed him it should have been 50 instead of 37.

     When I had showed he made his excuses saying he did not know how he made the mistake.  Before we finished I asked him to go with me to Joseph Young, who was the emigration agent and who would receive the money that was collected for our journey.  He would not.  He promised to pay what was lacking and I received them before we left Florence.

    These things were hard for us to understand and were a trial to see our leading men do that and I had given him 2 dollars, when we were on board Humboldt.  The day we were ready to leave Florence, Hanssen had bought two pair of oxen and a wagon and paid with different merchandise.  Now he was not poor anymore as he as when he left Humboldt.

    We were from 12 to 14 persons in each wagon and thus we could not bring along much, no boxes or chests.  We had to empty our bed pillows and mattresses and much of our clothing we had to leave there for we had only 2 sacks and pack all our things in.  This was a trial too, to see these things left behind and hot get anything fro them.  We understand that there were many things trying to stop us from walking on the narrow road.

    On July 24 we started the long ox train over hundreds of miles of plains and dangers of being lost in the streams. . . [p.41]

    . . . Saturday September 27 we landed in Salt Lake City.  Al our things were unloaded and we tented and put our small belongings into the tent and pondered where we would find a home for the coming winter.  Our food was gone, only a few pieces of bread left.  Now we saw how our friends on the journey nearly all were taken care of by friends and relatives.  Then farewell to us and off in different directions in "Teretoriet to their destinations. . . [p.42]
 

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Humboldt 1866

Jenson, Olof.  Autobiographical sketch (Ms 11373), pp. 1-3.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives
 

 . . . I was baptized a member of the Mormon Church at the age of ten years, by E. S. Greco, at Ostra Torp, Sweden.

    Shortly after, sometime between the 10th and 15th of May, 1866, we left our home, which had previously been sold and the furniture auctioned off.  This was the beginning of a long journey, for our destination was Utah.  We traveled by team to Malmo.

    Around three sides of the city of Malmo, there is a canal several hundred feet wide and the other side is bounded by the ocean.  While in Malmo awaiting transportation, a few of us boys were playing in a boat, that was tied to one side on the canal.  While we were playing, the boat broke loose and floated down the stream.  After some time, we were rescued by a party on the canal, an brought back.  From Malmo, we went to Copenhagen by steamboat, and from there, by steamboat, to Hamburg, [p.1] Germany.  June 2, 1866, we boarded a sailing vessels, the Humboldt, as steerage passengers, to cross the Atlantic Ocean to America.

    The food on the boat consisted of soup, potatoes, beans, fish, bread or hard tack biscuits.  The cooking was done in iron pots so large that the cook could get inside.  No bread was made on the ship, the biscuits having been made months before and were extremely hard and dry.  The potatoes were sour and soggy.  The drinking water was taken from the River Elbe, in Germany, put in wooden barrels, that had been burned on the inside, and was as black as coal, when we drank it.  Water was also put in large iron barrels, holding about five hundred gallons, and when the water from the wooden barrels was exhausted, the water from the iron barrels was used.  This was red with rust.  Pigs would object to the food and water but we had to take it.

    The beds on the ship were made of common lumber, with room for four in width and were two tiers high.

    There were about three hundred Latter-day Saints emigrants in the company.  We had a good trip except for fog as we neared the New Found land Coasts; where another sailing vessel ran into us causing slight damage to our ship.  When we were in mid-ocean, I did a boyish prank.  Outside, under the bow of the vessel, where anchor and chains are hung, I ventured out unknown to my parents or anyone else.  I sat there for some time and was able to see beneath a part of the vessels as the boat plowed through the ocean.  This was a very dangerous thing for me to do.  Had I slipped and fallen into the ocean, no one would have known what had become of me.  But I climbed back safely.

    We were six weeks crossing the Atlantic Ocean and were glad when we reached Castle Garden, New York, where we stayed for three days.  We all had to pass a doctor’s inspection before landing.  Had there been any contagious diseases on board, we would not have been allowed to land.  We left New York City and went up the Hudson River in a boat to Albany, New York, where we put in very dirty cattle cars.  After many days, we reached St. Louis, Missouri having changed cars at Chicago, Illinois.  A Brother Johnson was president of the company.  We went in a paddle wheel steamer up the Missouri River to Florence, Nebraska, now called Omaha, where we remained two weeks waiting for [p.2] ox teams from Salt Lake City.

    The one spring of water that was used by the Saints in Florence for drinking had been poisoned by some of the citizens of that place, because of hatred towards the Saints.  Consequently, the water could not be used and we had to go to Missouri River for drinking water and for general purposes.

     When we started for Salt Lake City, Peter Nebeker of Willard was captain of the entire company.  There were forty-eight teams, and each team consisted of two yoke of oxen for each covered wagon.  Each wagon was loaded with merchandise and provisions, besides our luggage.  All those who were able to walk, were expected to walk all the way to Salt Lake City.  Mother and father rode part of the way on the latter end of the trip, mother was side and had to ride.  We boys walked all the way.

    Carl Loveland and Charlie Valentine of Brigham, were night herders.  The oxen had to be herded as the Indians might drive them away.  But the Indians were friendly and came to us only once on the trip.  They wanted food, clothing, guns, and ammunition.  The only thing we could give them was a sack of flour.  After accepting it, they peacefully left us.  When camping at night a corral was made using the wagons and arranging them with the tongues inside, with an opening at each end of the corral.  The object of the corral was to protect ourselves and enclose the cattle, when necessary, from the Indians.

    William Packer of Brigham was teamster of our wagon.  We traveled on a average of ten miles a day.  Bread was made in Dutch ovens and buffalo chips were used, at times, as fuel.  When fording the Platte River, the bottom was very uneven and it was necessary to put five or six yoke of oxen on a wagon, so that some could pull while others had to swim in places.  I remember one wagon box, load and all, was lifted from the gear and it floated down the river some distance before it was rescued.  As we young boys could not swim, we would cling to the rear end of the wagon box.  Mother was a small woman.

    Consequently father had to hold to her or she would have been carried down the stream.  After reaching the other side of the river, we had to pause for a few days to dry our clothes.  The weather was good throughout our entire journey across the plains.  We saw herds of buffalo.  We reached Salt Lake City, Saturday, Sept. 29, 1866. . . . [p.3]

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Italy
 

Diary of Hans F. Hansen
Hansen, Hans Frederick.  Diary (Ms 12330), fd. 3, p. 1.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

 March 16, 1852.  On the above mentioned date we left Denmark going in a round about way through part of Germany and thence to Liverpool, on a somewhat delayed journey.  We continued our travel to America on the sail ship Italy from Liverpool, where we were supplied with twenty eight day’s provisions.  We suffered an awful lot from hunger and sickness, but the Lord’s hand was over us because we wanted to serve him, but some of us died after eight weeks and two days travel on this ship.  We finally arrived in New Orleans, near the Mississippi River in America where we stayed two days.  After this we went on the steam ship up along the river to St. Louis, where we stayed another two days and where we bought provisions in order to go through Arkansas.  We left St. Louis and went on the steamship up the Missouri River to Kanesville where we arrived in June 1852.  There we purchased some wagons and some oxen for the trek across the country to the Rocky Mountains.  We were unable to purchase enough wagons and oxen for our trip and we had to stay there one month, and then bought some more equipment and prepared ourselves to leave which was set for the first of July.  We left Kanesville for the journey ahead of us which we were told was some eleven hundred miles.  During the travel we suffered an awful lot from cold and hunger and shortage of food, but the Lord’s blessings were still with us and we prayed to the Lord and that is what saved us.

 There are forty wagons in the company.  We proceed on our way with a prayer to the Lord.  Our first Captain is Kelsey and our second captain is C. Butler and both of them are good men, and if we will do just as they tell us, everything will be all right.  My thoughts are always that I soon will be able to live in what I dream of as a real home, together with the others, and there have peace, and worship God as we desire and no other things will have power to change it.

 This is the 20th of October, 1852.  I am so happy to think that I would be among this people, and where the Father’s spirit so prevails, and where the apostles receive the word and spirit and strength from the first and only God, to hold his hand over us, and I feel the same spirit which gave me testimony that this was God’s work.  My sister Stine came out with Father Saby from Norway, and they live near Ogden, Utah. . . . [p.1]
 

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Autobiography of Augusta Dorius Stevens
Stevens, Augusta Dorius [Autobiography] (MSS A-322) pp. 1-5, (Utah State Historical Society.)

     Augusta Dorius Stevens, daughter of Nicholi and Sophia Christoperson Dorius was born October 29, 1837 in Copenhagen, Denmark.  When I was two years of age I lost one of my eyes through an accident.  I had many minor accidents, but got through them alright.  I attended school until I was about thirteen years of age.  About that time the Mormon elders came to Copenhagen with the gospel of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.  My father embraced the gospel and was baptized the 14th day of November 1859.  My brother John F.F. Dorius and myself were baptized the 14th day of December 1850.  For this reason I had to quit school on account of joining this then unpopular religion.

     We lived in the same house where the LDS meetings were held, we lived downstairs and the meetings were held upstairs.  One night the mob came up to the hall and broke the door down.  They wanted to get Brother Erastus Snow and to subject him to bodily punishment.  We had to break up the meeting and Brother Snow walked out with the crowd of Saints and the mob did not get him.

     My mother could not see that our church was any better than her Lutheran church and so she did not join until 1862 when my two brothers, Carl and John left Utah for a mission to Norway.  While there the boys went to Copenhagen, Denmark and took mother with them to Norway to the city of Christiania where they made their headquarters and where she was baptized.  Mother did not come to Utah until 1874.  I was accordingly away from my mother for twenty two years.

     I did not know how many persons had joined the church when I left for Utah.  But at that time the spirit of gathering became an important item among the saints in Copenhagen and there were twenty eight persons who got ready to emigrate with Elder Erastus Snow when he returned from his first mission in Scandinavia and I was one of this number.

     I had assisted a [p.1] family by the name of Ravens as a girl in their home at general domestic work.  Mr. Ravens was a sea captain, the family was quite well off.  They had joined the church, took quite a liking to me for the work I was doing for them and inasmuch as I had also joined the church, they offered me the opportunity to join them in coming to Utah and they paid my way.  My father thought it would be a good thing for one of the family to go to Zion and the rest of the family would come later.  So it was arrange for me to go.  I thought this was a fine plan and I was happy to think I was the first of the family to go to Zion.

     The day came for us to start, it was the 4th day of March 1852.  I had great faith in the gospel I had embraced so I felt all would be well for me.  But when I said farewell to my parents and brothers and sisters, and seeing the steamboat sail out and my folks begin to fade out of sight, I felt alone and I surely felt badly and wept as I then realized for the first time that I was alone to face the world and that too on foreign soil.  If I had known or realized how far that journey would be, I certainly would have felt worse, but traveling was something new to me and there were many interesting sights for me to see which were interesting and entertaining and I wonder sometimes how I received courage to leave my family and go to a strange country and then too, when I did not know how far we should have to travel to get to Zion and I could not talk the language.  But it was the gospel I had received and the spirit of the Lord that helped me.  I was ignorant of the world and did not understand it as I came to know later.  When I think of one of my daughters starting out at that age, going into my fifteenth year, I wonder how it would go for her.  But if she had the same faith I had I think it would be alright for her too.  But there are few who have such strong faith as those who came from the old country in those days.  I have never regretted that I came when and as I did, but am thankful to the Lord that I was thus permitted to come to Zion. [p.2]

     As the steamship on which I left Copenhagen reached Liverpool England, we transferred to a sail ship by the name of Italy and the ship propelled by the wind on the sails took nine weeks in which to cross the Atlantic ocean and we landed at New Orleans.  The Mississippi River at its mouth was quite shallow and sometimes the wind was unfavorable and our larger sail ship was tagged up the river by two small steamboats, one pulling on each side of the ship Italy.  Thus the ship was pulled up to the city of New Orleans.  From this city we completed the balance of our river journey by steamboat to the City of Kanesville on the Missouri River.  This unloading point is on the east side of the river and we remained there a month to prepare for our crossing the plains, getting the oxen, wagons and equipment ready for the journey.  At this point I experienced a new phenomenon.  There came one day the worst wind and thunder storm I could ever imagine; an experience I had never known in Denmark or on the journey so far.  The appointed time came for the great journey across the plains into the then almost unknown west.  The wagons and equipment and members of the emigrating party were taken over the Missouri River by ferries and the oxen, cows and horses had to swim across as there were then no accommodations for ferrying animals across the Missouri.

     There were representatives of several nationalities including Americans, but our particular division of the emigrant train which included fifty wagons, there were twenty eight from Copenhagen and in our company of ten wagons there were included quite a number of Americans.  Our company was presided over by John Butler who was the captain over our company which occupied ten wagons.  The entire fifty wagons with occupants was presided over by a head captain in the person of E. Kelsey, and the whole emigrant train is known as Kelsey’s Company.  There were then five companies with ten wagons to each company.  Each presided over by a captain; a chief captain to preside over the entire train of fifty wagons.  The women generally rode in the [p.3] wagons and always slept in the wagons. Personally I thought the emigrant wagons most remarkable vehicles as I had never seen anything of the kind before starting on this journey.  Upon nearing the Rocky Mountains, the oxen became somewhat worn out and then it was necessary for many women to walk while traveling.  Upon camping at night the wagons were driven in a circle and the camp fires were made inside the circle.  Being young and in my fifteenth year, this being the year 1852, it became a part of my regular duty to gather buffalo chips which served as part of the fuel for the camp fires.  During the first part of the journey across the plains, the novelty of travel was new and the evenings across this trip we felt to enjoy the company of the members and friends we had made.  One member had a fiddle as we then knew it and all joined in the evening dances around the camp fires within the big circle.  Prayers and hymns were part of the daily morning and evening program.  After walking a good deal during the days, I felt so tired I could often have been glad to have gone to bed without supper but I always had to help with the dishes and help with camp duties including the preparing of the beds. . . .

     . . . One of the singular incidents that happened enroute was the occasion of a stampede of a herd of buffalo which came direct toward our wagon train.  The stampede ran providentially just in head of the train with the fierceness [p.4] of the rush and tramp and as it appeared almost a cyclone of dust.  This caused a great commotion and almost stampeded among the oxen and horses of the train.  The few rifles available were used and fortunately enough for the emigrants, a few buffalo fell which were prepared and this gave us extra provisions on the long journey in head of us.  Upon another occasion nearly a dozen Indians came on their horses and approached the emigrant train.  A great deal of apprehension was caused among the emigrants as they felt sure an impending disaster was before them.  They thought this was the first contingent of hordes of Indians that lurked in the ravines near the trail.  The daily prayers were answered and we were assured the Heavenly Father was mindful of the needs and protection of his Saints.  The Indians spread their blankets by the side of the trail and each wagon was required to give its toll of food to the Indians as it passed. . . .

     . . . When we had advanced to the Green River Station, now Green River, Wyoming, the supply of flour had been exhausted.  The fall snows commenced bringing the cold blizzard and wintery blast all of which added to the perils of the journey.  It became necessary to send a man with the best and fastest equipment on to Salt Lake City to get four and rush back to Green River which was only sufficient to sustain the party in the train for the balance of the trip.

     On into the mountains we went along the already broken trail which had now been traveled over by the e   migrant trains for five years.  We arrived in Salt Lake City October 16, 1852, after eight months and twelve days of journeying since I had waved my last farewell to my parents and friends. . . . [p.5]

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James Nesmith
 

Letter from P. O. Hansen. - January 8, 1855
Hansen, P. O. [Letter], Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star, 17:5 (Feb. 3, 1855) pp.70-71.
 
 

Progress of the Emigration from Copenhagen to Liverpool.
Liverpool, Jan. 8, 1855.
President F. [Franklin] D. Richards.
 

 Dear Sir – In accordance with your request, I proceed to write a brief sketch of the journeying of the Scandinavian emigrating Saints from Copenhagen to Liverpool.

    We left Copenhagen on the steamer "Cimbria, Captain Engel, on the 24th of November, being over 300 in number, all in good health and excellent spirits, and arrived at Frederikshaven, a sea port on the east coast of Gothland, at 10 o’clock next morning, where we were to embark 143 more passengers.  During the after noon we took their luggage on board, and early in the morning to the 26th they embarked, after they were mustered by the police.  Our prospects were very fair till about two o’clock next morning, when the wind turned southwest, and began to blow so heavy that our captain, who I found was very cautious and of much experience as a seaman, deemed it necessary to turn about, and seek the nearest harbor in Norway.

    Before four o’clock in the afternoon we arrived in the port of Mandal, which is an excellent natural harbor, surrounded by very high and steep granite rocks, which were as much of a curiosity to the Danes as a ship load of "Mormon emigrants were to the people of Mandal.

    Here we lay till the 7th of December, during which time many lodged on shore, and the people were uncommonly hospitable.  The brethren were frequently requested to come and preach, and on informing me of the same, I gave them such instructions as I though proper, and let them go with my blessing.

    When I wrote to President Van Cott, I informed him of the circumstance, and I also wrote to Elder Peterson, the President of The Norwegian Mission, suggesting the idea of sending some missionary down to make use of the opening.

    On the morning of the 7th, after witnessing storms and tempestuous winds nearly every day or night, it appeared so far favorable that the captain thought he would venture to start, yet as all the other captains and the pilots in port advised him not to, he hesitated till 11 o’clock.  Captain Rasmussen, from Copenhagen, who had been exceedingly kind, and rendered us much assistance, came out with us as far as the pilot came, and when he left he said, "You will surely come back.

    It was rather calm till toward midnight, when it commenced blowing from southwest, and the sea rolled very high and violently.  Very soon part of the bulwarks were broken in, and some boxes crushed.  It became worse and worse, and at about two in the morning, the Captain said he would turn about and put back.

    We preferred Mandal to any other place, but the wind, waves, and strong current rendered it very dangerous to turn the vessel to run in, wherefore we had to go clear back to Frederikshaven, where we arrived on the 9th, about four p. m., and found many vessels bound for England, and more came in every day.

    We lay here weather bound till the 20th, half-past six a. m.; during which time we had almost continually rough weather and contrary winds.  I  had as many as possible go ashore, and we had much to do to take care of our wet clothes and bedding.

    In this town our missionaries previously never could get any entrance, but we had many meetings and left a good impression.

    Before we left, the chief of the police requested the captain and myself to come to his office, which we did, and were treated very kindly by said gentleman, who, after asking some questions to satisfy himself that all was well with us, and our answers being recorded, he made us promise that we would see that the passengers had provisions enough, and were taken every possible care of to prevent sickness on board.  You may know that so many people piled together as we were, and having been almost buried in the sea, could not look very agreeable to a gentleman of the better class.

    When leaving this port, we had very good prospects, and felt refreshed, but in the night of the 221st – 22nd, it became [p.70] more rough than ever, insomuch that we were obliged to turn about again.  Our good captain felt rather discouraged about it, and I must confess that I could not help feeling bad to think of being turned back three times, but the Saints were quite contented, and thanked the Lord for their preservation.  About two o’clock the wind suddenly turned north, and the captain immediately steered for Hull again, and we rejoiced.

    On the 24th, about noon, we anchored in the Humber, and Elder Thomas Williams soon came on board, and told me how you had been looking for us, &c.  By his exertions we were enabled to start in the morning per railway, after being very kindly greeted by the Hull Saints.  We arriver in Liverpool in the afternoon before four.

    The company express much gratitude for the comforts and kind reception they have met with here, and wish me to make it known to you and all who have been assisting.  As for myself, I should like to express my feelings, but how can I?

    May we live to finish our work, and thus see the fruits of our labors as faithful servants, is the prayer of your humble brother in the New and Everlasting Covenant, in the name of Our Lord Jesus Christ.  Amen.
P. O. Hansen. [p.71]
 
 
 
 

Letter from Peter Olsen Hanson - February 19, 1855
Hanson, P[eter] O[lsen], [Letter], Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star 17:17. (April 28, 1855) pp. 270-71.
 
 

Mouth of the Mississippi, Feb. 19, 1855.
President F. [Franklin] D. Richards.
 

    Dear Sir--The vessel lying very still this afternoon, I seat myself to commence a letter, which I suppose will be time enough to close when we are ready to leave New Orleans.

    I feel to rejoice in the goodness of our Heavenly Father, to thing how quick we have been brought to this place, and the Saints rejoice with me.  Yesterday, about [p.270] noon, we cast anchor here under a heavy wind from the northeast, and it is astonishingly cold for this part of the world.  We have had but one rough day on the whole voyage, and that was last Sunday, when we were near the island of Abaco.  Neither have we suffered from heat at anytime.  There has been some sickness amongst us, especially diarrhea and its opposite, which you know is often caused by imprudence.  Twelve have died, mostly very old folks or little children, which were sick before we started; none of those who were helped from the Fund. [Perpetual Emigration Fund]  The provisions were very good.

    My two counselors, and the other brethren which were appointed or chosen, have done well.  We have had much satisfaction in our meetings, both Sundays and week evenings, and the Spirit of the Lord has been poured out upon the brethren in a goodly degree.  I could not avoid speaking well of our captain [Captain Mills], for he has been uncommonly kind, condescending, and well-disposed toward us; and while I think of my great reason to be thankful, I will thank you and the brethren around you for all your kindness, and all your toilsome labors for our sakes.

    It looks doubtful whether we shall be towed from here today, and I will drop my pen till another time.
Feb. 27.

    I am sorry that I did not get the letter in the post-office at New Orleans, but I hope you will forgive me, considering my busy times.  It is difficult to write while the boat is in motion.  It is now the 27th, and we are above Natchez.  We have had four deaths since we left the bar.  There is no epidemic or catching sickness among us.  I think our sick ones are mending, with the exception of one child.  It is good for us it is as cold as it is.  Brother Snow’s instructions were, not to take too many on one boat.  We left 50 in charge of one of my counselors on another boat.  Brother McGaw had the two boats engaged when we arrived.  I with the remainder am on board the "Oceana, Captain Miller, and I never met with better treatment in any vessel.

 May the Lord bless you and preserve you is the desire of your unworthy brother and obedient servant,
P. O. Hanson.

 N.B.--The Saints thank you for the extra provisions.  My love to the brethren in the Office. [p.271]

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Journal of Peter Olsen Hansen
Hansen, Peter Olsen.  Journal (Ms 1437 2), pp. 118-20,24. Acc. #17787.
LD Church Historical Department Archives

     . . . A large ship had been chartered for my company but as I did come in time it was occupied by another company of Mormon emigrants, but as it had drifted into the shoreland, lost part of her reel, the emigrants had to disembark.  The ship was set in the dry dock to be repaired. [ITS NAME WAS "Helios".]

   Brother Linforth came & took me to his house to dine where I found, President [Franklin D.] Richards & Elder Jaques & some sisters.  My feet were very sore from running around with Brother Williams.

    At night I went and slept with Brother Richards in the office, and on the 26 in the morning I went to see the Saints in the hotel, and received instructions, and stayed there hence the coming night with Elders Hogan & Martin.

    A smaller ship, the James Nesmith, was then chartered for us and when she was ready to receive us.  We moved on board; after which we received the luggage.  Also one week’s provisions, consisting of bread, flour, peas, pork, cheese, tea, sugar, rice, chocolate &c.  The ship being too small for the whole company 24 were left to come afterwards with Brother Hogan.  A child was born.

    After the ship was hauled out of dock, the doctor came on board but we were not cleared.  Next day the doctor on board again & we were not cleared.  Another child born.  Then we were cleared with 441 passengers and Niels Mounitoens [Mauritsen] child was buried.  On the 12 of January we were ready to leave, and as it was rather calm we had a little steamer to tow us out a little ways.  Meantime according to given instructions I called the brethren together & had Brother Hans Peterson interpret my written appointment which placed me in charge of the company till we should reach St. Louis we [UNCLEAR, PROBABLY MEANING, where] Elder Erastus Snow would make further arrangement.  Chose two counselors Johan Eilertsen & Nils [Niels] Peterson & organized the ship into 7 districts &c.  Brother Hans Peterson was my secretary & done much good on the way and is yet amongst the faithful.  Elders were chosen to preside in the districts, and arrangement was made for cleanliness &c and the whole was sustained by unanimous vote.  I put upon Brother [Johan] Eilertsen to get as marshall see that no iniquity was going on, nor unbecoming conduct, and Peterson placed as sergeant of the guard.

    Next day we had a fine breeze and got out of the Irish Channel, and an infant died and was committed to the watery grave.

    Sunday the 14.  We held three meetings.

    Monday 15 was a day of airing and washing.  Peter Petersen died & was buried.  He was 75 years old.  A good old man.  Some of the passengers, a nice family, had caught the itch from somebody left behind in Liverpool, and our captain very kindly administrated salve unto them in the cooks galley at night and they rejoiced in his goodness.  Captain Mills has often the elapse of many years been inquiring for me in Salt Lake City while I was on a mission in Denmark.

    Tuesday [16th] the emigrants were again airing &c washing.

    On Wednesday [17th] evening the breeze ceased and we had a calm.  A child was born.

    On Thursday [18th] the calm continued and the first mate & I served out provisions, viz: a weeks rations.  Next day we began having big swells, which continued till Sunday afternoon when  we began to have a little, were blessed with a little wind. This day we held two good meetings, buried a child and marriage [of] two couples.

    On Monday [22nd] it was more windy and we buried another child of Mauritsen.

    On Tuesday the 23rd our fore topsail yard broke down.  When we were sailing with reefed top sails and a new yard was taken up.

    On Thursday 25 we had smooth water & pleasant weather and we buried Just Larsen, the father of Alexander Justesen who was shot by the Lamanites/Sanpete in Sevier valley some years afterwards.

    On Friday 26 we were sailing fast.  I had received from Brother F. [Franklin] D. Richards 1800 yards of Noukoen or cotton canvas for tents & wagon covers worth £50, 12 shillings, 6 demies 22 [-] of thread with £1.13.0 & a lot of needles worth 2.shillings 11. and this day I commenced selling out these things.

    On the 27 we also sailed fast.  Buried Staffenson's child.  On Sunday we held [p.118] two good meetings and married four couples.

    On Monday we buried another child 9 years old.

    On Tuesday the 30 we got into the trade wind.

    On Friday the 2nd of February a child was buried.  The fine weather continued till Sunday the 4th when it rained whole day.  We had two good meetings and buried a child.

    On Monday it was calm & rainy.  But on Tuesday we had a fine breeze again, which continued throughout the week.

    On Saturday a child was buried.

    On Sunday the eleventh it was very rough.  Several sails were tore in pieces.  We were going right to the Isle of Abaco, but had to bear off east for fear of being cast on the shore.  We could have no meetings for the ship rolled, too much, but I married a couple.  The stove came loose in the galley so no cooking could be done.  A child was buried.

    On Monday 12 it was quite pleasant again and many sails were seen.  The ship "Mediator of New York passed closely before us, and what a beautiful sight it is to see a fine ship ride over the long billows, where one half of her keel may be seen at the time out of water.  In the evening we passed "Hole in the Wall.

    On the 13 we passed several islands, the Great Isaacs, the Hen & Chickens &c.  The captain & I bought a barrel of oysters from the fishermen.

    On Wednesday the 14 it was rather squally and on Thursday slow sailing.  The captain & I bought a barrel of oysters off a fisherman for a dollar.

    On Friday 16 we had good going & passed a Philadelphia schooner and we passed the last of the Tugases, with fair wind.

    On the 17 we had fair sailing, but in the night it became rough and continued.

    On Sunday the 18th .  In the morning we buried Anne Nielsen and about noon we anchored off the mouth of the Mississippi.

    On Monday the wind kept blowing, heavy from land.  Pilot came on board in the morning and the wind blew heavy from land.  A child was buried.

    The water being too low on the bar we remained at anchor two more days but on Thursday the 22nd were towed into Pilottown after burying a child in the morning.  A fourteen year old girl was also buried onshore I think.  She died from the affects of the itch spoken of before.  At night we were taken over the bar and started up the river.

    Friday the 23rd was cool, and we arrived at New Orleans at noon.  Pretty soon our emigrant agent Elder [James] McGaw came on board and told me he had two boats engaged for us.   In the afternoon we took our provisions on deck, when it was discovered by the second mate that and revealed to me that William Snow the first mate had hid up a big lot of our provisions, a purpose to steal it.

    On the next morning we shipped fifty passengers with the "Moses Greenwood in charge of Elder Nils [Niels F.] Petersen, one of my counselors and gave him a brother along who could speak a little English and a proper share of provisions.  And in the afternoon the [UNCLEAR].

   "Oceana came and took the rest of us and we started at dark having to  serve all and no one to wait on me I came away from a pair of good new boots and also lost my best coat, a deep blue broadcloth dress coat.

    The 25 was Sunday but circumstances did not allow of holding a meeting, but I served out provisions.

    Monday was very cold.  We buried Nicolai Dorius's child near a sugar plantation.

    On Wednesday the 28 we overtook the other boat.

    On the first day of March we buried another child.

    On Saturday the 3rd we passed the City of Memphis in the night and after that it was no longer cold.  The cold air however I thought was a blessing in those unhealthy regions.  Last night we met some floating ice. [- -]

    On Sunday we met considerable of ice.  Buried Axel Tulgren's child.

    On Tuesday the 6th we buried two children.  One of them was Hans Wilhelmson's.  This complained of not getting enough to eat while on the sea and suffered his children to steal, when he was called in question and being very growlish.   I, being moved upon, said that if he did not repent they would die all of them.  They were husband & wife & three children, and all died before we left the Frontiers.

    On the morning of Wednesday we passed the quarantine & arrived in St. Louis at [p.119] 3 in the afternoon I walked up to the office and found Elder Snows who then was publishing the "Luminary.  I recollect a Brother Hart being there to assist him in his multitude of business.  Two or three went ashore apostatizing.  According to the contract I had a right to cabin passage for four persons.  I took one myself let my counselor have another, and my secretary another.  The fourth I gave to a young sister whom I was taking along with the intention of having her for a wife by and by.  The dining hall was beautiful, the diet very good and the serving at the table very good.  The clerk of the boat whose name was Phillips had the appearance of a Libertine.  He colleged [UNCLEAR] with a chambermaid who to serve him contrived to fix a cotton string through the door of the chamber where the young woman was sleeping so as to enable him to lift the latch and enter the chamber in the night.  But the girl was very careful to turn the key before going to bed.  When I learned of the fact I went and spoke to the captain about it and he got angry and talked very loud about it, promising ten dollars to anyone who could tell him who was guilty.  Before I left the boat he told me that he was sure that Phillips was the villain and that the chambermaid had assisted him, but he had no way of proving the fact, but he would be sure to turn them off when the trip was out, and he did so.

    One day as I was seeking for some in my chest it and being called away by my business I put a little box of mine into an empty barrel and some blankets and other things on top of it in the barrel and forgot it for several days.  When I thought of  leaving the box there and that there were valuables in it I went and took it to take it out, and found the two blankets missing, and after looking deeper I missed 2 small woolen shawls and when I looked into the box there was a little gold watch gone, which  Mr. Alexander had given me; also a gold finger ring.  I soon saw the blankets hanging in the office and went in and told Phillips that they were mine and after equivocating a little he let me have'em.  Some day while at a wood pile the barber, a mulatto, left the boat suddenly and Captain Miller said Mr. Hanson, there's the thief, I assure you!  I thought so myself.  I felt grieved, but nothing could be done.

    On the 8th about 70 persons went up to the hall for to stay in that city for want of means.  A child and Wilhelmsen's wife died and was buried.  I think S. in below. [UNCLEAR]

    On the 10th those unable to go to Salt Lake City were sent in care of Elder Eilertsen with Paul Nielsen as interpreter on the "Polar Star, to be landed at Weston where they might obtain work and make a living.  The rest of us, 204 souls, embarked on the "Clara for Atchison, Kansas Territory.  I went to a lumberyard and bought some planks to make tent poles of. . . . [p.120]

    On Saturday the 11 we had a Danish meeting in the hall at 1 o’clock.

    On Monday we buried a child, received 24 wagons which were laid up on the [-] deck, and 11 cooking stoves [-] and started about six afternoon. . . . [p.120]

    On Friday the 7th we [-] drove down into the City and encamped on the Public Square west of Brother Kimball’s place, . . . . [p.124]
 

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Autobiographical Sketch of Hans Peter Larsen
Larsen, Hans Peter.  Autobiographical Sketch of, (Special Collections and Manuscripts, Mss 515) pp.3-4. (Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library, Provo Utah.)

     . . . In the fall of 1854, we left home and went to Copenhagen where the Norwegian and Swedish Saints were to gather before starting.  We took passage on the steamer "Simplids under Captain Hansen.

   We made our first stop at a little place and waited several days for the Yeallanders.  We then started once more; a terrible storm arose forcing us back to a landing on the coast of Norway.  We stayed there eleven days.  The people were very kind to us.  Soon we took our leave and crossed the North Sea, landing at Hull, England.  From there we went to Liverpool by rail.  Arriving there we were taken to an emigrant hotel where we stayed a week waiting for a vessel to cross the Atlantic.

    We left Liverpool on the ship James Nesmith, taking six weeks for the trip across the Atlantic.  The first mate on the ship hated the Mormons and made it very unpleasant for us.  He tried to stop our holding meetings, but we appealed to the captain and he gave us permission to hold our meetings every Sunday.  To get even with us, the mate served us poor food and little of that.

    After crossing the Atlantic, we came up the Gulf of Mexico to the mouth of the Mississippi River, from there to New Orleans, then to St. Louis, where we were met by Erastus Snow.  Getting our supplies to cross the plains, then changing steamers, we started for Atchison, Kansas.  It was in the month of March and the weather was very cold.  We suffered terribly until we made shelter for ourselves.  Cholera broke out in camp and many of the Saints died.  We stayed at Atchison, Kansas for ten weeks.  All the men that could got work there getting the ground ready for a warehouse.

A man by the name of Milo Andrus went to buy cattle and [p.3] wagons for us and as soon as he arrived with them, we started across the plains.  We were not familiar with driving cattle and we had a terrible time for a few days.  It took four men to a yoke of cattle (the cattle didn’t understand the Danish Language).

   We arrived in Salt Lake on the 9th of September, 1855, having been nearly a year on the road. . . . [p.4]
 
 

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Autobiography of Hans Peter Larsen
Larsen, Hans Peter.  Autobiography. (Ms 8237, reel 4, item #71), pp. 3-4. Acc. #33439.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

     We left Copenhagen in the fall of 1854 on the ship "Simplede, with 400 Danish Saints.  We had hardly got to sea
when a terrible storm arose which buffeled us around terribly and compelled us to put back to port.

   We waited several days and put to sea again.  Another storm came, worse than the first and we certainly expected to go to the bottom.

    The captain gave up hope.  We lost our bearings and were driven up the coast of Norway, where the captain recognized the coast and worked his way into Fredrickstad Harbor.  We stayed there for eleven days and put the ship in shape, and went to sea again.  Another storm came on but we made out to get across to Hull, England where we took train for Liverpool.

    We were in Liverpool a week when we took the ship James Nesmith for New Orleans.

    We were six weeks on the voyage.  The first mate was from Missouri, and hated the Mormons, so made it very unpleasant for us, the entire voyage.  The first Sunday when we were holding a meeting he came and stopped us; but we appealed to the captain and he gave us permission.  The mate then got even with us by giving us poor food and not enough of that.  At New Orleans we took boat [p.3] for St. Louis, where we arrived without incident.  There we were met by Erastus Snow and Milo Andrus, who took us in charge, and aided us in buying supplies for the journey across the plains.  We then took boat for Atchison, Kansas.  It was March and the weather was very cold.

    We had not tents or shelter and were dumped off the boat into a grove of wood, where we had a hard time until we got tents made, after which we were quite comfortable.

    Cholera broke out in camp.  We got work for the men preparing ground for a ware house.  We were there ten weeks.  Brother Andrus was away buying cattle and we were busy making tents, wagon covers etc. for the journey across the plains.  We were not familiar with driving cattle and we had a terrible time for a few days.

    It took four of us to one yoke of cattle.  The cattle did not understand Danish.

    We reached Salt Lake in the fall of 1855, having been nearly a year on the road. . . . [p.4]
 
 

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Brief Sketch of Emily Christensen McKenna
McKenna, Emily Christensen.  Brief sketch of my mother's life (Ms 2735), fd. 276, pp.1- 2. Acc. #31958.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

    I, with my brother, sister and her husband, started from Torreberga to Malmo, a port town.  Father hitched up the team and took us there to board a steamer, bidding us goodbye, knowing we would never see each other again.  On the 19th of November 1854, we set sail from Copenhagen to join other Saints leaving there on the 24th.  We left on the steamer, "Cambria.  There were over three hundred in number.  We reached Frederickshaven, a seaport on the east coast of Gothland, where we embarked with 143 more passengers on the morning of November 24th, bound for Liverpool, England.  Our prospects were fair until about 2 o’clock next morning, when the wind turned Southwest and blew so heavy, our captain deemed it necessary to turn back and seek the nearest harbor in Norway, a port called Mandal.

Here we lay until December 7th, witnessing tempestuous storms day and night.  When the captain thought he would venture a start, the wind commenced blowing from the southwest.  The waves looked like mountains sweeping over the vessel and bouncing it like a plaything.  We turned back hoping to reach Mandal but had to go to Frerickshaven again where we landed December 9th and stayed until December 20th, almost a month from the time we had left previously.  The prospects looked good and we set sail again.  The ship set sail again, but on the night of the 22nd, we returned again.  The ship had almost been stripped of its rigging and creaked like it was breaking asunder.  On December 24th, we steered for Hull and on to Liverpool.  There was considerable sickness among the passengers and some had very little to drink.  Although the cook was kind and distributed water among us.  We rested in Liverpool several days and on the 11th of January 1855, went on board a sailing ship bound for New Orleans, North America.

Everything went well until the 11th of February when we encountered a tremendous storm that stripped the ship of all its sails but the next morning all was calm and we could see the West India Islands where natives swam out and gave us fish.  Some of the passengers had very little to eat in the month we had been sailing.  We arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi River on February 18th, where we cast anchor until a river steamer came to tow us up to New Orleans where we landed the 23rd of February 1855.

The next day we boarded a riverboat bound for St. Louis where we arrived March 7th.

Having spent all my money and some I had borrowed, I had to seek employment, but was advised by our president not to stay in the South but to push on Westward.  We took passage on a riverboat going to Fort Leavenworth in Indian territory now the state of Kansas. From there, we traveled by wagon to Fort Riley and on to Omaho [Omaha], arriving there July 18, 1855.  My brother got a chance to go on to Utah.  He promised to take me with him but I had no money and he had very little left.  I had become acquainted with [p.1] another Swedish girl Ellen Johnson, and she was anxious to go also.  My brother talked it over with President Frank Wolley and it was arranged for Ellen and I to go with the company headed for Utah.  We were to do the cooking and other jobs that we could do.  My brother payed a little money and we put what belongings we owned on a hand cart, which we pushed and pulled.  We had very few chances to ride.  My brother fell in love with Ellen and later on she became his wife.  We left Omaho [Omaha] about August 5th and arrived in Atckinson, three days later. Leaving the following day for Fort Kearny where we arrived September 27th, leaving for Fort Laramie the following day and arrived September 27th, continuing our journey up the Platt and arrived at Fort Bridger October 27th.

Our teams were worn out and the entire company weary of travel.  Supplies were almost gone.  We had seen some Indians along the way who were not hostile.  It was important to cross the Rockies before winter snows, so we lest Bridger October 31st but it wasn’t long before we were traveling in 3 feet of snow, as an early winter fell upon us.  We were compelled to leave camp on the very tops of the Rocky Mountains.  The teams were without feed.  They were tied to the trees and the men made huge fires to keep us and the animals warm as ti was bitter wold.  The next day the sun was shining and we started downhill and through canyons where a little feed could be found.  We were met by a company from Salt Lake with feed for the cattle and some provisions for the company.  We arrived in Salt Lake November 18th, 1855, one year after leaving my native Sweden. . . . [p.2]

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Family Records of Peter Neilson [Nielsen]
Neilson, Peter.  Family Record (Ms 5345), pp. 5-9, 11. Acc. #17756.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

    . . . Arrangements had been made by Apostle F. [Franklin] D. Richards with the captain of a large sailing vessel to take us to America.  But as we were so long he became impatient and swore that he would wait for us no longer, so about the 20th of December he set sail for America, but she had but fairly gotten underway when a violent storm rose which resulted in breaking two or three of the large cross timbers of the ship and thus she was obliged to put back into port to get his ship  repaired and instead of our taking passage on this ship we was on the ship James Nesmith.  The arrangement was for seven hundred passengers, but instead of that number they would take but five hundred and fifty. [p.5]

    Before leaving the docks the passengers were carefully inspected by two doctors to ascertain whether there were any contagious diseases among them.  Two children were found to be thus affected and they with their mothers were taken on shore.

    After sailing out of port we were organized into four wards.  I being appointed to take charge of the third ward and O.P. [Peter Olsen] Hansen, president of the whole company.

    We were treated very kindly by all the officers and crew of the ship excepting the second mate who was a wicked man and notwithstanding we had paid full fair there were some of the passengers who suffered considerably for the common necessaries of life.

    The wind not being favorable.  We made but little progress for three or four days but during this time the sea was rough and as a consequence there was considerable seasickness among the passengers.

    On or about the 14th of January 1855 I received the hand of Miss Keren Nielsen in marriage, President O.P. [Peter Olsen] Hansen officiating.  There was also another marriage at the same time, and before we had landed in America there had three or four other marriages been solemnized.

    We had a very pleasant voyage excepting one day and a few hours when the wind blew a fearful gale and blew our ship back for the space of one day and three or four hours.  When the storm struck us some of the passengers were sitting upon the deck but some of the tackle of the ship being broken they soon made their way below.

    According to the prophecy of the brother before leaving Denmark, we espied a light on the [p.6] American coast Feb. the 11th 1855.

    Two boat [boats] were sent out to meet us on which were two or three Negroes, the first we, the Danish Saints, had ever seen, which I assure you was a great curiosity to us.

    The ship was but six weeks and three days in making the voyage from Liverpool to the mouth of the Mississippi River.  There were  eighteen deaths, old folks and children, in crossing the ocean.

    When coming into the Mississippi our ship lodged on a sand bar from which we were unable to extricate ourselves so the next morning a tug boat was sent out to assist us, but it was unable to render us any assistance.  Another boat was added but they failed to move the ship so the next day a third boat was added without any  better success than before.  The captain then said would have to remain here until the river rose.  It was Sunday night when we struck the sand bar and there remained until between Wednesday and Thursday night (the water raising 6 feet) and even then the ship was enabled to move off only by the aid of three tug boats, one on either side and one on front and then we did not get clear of the bar until the next day.  After getting clear it was no trouble for one boat to draw three ships into New Orleans.

    As we sailed along the Mississippi from its mouth to New Orleans, (it being the latter part of Feb.) was to be seen on either side, skirting the banks of the mighty Mississippi extensive orchards of lemons & oranges, figs and other luscious fruits in tempting abundance.  Back of these orchards and running parallel with them were numbers of Negro huts. [p.7]

    While lying on the sand bar we saw myriads of fish of all kinds some as heavy as a half grown pig.  We were advised not to eat them as for some cause they were considered not to be fit for use.

    We found all kinds of the products of this section to be extremely cheap: sugar 4¢, rice 2¢, and bacon 6¢ and other things in proportion.
 

    While stopping at New Orleans an apostate from the Latter day Saints tried to induce us not to proceed farther on our journey at present giving as his reason for such a course that the ice in the river would prevent our reaching St. Louis.  But at this juncture a missionary from Utah happened along and advised us to proceed on our journey for said he "the ice will be broken up and and [SIC] the river cleared before you reach St. Louis.  Our president therefore tried a steamboat and we proceeded on our way for St. Louis after having laid in our supplies.
 

    Before leaving New Orleans the captain came down to the ship and told us that this had been the most prosperous trip he had ever made across the ocean.  The trip before this he had embarked with one thousand passengers, but no soon had he put to sea than they commenced to drink, play cards, quarrel and fight, besides they were filthy in their habits.  From these causes disease took hold of them and before he arrived in America death had consigned seven hundred to a watery grave. On another and previous voyage he had embarked with three hundred passengers and from similar causes he arrived in America with but eleven souls, disease having taken the remainder away.  "In the future," said he, "if I have my choice, I will [p.8] bring none but Latter-day Saints." Thus we can plainly see how the principles of the gospel of Jesus Christ enable His chosen people to escape disease and death, while on the other hand a wanton disregard of these sacred principles had carried so many to an untimely grave.  Such has been the case in all dispensations of Gods providence to His children and such it will continue to be until the end of time.

    But to come back to the main thread of our narrative, we arrived in St. Louis, having buried seventeen or eighteen of our number while on our way up the river.  With this exception we had a prosperous journey.

    At St. Louis we the pleasure of beholding the face of our esteemed brother and Apostle President Erastus Snow, who told us we had been the most prospered of any company of Saints that had yet come come [SIC] to America.  In alluding to the number of deaths that had occurred on our way up the river, he said that the Prophet Joseph had predicted that the time would come when the Mississippi River would be poisoned so that it would be unsafe for the Saints to come in that route, but would have to come in by way of New York.

    Means being scarce among the Saints we were advised to seek for labor in Leavenworth, Kansas and Weston, Missouri.  While at these places the Saints were attacked with that dread disease, cholera, which was contracted from some clothes that were taken in by some of the passengers for washing. . . .  [p.9]

     . . . On the sixth day of September 1853 we arrived in Salt Lake City, having been ten months and twenty days since we left Copenhagen, a distance perhaps of between six and seven thousand miles. . . . . [p.11]

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Autobiography of Annie Cathrine Olsen
Olsen, Annie Cathrine Christensen, [Autobiography], "Utah Pioneer Biographies, vol  22, pp. 17-18, 20.

     . . . About the first of December 1854, we boarded the sailing vessel at Fredericks Hound [Fredriks Haven] for England but the wind came from the wrong direction and we landed at Norway, where we stayed for one week.  During that time we would climb up behind the cliffs to say our prayers so we would not be seen by the ship’s crew.  A week later we started out for England the wind took us back to Fredericks Hound [Fredriks Haven], our starting point.  This time the wind was favorable and we landed in England, Christmas Morning 1854.  We boarded the train for Liverpool and arrived there in the evening, at which place we stayed for several days waiting for the ship to sail.  During this time we had to eat horse flesh.  My mother had brought a jar of butter and some dried sausage with her, which I remember tasted good to us.

    About the first of January 1855, we boarded the ship James Nesmith and sailed with 440 Scandinavian Saints and one British Saint, across the Atlantic Ocean.  The first three days of our voyage we were all very seasick but after getting better I got such an appetite that I could not get enough to eat. [p.17]  My mother, not being very well, could not eat her portion of hardtack, so I got part of her portion, as well as my own.

One day a terrible storm came up.  I was standing on the middle of the deck holding to a large barrel just under the hole of the ship.  I felt impressed to move under the deck and just as I did so, and had gone a short distance, a mast beam broke and fell, breaking the barrel to pieces, so you see how necessary it is to heed the promptings of the Spirit at all times.

On February 23, 1855, we landed at New Orleans, from which point we took a steamer and sailed up the Missouri River to St. Louis where we stayed one day and went to Church.  From there we sailed on to Leavenworth, Kansas, where we landed at a place which was later called "Mormon Grove.  We had to clear the snow away so we could pitch our tents, it being necessary for us to wait here until the arrival of the oxen, and my brother, sister and a young girl, whose emigration my father had paid for, had to go out to work to help keep up expenses.

After being at Leavenworth sometime, cholera broke out in camp and the officers came and made us move farther from town.  My mother was very sick at that time, and quite a number to [of] the young folks of the camp died.

The oxen finally came and we started on our long journey across the plains in P. O. Hanson’s Company. . . . [p.18]

. . . my mother was bit on the wrist by a scorpion or poisonous insect of some kind.  Her arm began to swell until it went up in her body.  She was very sick all the rest of the journey until one evening we reached Salt Lake Valley and my mother passed away the next morning without seeing the great Salt Lake Valley that she had gone through so much to reach.  This was the later part of September 1855. . . . . [p. 20]

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Jessie Munn

Diary of Anders Beck Beck
Anders Diary, pp.3-4 donated by Betty Jo Ivie. LDS Church Archives

 . . . Middle of November, 1853, we left Bornholm, myself, wife, daughter, my youngest sister, and wife’s cousin Cecilia Christiane Jensen.  We stopped in Copenhagen about one month.

   December 22 or 23 , 1853, we left Copenhagen in a steamship for Kell, from there to Gluck State on railroad, in a steamship to Hull, England.  Left Liverpool in ship Jesse Munn January 3, 1854, and came to New Orleans February 10th in a sailing ship.  Stopping there a few days, then took a steamboat up the Mississippi River to St. Louis, but before coming to St. Louis, many took sick with cholera and died.  Our daughter, Anne Christine, commenced being sick when in New Orleans and when yet on the Mississippi River, I took sick with cholera.  One nearby said, "He will die.  I was very sick, but the elders laid their hands on me.  I did live, but before I got well, our girl died (she was blessed when a child) on March 7, 1854, on the Mississippi River, and was buried on land [p.3] in the forest.  I was not able to follow her to the grave.  I have thought if I had been sick at the time, I could have prayed to the Lord and she might have lived and I also nearly died.  Thinking about what the Lord said, "I will take two of a family and one of a city and bring them to Zion.  And inasmuch as we were only me, and my sister and her husband, I thought we would both live and come to Zion, and we did.  It was through the mercy and power of God that we came.

   We stopped St. Louis a month, having a good time there.  Went on steamboat up Missouri River Kansas.  Stopped there and around until late in June, 1854, started for Salt Lake City with ox team, 62 wagons, 4 oxen and two cows to each wagon and some extra wagon cows and horses.  Arrived the 5th of October, 1854 in good health, spirit, and without any money.  A cow, a wagon, a cooking stove, and a few other things. . . . [p.4]

Autobiography of Mads Fredrick Theobald Christensen
Our Pioneer Heritage. comp. by Kate B. Carter, vol. 9 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1966) pp. 396-97


   . . . After several days we went aboard the Jesse Munn and started to float down the Channel and out on the Atlantic, steering much to the south of west in order to get into a warmer zone where the vessel could take advantage of the trade winds.  We received our rations of food once a week.  This was a regular allowance of uncooked food, such as peas, rice, salt, beef, sugar, coffee, and also fresh water once a day.  The beef was salt beef.

   There was a kitchen range midship where an Irish cook held sway, abusing nearly every person who needed something cooked.  Outside stood our cooking utensils in a long row from early morning until late evening, waiting their turn to get on the hot stove where they would get half cooked and then be taken away by us.  Another cook in the adjoining kitchen prepared the meals for the crew who were rationed.  The two cooks could not agree and because of this they had a fight with the permission of the captain.  It was held for the public in regular sailor style, which I had the nerve to witness.  Entirely stripped to the waist, they went at each other with heavy blows to begin with, keeping it up for perhaps an hour, by which time they both were so jaded that the blows could not hurt much.  I do not remember if this battle decided the supremacy of either of them or if they came out even.

   For many days the weather was warm and the wind a dead calm, so the vessel scarcely moved.  We could then play and dance on the deck just so we kept out of the way of the sailors who had their duties to perform.  Again, we had wind storms, causing uneasiness for our safety.

   After some seven weeks of sailing, we passed the Island of Cuba at some distance.  At first its mountainous outlines against the sky appeared as outlines of clouds, but gradually they became more plain and distinct.  I judge we did not get nearer than four miles, but it caused a great deal of relief, excitement and rejoicing among the passengers, as it was a part of America.  Passing Cuba we sailed again into the Gulf of Mexico out of sight of land, passing Florida and after several days, entered the muddy waters flowing out of the great Mississippi River, many miles out to sea.  The change of waters could be seen long before we entered them.

   Soon a pilot vessel came out and lay alongside while the pilot boarded the ship and took charge of it.  The next day we were in the Mississippi River and cast anchor off New Orleans.  After inspection by the health officers, we were permitted to go ashore and view part of the city.  Here we saw the slave market where slaves, male and female, were offered for sale.  They stood in rows outside the dealer’s place of business, where he would cry them off to passersby, much like other merchandise while the slaves were dressed so as to appear to the best advantage.  After a delay of two or three days we were [p.396] transferred to a large steamer with tremendous large side wheels as propellers.  These steamers were floating palaces in appearance, painted white and handled mostly by crews of Negroes.

   Wood is the fuel to make steam but when two steamers come alongside steering the same direction, a race goes on and then oil and fat pork is thrown into the furnaces to increase the steam power to its utmost capacity.  Along the riverside are dense woods where the boats occasionally stop and take fuel aboard, the fuel being carried on the shoulders of the Negro crew.  Foodstuffs were very abundant and cheap and large quantities of leftovers from the tables of the officers and first class passengers were thrown overboard into the river, while we look on longingly.  On the water floated oranges, apples and other foods.

   We were on the steamer about ten days and landed in St. Louis.  There we were temporarily quartered in a large storage house, buying our food at the grocery shop where the price of nearly everything was five cents a pound.  It was calculated that we should be there about six weeks so a number of the brethren took jobs on a railroad then being constructed in Illinois about 40 miles from St. Louis.  Another boy and myself went along to earn a few dollars.  When we had worked there about three weeks we received word that the company had left St. Louis, and gone to Kansas City, then a trading post.  We quit work and asked for our pay through an interpreter.  The paymaster refused to pay us but after some parleying paid the men various amounts just as he pleased.  As I was hired for seven dollars a month, he refused to pay me anything as I had not worked a month.  After some argument, mainly that I couldn’t get to the company without money to pay my way, he ordered the cashier to pay me five dollars.  In doing so, the cashier gave me a worthless bank bill for three dollars and two one dollar bills.  When we boarded the steamer that was to take us to Kansas the steward refused to take my three dollars and I had but little more than one dollar besides it left.  There was but a few minutes left until the boat would leave, and it was time for quick action to arrange to go with the men.

   I hastened across the street to get the bill changed and seeing an old lady behind a fruit stand I asked her for some apples and held out my hat to receive them, telling her I was in a hurry.  She about filled the hat.  I thought perhaps she would not change the bill to get five cents out of it, so I ordered one pint bottle of whiskey which I saw standing on the shelf, all the time shaking for fear she would refuse to take the bill.  On handing it to her she held it very close to her eyes, then paid me the change.  I was saved by my own dishonesty.  I reconciled that act as best I could in this way of reasoning; I did not make the bill and could not help that it was not as good as all the others.  I hoped she might be able to pass it again.

   Well, I got aboard the steamer, paid my fare and got to Kansas where my mother was glad to see me, having had much worry for my safety. . . . [p.397]


Autobiography of Johanne Bolette Dalley

Dalley, Johanne Bolette, Autobiography, An Enduring Legacy, vol. 4 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1981) p. 272. 



   . . . My sister Lanie (Johanne Helene), five years old, and I, with my uncle and his wife and some others, left Denmark sometime in December 1853, and left Liverpool on New Year's Day, 1854.

   I was very well (except for an attack of dysentery caused by eating too many prunes--the only thing that was palatable at my command, other food entirely unfit to eat) during the voyage, but helped those who felt worse than I did.  We landed in New Orleans in February 1854, and soon traveled up the river toward St. Louis.  The cholera broke out and a great many died.  I helped wait on the sick and dying, and to prepare the dead for burial.  We couldn't always get boxes in which to bury the dead and many were merely wrapped in sheets and put under the ground.  That was a very sad, terrible time for us all.  Our family was one of the very few not suffering with the disease.  We reached St. Louis about April 1, 1854.  A great many died there also. . . . [p.272]


Reminiscences and diary of Hans Jensen Hals
Hans Jensen.  Reminiscences and diary (Ms 4718), pp. 4-5 (typescript). 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   3 January 1854 we sailed out through the Irish canal and had Wales on one side and Ireland on the other and on out into the Atlantic Ocean. Sailed south until we came to the west part and from there we had a steady wind every day.  A number of the passengers were seasick in the forward dining room, otherwise we were well.  Time was long as the sailing speed lasted 11 weeks.  We had meeting every Sunday.  We were divided into groups at prayer morning and evening.  There were some deaths among us, especially children.  Five couples were married, of these Maren Eircksen and I were one.  And it came to pass the 15 March, and we were wed by Christian Larsen in the meeting.  The same day I was married I was ordained an Elder.  We had the best wedding we could under the circumstances.  We were upon the ship.  On the 17 we first saw the land of America.  We sailed passed the West Indian Islands and were in the Gulf of Mexico when a large American steamship took us and 2 other ships into tow.  It gave new life to the company to see the beautiful land of America.  We sailed up the Mississippi River, and enjoyed ourselves by seeing the beautiful place, New Orleans, and was there 2 days.  We enjoyed ourselves visiting the city and surrounding area.  We then went on board a large steamship and sailed up the river to Saint Louis, this took 10 days.  On this trip many died of Cholera.  The ship was infected with it.  We found employment and went with our company.  I went onto the forest and cut timbers for wagons but was cheated out of f weeks work.  The other company from Scandinavia came to Saint Louis under the leadership of Zions Olesen and continued on shortly after to Kansas.  We went with another company to Kansas, a 9 das sail up the river Missouri.  Many also died here, also of Cholera.  The power of God was made strongly manifest among us as many who were ill became well through administration.  I was often called upon to administer I companionship of Brother Wkov.  When we came to Kansas we received our wagons and lived in them and in our tents in the forest.  Here we bought provisions for the trek across the plains.  Many died of Cholera and among them was my mother.  She became ill in the evening and died the next morning.  She was buried in the Kansas forest 1 English mile form the town.  She died in good faith in the Gospel to the last was very ill but didn’t deny the Lord.  The whole camp was moved out upon the plains on the western side of the stake.  Here we received 4 oxen, 2 cows to each wagon, and we began to set them in yoke. [p.4] There were several companies of English Saints here also and a large number of Mexicans.  My brother Laurits became acquainted with a merchant from Mexico of Santa Fe, and was talked into traveling with him, to my great sorrow.  Their company went and we didn’t know it.  We now began our trek in the plains. 73 wagons, Olesen from Zion was captain.  We reached Salt Lake the 5 October (1854), and camped on Union Square.  Many gave us gifts.



Diary of Hans Hoth
Hoth, Hans.  Diary, (Typescript), (Translated from German script by Peter Gulbrandsen), (Mss C-F 67) pp.2-62. (The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley)




   It was in the evening of December 16th 1853, that I and my daughter Doris traveled with the coachman Denn from Schleswig to Rendsburg, and from there by train to Hamburg.  After having attended to my business in that city, I traveled on the 19th to Oldesloe and Reinfeld to bid farewell to my relatives and friends.

   22nd. I returned to Hamburg, and traveled on the 23rd with the Mormon missionary and several Mormons from Holstein and Hamburg to Elmshorn.  Here I met with my wife and children and close to 300 Mormons from Schleswig, Denmark and Sweden.  Everybody had had to pay their own traveling expenses to Elmshorn.  From here our further transportation was handled by Morris & Co’s office in Hamburg, the fare for adults from Glückstadt to New Orleans was 38 prussian tahler, and 32 tahler for children.  From Elmshorn we went by train to Glückstadt, and the same day went on board the English steamer, "Quine Dhe Scotland, Here we found our hopes sadly shattered.  We had imagined the we were to travel on a ship which was fitted out to carry emigrants; but had to content ourselves with boarding a freighter, and we were not treated much better than ordinary freight or ballast.  We were all lying along with our luggage in a room down below, and had to creep and crawl over to one side of the ship.  Many families were completely separated from one another, and it was impossible to think of sleeping.  A Dane, 82 years old, died today. [p.2]

   24th. We set out to sea.  One hardly saw a smiling face any longer, and we were in a sad position.  Hot food or warm drinks were unobtainable; most of the passengers were seasick, and those who were not sick could become so from listening to the moaning and weeping of the sick ones.  The ship had been loaded with coal, and we were all as black as Negroes from the coal dust.  We remained in this disconsolate position for 3 days and 2 nights.  During this time we had no stormy weather, but the wind was continually against us, and towards evening on the 27th we arrived in Hull.  We spent the night at our usual place on shipboard.  A child of Danish parents, 4 weeks old, died today.

   27th.  We obtained orders to make ourselves ready for continuing the journey.  As we and our luggage had already been examined by the control, we were taken to the railway station at 2 o’clock in the afternoon.  Our luggage remained on board, and was to come on the next train.  We were not satisfied with this arrangement; but wanted to take our things with us.  We began to quarrel with the agents; but had to yield to force and leave Hull without our luggage.  I did not see anything of Hull beyond the streets through which we went to reach the railway station.  The railway station itself was beautiful and imposing.  The harbor was likewise very beautiful.  We left for Liverpool on a special train at 3 o’clock in the afternoon, and came through the towns [p.3] of Howden, Selby, Normington, Brandford, Leeds, Hudbersfild, Manchester and Bolton to Liverpool.  But as it became dark at an early hour, I saw little or nothing at all of the cities and the country we passed through.  The country around Hull was pretty, flat and fertile.

   Farther away it was more mountainous.  The railway was frequently on a higher level than the towns and villages, and sometimes it also went along below the surface at considerably long stretches.  From Hull to Liverpool is a distance of 140 miles.  At 10 o’clock in the evening we arrived in Liverpool, and were received by an agent from the office of Morris & Co; who distributed us into two hotels.  The place in which I and my family lodged is called "Rheinischerhof, in Paradis Street.  The owner’s name is Stern.  He was a German Jew; but a friendly and agreeable man.

   We all had a thorough clean-up, and everybody was satisfied with the service.  Liverpool is a nice city, has an extremely good harbor, and wide streets, but these were very dirty.  Here is a considerable amount of trade and traffic.  There are many large and beautiful stores in the city, and also many factories.

   In size and beauty the railway station surpasses everything I have seen so far.  Every thirty minutes a train leaves for the towns which lie around Liverpool.  As far as one can see, many rich people live here; but never have I [p.4] seen so many poor people and beggars in a city, as I have seen here.  At this time of year, it was still rather cold and there was snow on the ground, one saw adults and children go around barefoot, and frequently almost quite naked.  At every street corner and on every street are beggars who stop one.  Today a 70 year old Danish lady died.  We were in Liverpool until the 31st.  At 10 o’clock in the morning we received instructions, or to be more correct, we were ordered to go on board.  But as our luggage had not all arrived from Hull, and as the ship was not yet clean and in order, we refused to obey the order.  But tomorrow it was a holiday, and all had to be quiet and peaceful.  Furthermore, they threatened us with leaving us behind and letting the ship depart without us, if we did not obey the command, thus wasting our good money.  Finally the agents promised to bring all the luggage on board the ship, and only then did we go on board the three master, "Jessie Munn, Captain Duel.  We had only been on board for some hours, when we saw ourselves just as much, or similarly, cheated and disappointed as we were in Glückstadt.  The agents and the crew now treated us as they pleased, and we had to dance entirely to their tune.  We stayed in port overnight, I rented a place to sleep in the 2nd cabin, as the room below was not to my liking.  We were 27 Germans and 4 Danes in this cabin.  For this accommodation each of us paid 1 Specie. [p.5]

   1854 January 1st.  We were towed for a distance of 6 miles by a steamer and threw anchor, till the 3rd.  In these 2 days we received an exceedingly bad treatment, neither food nor drink were sent down to us, and many times we quarreled with the helmsman (2nd mate) and other members of the crew in such a manner that it bordered on fighting.

   I therefore warn everyone of my countrymen against the office of Morris & Co in Hamburg and their agents in Hull and Liverpool, and against transportation via England altogether.  Today the captain, our luggage and provisions came on board.  The anchor was raised and the voyage continued in the Atlantic Ocean.  Our position was improved in some respects, thus we obtained both food and drink.

   4th.  Extremely good wind.  Today everybody was looking for their luggage, of which much was missing.  Some boxes and packages had been opened and pilfered, and many trunks and packages had completely disappeared.

   5th.  No wind at all.  Many passengers were seasick, and so was I and my family.  The calm lasted only until 5 o’clock in the afternoon.  Then it began to blow, and during the night we encountered stormy weather, which, as we were not yet used to it, made us much afraid.  But neither men nor ship suffered from it, and as the wind came from the northeast [p.6] it was to our advantage, and we covered a good distance.  The storm kept us until noon of the 7th.  Then it decreased in strength; but it carried us rapidly forward.  Today a child of Danish parents died, 2 ½ years old.

   8th.  Also today the wind remained good.  I and my family except my oldest daughter, have overcome the seasickness.  A child of Danish parents died.  It was 3 weeks old.

   9th.  Calm.  Today we had the joy of seeing several of the sick ones on deck again.  Since we left Liverpool we have not experienced any cold weather, and now the air begins to be warm. A child of Danish parents died, 2 years old.

   In the evening a storm was blowing, and it kept on until 8 o’clock in the evening of the 10th.  This time no damage was done either, nor was the fear no longer as pronounced as during the first storm at sea.  During the last few days we only rarely saw a ship.  Today we saw 5.

   11th.  East wind.  We made good speed.  11 degrees heat.  There is great discontent among the passengers, because there is not handed out as many provisions as was promised us in the contract.

   12th.  Wind and heat as yesterday.  Besides, a steady rain.  A child of Danish parents died, 2 years old. [p.7]

   13th.  Calm until evening.  Then a strong easterly wind.  It rained all day.  Today a couple was married.

   14th.  Strong east wind, at the same time warm air and steady rain.  Many on board were sick.

   15th.  Wind and air like yesterday.  Today we saw 2 islands.  They were unknown to the captain, and he did not know their names.  This seemed unusual to me.

   16th.  Calm, and at the same time unusually warm.  A child of Danish parents died, 3/4 years old.

   17th.  Good wind.  14 degrees of heat.  The idleness bothers me.

   18th.  Wind and weather as yesterday.  The voyage went rapidly forward today.  A Danish women lost her mind.

   19th.  Oppressive heat.  All the sick had to come out on deck today.  The beds were aired, the sleeping places fumigated and cleaned.  The number of sick people is increasing.  Today a child of Danish parents died, 1 year old.

   20th.  Continuously favorable wind.  The sun rose at 5 o’clock, and set 6 in the evening.  Today I saw fishes from 12 to 16 feet in length.

   21st.  Strong north-easterly wind, which drove us rapidly forward.  I saw 3 fishes which were about 50 feet long.

   22nd.  Wind and weather as yesterday, thereat oppressively hot.  Today I saw flying fishes.  They were quite white, about 1 foot long, had a pointed head, used the fins instead of wings, and flew approximately 50 yards before they dived again. [p.8]

   23rd.  Wind and weather still like yesterday.  Towards the evening the wind gained strength.  Everybody was afraid of storm; but we were spared from it, however.  I saw many water-swallows, which look very much like land-swallows.  Today died in our cabin a child of German parents, 1 ½ years old. (Ehrich’s child).

   24th.  The east wind today changed into storm.  The main mast broke in two, 2 sails blew into the ocean carrying pieces of wood and rigging with them.  Many of the sick fell out of their beds.  The crying the screaming of the sick and healthy during the storm cannot be described; even the captain and the entire crew seemed to be discouraged.  The storm continued until 9 the evening.  A Danish woman, 70 years old, died in our cabin.

   25th.  Calm.  A steady rain fell during the entire day, thereat the air was oppressively hot.  I cannot remember having experienced such a warm day in Germany.  Several thefts have been committed lately, and today 2 watches were stolen in our cabin.

   26th.  Still calm weather and steady rain.  Today I observed that also the rain is salty.

   27th.  Good wind, continuous rain.  I saw flying fishes.  2 of the crew became angry at each other, and fought with each other so long, that both fell breathless to the deck, unable to fight any longer.

   28th.  Strong easterly wind.  We made 10 miles every hour.  Fishes of about 40 feet in length and 10 feet in diameter [p.9] let themselves be seen near the ship.  They were blue and seemed to be quite daring.

   29th.  Calm.  16 degrees heat.  Ever since we have been on the ocean we have not had such beautiful and pleasant weather as we had today.  Many of the sick were out on deck.  All were happy and content, and there was dancing in the evening.  Yesterday the last quarter of the moon was still visible, and this evening the new moon shone quite brightly.

   30th.  Calm.  13 degrees of heat.  One certainly does not see cities and beautiful landscapes.  It is now 15 days since we saw land, and this was only in the distance.  But, nevertheless, the sea-voyage also has its pleasant side.  One feels the happiest with good health and a good wind, and also with friendly association.  Also on the ocean many beautiful things, are seen which frequently far surpass in beauty, what one sees on land.  When one views the beautiful clear sky, and the rising and the setting of the sun, then it must be admitted that this is far more majestic to behold on the ocean than on land.

   31st.  Still calm weather, as well as being oppressively hot.  Today work went on to repair the broken mast, during which a sailor was injured.  This evening there was dancing again.

   February 1st.  Good northeast wind.  The journey proceeded rapidly forward.  I had imagined that the voyage would be far more [p.10] dangerous than this one is.  The only thing that makes the journey tedious for us and which frequently causes dissatisfaction, is that many of us have just cause for complaint over the harsh treatment by the crew, as well as over the delivery of provisions.  Whoever does not look out for himself, or is soft and pliable, is cheated.

   2nd.  Wind as yesterday, but somewhat stronger.  Today my little Anna was taken sick.  There appeared several large and small birds, from which I conclude, that we are not far from land.

   3rd.  Still good wind.  My presentiment as to seeing land soon, has been confirmed.  This morning we saw at a distance of 4 miles, 3 islands, and in the afternoon we saw 2 more.  We passed close by the latter.  It is called Montinere [LOCATION UNKNOWN], and it seems to be rather large and mountainous.  We saw 4 high mountains on the islands, and the one nearest us was touched by a cloud.  The lowland was cultivated.  We saw people working in the fields.  This sight was a great joy to us.

   4th.  Calm.  The islands have disappeared from sight and again we see nothing but sky and water.  All are longing to have the water exchanged for land.  Here the moon is visible all day long, and for the last few evenings it was directly overhead at 6 o’clock.

   5th.  Good wind.  Again birds appeared, and there was much grass and moss on the water, which gave us hope of seeing [p.11] land again soon.  It seems as if many of us cannot stand the hot air, for every day more people get sick.

   6th.  A strong northeast wind blew during the night.  During the last calm two hatches had been opened in the forward part of the between decks, and in the stormy weather last night the water rushed in with such force, that the passengers had to leave their beds.  Many trunks and packages were wet all through, and great damage was done as a result of this carelessness. Even sick people who had no assistance, and who could not get out of bed by themselves, were lying in water.

   7th.  It is still blowing from the northeast.  Each hour we cover 15 miles.  We are continuously among islands of which we often see some in the far distance.  Many large birds, very much like storks, were close by us all during the day.  In the evening we saw the island of Santo Domingo, 4 miles distant.

   8th.  Wind the same as yesterday.  We have not as yet had as good sailing wind as we had during the last 3 days.  Today we saw the islands of Cuba and Jamaica, 2 miles distant, of which the latter spread out before us as a long stretch of land extending beyond range of the eye.  My little Anna is well again.  Many of the sick on the between deck have also recovered.  In the last few days the air has been somewhat cooler.

   9th.  It did not blow during the night, and today it is again oppressively hot.  Today provisions were distributed. [p.12] The bread was spoiled and was handed back to the captain.  At noon we could still see the island of Jamaica.  Today a Dane and an Englishman engaged in a fight, and the latter was the winner.

   10th.  Southwest wind.  For the first time we had the wind against us.  Today we saw the island of Kaiman.  On another island the light in a lighthouse was to be seen in the evening.

   11th.  Northwest wind, not much better than yesterday.  Many fishes, 30-40 feet in length appeared.  We sailed continuously among islands.  Although we had no cause for complaint about much stormy weather or misfortunes of that kind, everybody longed to be off the water soon, for the lack of good drinking water, a variety of food and liberty, now made the journey unpleasant for us.  A child of Danish parents, 2 years old, died today.

   12th.  Good wind.  Today we passed by the western tip of Cuba.  We were quite close to the island and saw the lighthouse and several buildings.  The fields were green.  Something was being harvested, but we could not see what it was.  The land appeared to be flat and unbroken.  Today we saw some sea-eagles.

   13th.  East wind.  Today we had ships around us continuously.  It somewhat helped to pass the time, and gave us the hope of landing soon.  The anchor chain was put in order.  Today I made up for the captain my list of all the passengers on board the ship.  We were 352 persons besides the crew, of which 321 were Mormons and their children.  I did this work in the [p.13] captain’s cabin.  There fell into my hands accidentally a list from Morris & Co. made up in Hamburg.  I saw to my astonishment that the captain had carried each passenger 2 prussian thaler cheaper than we had paid, and that these 2 thaler accrued to the missionary, Carn [Daniel Garn], who had chartered the ship.  I told this to our president on board the ship, who promised to investigate the matter later on.

   14th.  Calm.  18 degrees of heat.  We saw large fishes, which followed us for a quarter of an hour.  They were very bold and only disappeared when they were shot at.

   15th.  Calm until 4 o’clock in the afternoon.  Then it began to blow hard from northwest, almost like a storm.  Around 7 o’clock almost all the sails were taken down, and the ship drifted about as it would.  At the same time it rained violently, and we were very much frightened.  Even the captain and the rest of the crew were afraid, and seemed to fear danger.  Everything went well, however.  Today the captain gave us hope of soon arriving at the Mississippi.

   16th.  The strong wind kept on blowing till around midnight, and in the morning we had drifted back quite a distance.  But we soon regained lost ground, as the wind was good all day.  Shortly after noon we saw a lighthouse, and then several ships lying at anchor.  The water changed color and became yellowish.  Contrary to the captain’s expectation we were near the Mississippi, where he had thought of arriving 2 days from now.  The pilot-flag was instantly hoisted, and [p.14] at 4 o’clock a pilot came on board.  We sailed on close to the river’s mouth and anchored.  There was joy and happiness on shipboard.  Today it was so cold that we had to put on warm clothes.  Today a child of Danish parents died, 2 years old.

   17th.  Today it was very cold and windy.  We were lying still.  Many ships came up alongside, and they all anchored here.  The Danish woman who lost her mind on the 18th of last month died today.  She left behind her husband, and 2 small children.

   18th.  The weather was somewhat pleasanter.  This morning 10 large vessels bound for New Orleans lay close to us.  Already at 6 o’clock steamers came out from that port, and around 8 o’clock we began to raise anchor.  At 10 o’clock came a steamer by which we were towed 2 miles up the river.  All the ships were brought up here.  The pilot disembarked, the anchor was dropped and the captain’s papers were inspected by an official.  Now a steamer was placed between 2 sailing vessels at a time, in order to tow them up the river.  The anchor was raised, and the journey continued.  For the first 8-10 miles there was nothing to see along the river except uncultivated land on which grew reeds and small bushes; but then the country took on a better appearance.  We sailed past woods and beautiful estates.  The fields were beginning [p.15] to be green and plowing and sowing were going on.  At this place the Mississippi is half a mile wide; but he current is not rapid.

   19th.  We kept on sailing all during the night.  As we looked around us in the morning we were in an exceedingly beautiful country, and the farther we proceeded, the more beautiful it became.  On both sides of the river were beautiful country-seats, sugar plantations, beautiful meadows and forests.  The owners live for the most part in small but pretty houses, which were usually situated in an orchard.  There was already fruit on the trees, mostly oranges.  The workers, usually Negro slaves, live in small houses or huts near their masters.  All residences are near the river.  The cultivated land is behind and between the houses, and where it ends there is nothing to be seen but forest.  The land is level and sugar and cotton are the two main products which are raised here.

   20th.  At 2 o’clock in the morning we arrived in New Orleans.  Here it is still winter and cold.  That is what a German inhabitant told me this morning.  But I meant, that even though it is still winter and cold, I would not like to feel the heat here in the summer time.  He replied that there was still floating ice in the river, and since this has not completely disappeared, it is still winter although the ice comes 3-400 miles from here.  The fields were green, the gardens made ready, and many seeds had already shot high up above the ground.  The cows were grazing in the tall grass [p.16] and the heat at this time of year seemed strange to me.  The first think I undertook to see was the harbor.  Our ship was lying near to one end of the port.  I had probably been walking a couple of miles or so, as I made inquiries about the length of the harbor.  I found out that it is 5 miles long, and that there are at present 914 sailing vessels and 81 steamers in the harbor.  I walked the whole way along the waterfront, and it gave me much pleasure.  Never before had I seen so many large ships in one spot.  Most of them were three-masters, and only a few of them were small vessels.  There was much life going on at the port, and thousands of workers as well as many carriers were busy.  I went part of the way along the harbor, and, coming back, part of the way through some streets near by.  The streets are wide and straight, but very dirty and badly paved, owing to the wet ground.  The whole city lies on the lowland, and swamps and bogs are to be seen in the heart of the city.  There is hardly any regulation of the streets.  Dead cattle lie in the thoroughfares, and wherever ones goes, there is a bad odor.  I was tired and went on board ship.

   21st.  Again I went out early to view the city and to see anything unusual and remarkable.  The city is 8 miles long and 1 ½ miles wide.  It has about 110,000 inhabitants of which about 7,000 are Germans and 8,000 Negroes.  I saw the new custom house, which is being built and which is to be completed 7 years from now.  It is 250 ells or 500 feet square, and 4 stories high, the wall is made of [-] granite. [p.17] I have never seen such an imposing and costly building.  The scaffolding alone has cost 6,000 dollars.  The Hotel Dhe Charles, one of the most beautiful buildings in the city, is built of marble stone.  It is 5 stories high and is also an imposing sight, but it cannot compare with the customhouse. I saw the orphan-asylum which is planned beautifully and impressively, and visited some of the most important factories, such as carriage-factories, cotton-spinning plants, and iron-foundries, of which I had likewise never seen any before which could compare with them in beauty and size.  The railway station, and the railway itself, are not so beautiful.  The churches are only small.  I was in 3 of them whose interiors were rather pretty.  The drinking water is not good, and it is very unhealthful for strangers.  Through pipes it is led from the Mississippi into the city.  As far as I went in the city, I saw no pumps, nor did I see any cellars.

   22nd.  Today Washington’s birthday was celebrated.  Early in the morning there was shooting of cannon; the national guard, led by beautiful martial music, marched through the city to an open spot where all sorts of amusements were open to the public all day long.  In the evening the city was illuminated, and feasting and dancing went on in all the streets in the city.  Here the river is one mile wide.  Across from New Orleans lies the small town, Algier.  It is nicely built, and has large factories for iron and cotton goods; also many steamers are being built there.  Today I was not [p.18] feeling well, and could not go out.  Furthermore we were busy packing, and even today we went on board the steamer "St. Louis on which we were to be taken to St. Louis.  This ship is built to carry emigrants, and we promise ourselves more comfort than we have had hitherto.

   23rd.  We only finished packing and putting our luggage on board the ship yesterday evening, and when I woke up this morning our new ship with all of us on board, was lying at the other end of the harbor.  Today I had much to do in our new quarters.  When I was through working, I wrote 2 letters to Hamburg and took them to the post office.  On the way back I came through a street where slaves were being sold.  400-500 dollars were being paid for the largest and handsomest men and women.  For a short while I watched this business, and went from there with a saddened heart.

   24th.  This morning I went out to see the market-place where meat, milk, grain and vegetables are being sold.  The market was held in 2 wooden structures, built for this purpose.  Horses and carriages cannot enter here.  Each of the buildings is 400 feet long and 300 feet wide.  The amount and variety of products which are daily brought to the market, is indeed remarkable.  I was probably there for about 2 hours, and would like to have stayed longer; but I became ill, had to go on board and go to bed.  I read the German newspaper that is being published here.  It contained the news that from Jan. 1st to February 4th, 38 steamers and close to 200 [p.19] sailing- vessels had been lost on the Mississippi.  Since Feb. 3, 6 steamers had been lost by fire in the local harbor, while 5 had been badly damaged.

   25th.  I felt somewhat better today and went out to see how the engines and other sunken material were taken out of the water from the 6 burned steamers.  A ship came in from Africa carrying 80 wild people.  I saw some of them.  Their skin was copper-colored, their hair long and black. Their clothes were made from the hides of wild animals; but most of the wild men were quite naked.  They had rings through their noses and ears, and some of the men had bells on their legs.  All were tall and well built, and were immediately offered for sale as slaves.  Here, and in the entire state, the slave-trade is a legal and profitable business; but public slave-markets are only allowed in this city.  Merchants and wealthy families keep slaves, men as well as women.  They are also given permission to marry.  But the children they raise are the property of the slave-owners, and if the number becomes too high, they are driven to market and sold for a good price.  A cannon-shot is being fired every evening at 8 o’clock, signifying that then all the blacks must be at home.  Whoever is found to be on the streets after the firing of this shot, receives severe punishment.  Only blacks who are residents or free can obtain permission to stay out longer, and this is only given in return for a large and safe bond.  We left at 2 o’clock in the afternoon.  On this side of the river at least as far as we came today--the landscape was [p.20] just as beautiful as on the other side.  We sailed on until 9 o’clock and then dropped anchor.

   26th.  The steamers which sail on the rivers use wood for fuel, of which there is sufficient stock on hand.  Our ship too supplied itself with wood at this place, and at 8 o’clock we set out again.  Sugar plantations, beautiful grain fields, forests and meadows, follow each other continually.  Everyone who has journeyed in this region will admit that it is beautiful and pleasant to travel here.  But everyone who still carries in his heart a grain of love for his fellow men, must look on the beauty with contempt, when he sees the poor blacks, who just as much as we white people, were created by God as free human beings, and who are being treated by their white owners as cattle, and often not even as well as that.  There are masters who have from 3-to 400 slaves.  Today we stopped several times to take on sugar, and this gave us time and opportunity to go ashore.  I went along with the others and saw the owners’ magnificent residences and gardens, and I must admit that I had never seen in Germany more beautiful estates than these properties.  But when I turned my gaze towards the poor Negroes, with their wives and children working in the fields, then all the great and beautiful lost its value for me.  The day went by with these stopovers and trips, and at 10 o’clock we again dropped anchor.

   27th.  The journey continued very early in the morning.  When I awoke our ship was once more lying close to a sugar-plantation to take on sugar.  The region was exceedingly beautiful, and many of the passengers considered it the [p.21] most beautiful we had seen so far.  The owner’s residence was not a very large one, and it stood in a garden full of the most beautiful fruit-trees and flowers.  We went ashore; but were only allowed to view the garden from the outside.  The owner had 350 Negro slaves.  A number of women and children were working in the garden, and a white overseer whip in hand, stood behind them.  We looked contemptibly at this brute.  He understood, and brought us on board escorted by 2 large dogs.  This beautiful region continued until noon.  Then the country became higher and mountainous, and appeared to be healthier.  The residents fell wood and sell it to the ships’ captains.  As far as the eye reaches, there is wood to be seen, and many thousands would still be able to make a living here.  Towards evening the region again became somewhat prettier.  We passed by the two small towns of Petersport and Frankville.  The inhabitants are mostly Germans and Frenchman who raise grain and cattle.

   28th.  We traveled all night long.  The nights are very cold here, and in the day time it is still oppressively hot.  There are farmsteads, which are not inferior in beauty to many of the sugar-plantations.  The soil is extremely good, and much farming is being carried on. We came across many settlers who felled trees, and who were beginning to cultivate the land.  We stopped at the town of Nidshid.  This settlement has a very romantic location, and is built entirely on the mountain side.  There seems to be considerable trade here.  We were only ashore for a short while.  Most of [p.22] the inhabitants are Germans.  We were asked, if there were any workers from the building-trade with us who would care to remain, and inquiries were directed to me about servant-girls.  Good wages were being offered.  Much coal is found in this region.  In the evening we passed by 2 more small settlements, and at the latter of these we took on wood for fuel.  It was dark when this was brought on board.  I have not been feeling entirely well ever since we left New Orleans.

   March 1st.  This morning we stopped at the city of Quickbonne.  This was also a mountain-city, and it was built in a very rambling and disorganized fashion.  As seen from the river, the streets and the houses lie one above the other, and it presents a beautiful sight.  The church stands on one of the highest peaks of a mountain.  As only a brief stop was made we saw little of the city.  On both sides of the river is continuous forest.  The soil is good, it is frequently quite level for many miles at a time, and at such places cotton and maze are being raised.  In the evening we saw at different places fires in the forest.  These had been set by the owners in order quickly to get the trees out of the way, so that the soil could be turned to use.  The illumination was magnificent to behold.

   2nd.  Today I made the acquaintance of a young man from Kiel, whose name was Theodor Falk, and who was also on board.  He had been in the Danish war, and we entertained each other [p.23] with stories and recollections of that time.  Here the air is cooler, the fields are green no more and the forest is not as pretty as it has been for some time.  It seems as if we have suddenly been transferred to another climate or into another season.  I hear that the settlers who fell trees and then sell the wood, earn so much money in a short time that they are able to pay for and cultivate the piece of land they have bought.  It struck me as peculiar that a saw was never used for this kind of work, but only an axe in the use of which, the Americans are experts.  Today a 3 year old child of Danish parentage died.

   3rd.  At an early hour this morning we came to the settlement of Napoleon, where we stopped and tarried for a short time.  There were only 9 residences there, all built on a big, imposing scale, and these 9 buildings all carry the name of the settlement, such as Napoleon’s apothecary, store, hotel, pool-room, and so on.  Divine service was being held in a chapel near the river.  The inhabitants are mostly Frenchmen.  As yesterday the region consists of nothing but forest on both sides of the river.  Where the trees have been chopped down, are cotton plantations.  Today I was very ill.  I placed blame for my sickness on the bad drinking-water, and the many worries and troubles I have to endure on account of my family, especially my wife.

   4th.  I had to stay in bed all day today.  We had many sick people on board.  We were altogether 460 passengers on this ship.  4 dollars was paid for each adult, and 2 dollars for [p.24] every child under 14.  From New Orleans to St. Louis is a distance of 1200 miles.  We were made to hope that this journey could be completed in 6-8 days.  But yesterday we had only covered half the distance.  This journey was very expensive to most of those who had not supplied themselves sufficiently with provisions, and who now had to buy them on shipboard or where we stopped.

   5th.  Today we often sailed between small islands, some of which were inhabited.  These islands have been cut away from the mainland by high tide and the strong current in the river.  At many places we saw the land swept away, so that trees were left standing in the river.  In this way the river was constantly made wider, though not deeper, and it became more and more dangerous for traffic.  Frequently large areas of cultivated land were washed away, and houses that stood near the river, collapsed.  We stopped at the city of Memphis.  The stay was only a brief one, and we could not go ashore.  This is only a mountain city, large and beautifully planned.

   6th.  Last night we were held fast between tree-trunks, and about 2 hours passed before we got loose again.  But no damage was inflicted on the ship, however.  The first sight that met us this morning was that of a sunken steamer.  We stopped, but could not be of any assistance.  The passengers had been saved, but most of the freight had been lost or ruined.  Some members of the crew were still on board, and [p.25] they were bringing the salvaged load ashore.  The ship had left New Orleans one day ahead of us, and had sunk the day before yesterday.  These steamers cannot travel on the ocean, but only on rivers, as they are very lightly built.  Usually a steamer of this type is 180-200 feet long, and 50-70 feet wide.  It only draws 4, and, at the most, 5 feet of water.  The heaviest freight lies in the bottom of the hulk.  The engines are on the lowest deck.  The furnace is located in about the center of the ship, and here the fuel is stored.  Forward is an empty space, and aft are sleeping accommodations for the crew, and also for the passengers who do not pay the highest price.  On the 2nd deck in the center of the ship are usually 2 large halls, and forward is an open space for light freight.  Around both halls are cabins, usually with 2 beds in each.  From these cabins one door leads into the hall, and another opens outward to a wide passage, that runs around the entire ship.  Carriages and light freight are taken to the 3rd deck.  On this 3rd deck is a small house built of boards into which the rudder projects from below.  Here sits the pilot, because the many bends of the river and the tree-trunks which often dot it, cannot always be seen from below.  A pilot on this river must know the waters, as well as a coachman or a pedestrian knows the highway in the dark.  Many of these ships have 2 engines.

   7th.  Today we sailed constantly among small islands of which some were inhabited by 2 or 3 families.  The main industry is the raising of pigs of which hundreds are seen running around. [p.26] In the afternoon we stopped at the city of Cairo.  It has 50 houses at most; but many buildings were under construction.  The town is situated on the Ohio River, which flows into the Mississippi at this point.  Here work is going on on [SIC] a railway to the city of Ohio and New York.  This railway will be continued on to California, and it will be 3000 miles long.  Many tradespeople, artisans and saloon keepers live on abandoned steamers that have been fitted out as residences.  Inquiries were made about workers from the building trade, and high wages were being offered.  A city with the same name was formerly located at this place; but had now sunk into the ground.  During the building of the railway, several ruins of the former settlement have been found.  A steamer carrying 600 passengers was destroyed this winter by running into floating ice not far from here.  Many of the passengers lost their lives, and the survivors were taken ashore.  Their provisions were lost.  On account of the amount of floating ice no ships arrived for several days, and as there was also a heavy snowfall, the survivors were forced to remain in Cairo.  Here the stock of provisions ran out in a short time, and famine-conditions prevailed among the residents and their guests, until food had been obtained from St. Louis.  This took 16 days, a journey which can be made in 3 days under favorable conditions.  Close to 700 persons in the town died of cold and starvation, and had help been delayed 2 day longer, no one would have remained alive. [p.27] Today a child of Danish parentage died on board our ship.  It was 5 years old.

   8th.  We stayed here overnight.  Today I went ashore again to look over the construction of the new city.  It is being built at about the same spot where it used to be.  The houses are for the most part built only of boards.  I spoke with the violinist Ole Bull of Norway, who was formerly well known in Germany.  He too had been a passenger on board the wrecked steamer, and was glad to hear news from Schleswig.  Freight was unloaded and taken on at this point, and at 2 o’clock the journey continued.  We had hardly been on our way for an hour, when once more a sunken steamer that hardly held together was seen lying ahead of us.  The region on the left bank in these parts is very mountainous.  The river is continually more and more dangerous for traffic.  We ran against a tree-trunk, and down below the ship became full of water, much freight being destroyed.  Several hours passed before the damage was repaired and the ship made tight again.  It was fortunate that this happened in the day time; in the dark our fate would have been a bad one, in any case.  Towards evening we passed by the small mountain town Kienkuta [LOCATION UNCLEAR].  It has large and beautiful buildings, and is built according to a plan.  No stop was made.  In this region there are many saw-mills and coal-mines, and marble is being dug and worked.  Along the bank are neat small houses, whose residents make a living, felling trees and hewing stone.  A violent thunderstorm [p.28] came up during the night and besides that, it rained very hard.  It was so dark that the pilot could not see any longer.  We came too close to the shore and got stuck fast.  Three hours went by before we were free again.  During this work a sailor feel through a hatch down below, and was severely injured in the head and breast.  We stopped at the town Gebzarka, where we remained until daybreak.  During the night a young girl of Danish parentage died.  She was 14 years old.

   9th.  The sailor who fell into the ship’s bottom yesterday died this morning.  The town of Gebzarka [LOCATION UNCLEAR] is the most methodically built of all the towns I have seen so far on the Mississippi.  It lies close to the river on a beautiful plain, has large, massive buildings, 2 churches, factories of various kinds and well paved streets.  We left early, for which reason none of us could go ashore.  We had not gone very far before 3 sunken steamers were seen lying ahead of us.  Two of them had been shattered by tree-trunks and the boiler of the 3rd had exploded.  Some sailors were still on board the latter ship.  Today we sailed continually between mountains, some of which were very high.  Along the river there was often level land that was cultivated and inhabited by people from the mountains.  It is beautiful to travel here, and there are often new things to be seen.  Now one sees high hills, and now mountains of rock that also contain marble; chalk-mountains and coal-mines; now, down in the valley, beautiful grain-fields and orchards, and then again small forests with much game, especially deer, wild horses, wolves and large snakes. [p.29] At some places the mountain people live in the valley down below, and again at other places they are higher up in the mountains, either one presenting its pleasant picture to the traveler.  In the last few days we have had continually more and more sick people on board.  Also my small Anna and myself have never felt quite well ever sine we left New Orleans.

   10th.  This morning we had a heavy thunderstorm.  It rained until noon and then the air became clear.  The captain let us to hope that if the weather remain fine, we would arrive in St. Louis tomorrow.  Today we passed by numerous small villages and settlements, all in the process of construction, and all having a beautiful location.  Again we saw mountains where marble was being quarried and worked.  We stopped at a stone-quarry where we took on with us to St. Louis a slab of marble 14 feet long.  Here almost 100 people were employed.  At another stone-quarry freight was unloaded, and here granite was being worked.  This was made into milestones for the railway, foundations-stones and grave memorials.  140 men were employed here and among them were quite a few Germans.  I spoke with the Baas or overseer, a skilled bricklayer from Ploen in Hostein whose name was Homann, and who had already been in this place for 6 years.  He showed me a 26 foot long stone, intended for a grave-memorial.  Nothing pleased me more at this place than the neat, small houses in which the workers live.  The are frequently scattered over quite a wide area.  They are built according to a simple plan, but [p.30] both inside and out they are so neat and tidy, that it is true many a large and first-class residence in the cities lags far behind when compared with those others in this respect.

   Today also we saw a sunken steamer which had been wrecked by floating ice.  A child of Danish parents died.  It was 4 years old.

   11th.  The day had hardly begun when a steamer overtook us apparently bent on passing us.  It approached too close to the shore, ran against tree trunks, and sank before our very eyes.  The passengers hurried up on the 3rd deck.  The freight was apparently spoiled, for hardly half an hour had passed before it was 10 feet under water.

   Shortly after noon we stopped at a small island called Quarantine Island.  Here all ships coming from New Orleans have to stop to be examined by doctors who find out, if there are any contagious diseases on board.  If there are many sick people on board, the ship must lie in quarantine, and the sick remain behind.  Cholera had broken out on our ship; but only among the Danes who lived very immoderately.  28 were suffering from this disease of which number 7 were detained.  During the medical examination the remainder crept out of their beds and hid themselves.  But besides these there were many sick passengers, who did not suffer from Cholera.  At 4 o’clock we saw St. Louis, and it gave rise to much rejoicing. [p.31] We landed at 5 o’clock.  I was feeling rather well.  Today my wife caused me a lot of vexation and trouble.  It seems as though she would rather have seen me dead, so that I could never set foot in St. Louis.  My little Anna was very sick.  We kept her in hiding when we stopped at the island, and came out successfully.  German people came on board, and we knew some of them.  My wife immediately took the little one to the home of one of these friends.  Our ship was examined by 2 doctors, and many sick people, who had kept themselves in hiding when we stopped at the island, were taken to the hospital.

   12th.  I learned this morning that the 7 who had been detained on the island had already died.  Thus, form the time we left Glückstadt until today, 43 have died.  Of these 1 was a child of German parentage, while the remainder were Danes.  Today I spoke with several acquaintances from Hamburg.  Rented lodgings for myself in Carr Street, but remained with my children on board the ship, and put my things in order.  Sadness pervaded the ship, for every hour more and more people took sick, and even today 9 more Danes died.

   13th.  6 Danes died during the night.  This morning I moved into our lodgings together with a traveling companion, Erich from Reinfeld in Holstein.  It consisted only of 2 rooms, but we contented ourselves with it in order to save money.  We paid 6 dollars a month for it. [p.32]

   All the Germans left the ship today.  Also some Danes went ashore; but many of them had to remain on board the ship, as they were either sick or without lodgings.  Towards evening the order was given that all should leave the ship, for now there was hardly a healthy person left on it.  A large tent was erected outside the city, and all the Danes taken to it.  I visited my little Anna, who was still very ill, and looked over a section of the city.  And with this the day ended.

   14th.  The first thing I did was to go and see my little Anna.  She was sicker than yesterday, and could not come to the lodgings.  From there I went to see the Danes.  During the night some more of them had died.  Today houses were rented where they moved in; but they had to content themselves with very narrow quarters.  Sailing-ships do not come up the river.  The harbor is 2 miles long, but not sightly, because it lies so close up against the city.  There is much traffic here, and crowds of people, horses and carriages are to be seen here daily.  From the harbor 16 streets go through the city.  They all have names and are crossed by 21 cross streets, named according to their number (from 1 to 21).  Two of these cross-streets, the 2nd and 3rd, are more than a German mile long.  When the entire area that has been set aside for the city, is covered with buildings, each street [p.33] will be from 1 ½ to 2 German miles long.  The streets are all perfectly straight and wide.  They are not paved; but macadamized.  The stones that are being used are mostly limestone.  For that reason there is a thick layer of dirt on the streets in wet weather, and when the weather is dry they are constantly full of dust.  This dust is extremely harmful and unhealthy.  The commerce is important.  Here are many industrial establishments, namely iron-foundries, sugar-factories, and many others.  The number of inhabitants is placed at 150,000.  This cannot be determined definitely, however, as many leave every day.  It has been estimated that there are close to 40,000 Germans in the city.  There are only a few Negroes.  As far as I know, there is said to be about 120 different denominations here, and close to 200 churches, and many of the sections have more than one church or meeting house.  Many of these churches or meeting houses are not larger than an ordinary residence.  There are many large and beautiful houses in the city, and some still more beautiful are being built constantly.  There are also many made only of boards, that are old and dilapidated, being built without plans.  But these are gradually being demolished or burned down, and better houses built in their place.

   15th.  I visited my little Anna again, and although she was still very ill, I took her with me into our lodgings.  We sent for a doctor, who told us that she was suffering, from something that sapped her strength.  Today I made endeavors [p.34] to earn something, either through business or work, but unfortunately I succeeded in neither, as I could not speak English.  In order not to be idle any longer, I and 4 friends made preparations to go to the railway that is being built in the state of Illinois, and work there.

   Today we put our things in order, obtained tickets from an office where workers were hired, and decided to leave tomorrow.

   Here in St. Louis there is much wealth and prosperity, but also much poverty.  Although the slave-trade is carried on here only on a small scale, a conspicuous brutality holds sway both among adults as well as among children. This evening I was pursued by the latter, who probably noticed that I was a foreigner; they threw stones after me, although I had done them no harm.

   16th.  This morning we set out on our journey.  The state of Illinois lies on the other side of the Mississippi.  A steamer takes one across to the other side.  To begin with the region was very sandy.  The highway goes through mountain, forest and valley, and many beautiful farm-steads are found hereabout.  At noon we arrived at the small town of Bellville, 14 miles from St. Louis.  We went to a hotel where we had some refreshments, and without taking a further look at the small town in which there is really nothing unusual to be seen, we continued our journey.  Here the highway ended.  The road on which we were now walking had only been built recently.  It led through a long, dense forest in which we saw numerous [p.35] deer and wild boars.  Twice the latter behaved, as if they were going to attack us, and we had to flee.  At 7 o’clock in the evening when it was already dark, we arrived in the small town of Maskuta, 8 miles form Bellville.  The road leading to that small place was extremely bad, and we often had to wade knee-deep through water and swamps.  We were therefore very tired, looked for rooms and went to bed early.

   17th.  We slept well during the night.  In the morning we learned, that the river Oko, which we had to cross, had gone over its banks, and that an area, 3 miles wide, on the other side of the river was under water, so that we could not get through.  We were not frightened however, and wanted to examine the situation ourselves.  At 6 o’clock we set out again, but had not been going very far, before we heard the same story once more.  Around noon we came to the river, which is 12 miles from Maskuta, and realized that what had been told us was true, and that we had to wade 3 miles through water, if we wanted to continued the journey.  Here we met other people who wanted to get across, and we agreed to hire a vehicle, but no farmer wanted to go.  We were therefore obliged to turn back again, and went straight back to Bellville, stayed there over night and came back to St. Louis. empty-handed.

   18th.  We were told on the way that German workers were being sought on another railway; but as today was Sunday, the journey to that place was postponed until tomorrow.

   19th.  We went to the place, and talked with the man who hired the workers. As he heard we had never done that kind [p.36] of work before, he would not take us, and once more we had to turn back.  Now my wife began to bake waffles, and found a good market for them.  I often went out trying to earn something, either through business or work, but whatever I earned was rarely of any importance, as I could not speak English.  This, and the sight of my sick child, saddened me very much.  The child got worse every day, and hopes of improvement began to dwindle.

   23rd.  I have forgotten to note that my daughter Amalia was married to A. Kalthoff in Liverpool.  Today she gave birth to a daughter.

   Up until now I often went around with nothing to do, and at home there is nothing else to do but wait on my sick child.  This and the worry my wife causes me every day, made me sick also, ill-humored and sullen.  I pass over to the 26th.  Today I and my son-in-law who likewise rarely earned anything, was offered work on a large estate, to which we will go tomorrow.  Today fire broke out and 3 large houses burned down.  There is much brutality among the people here.  Today 2 boys got into a quarrel, and wounded each other with knives to such an extent, that one of them died immediately and the other some hours later.  Today 2 boys had tied a 3rd to a tree and beaten him to death.  It is not at all uncommon to hear of similar cases, which the parents and the authorities seem to view with great indifference, for the punishment administered is only mild.  Children from 8-12 continually carry knives, daggers and pistols. [p.37]

   27th.  Today we went to the estate and found work.  Wages were 12 dollars a month in addition to board and lodgings.  Our work consisted in helping the gardener.  I was well again, and glad to be working.  The owner of the estate was a native born American, named Lindel, and the estate is called Lindelsplatz (Lindels place?--P.G.).  He was a man with a 2 million dollar fortune, and he had arrived penniless in St. Louis as a man-servant.  The estate does not comprise much landed property, only a small amount of grain is raised, and only 12 cows are being kept (these 12 cows give about 3 cans of milk daily).  The garden covered 40 acres (an acre is 200 square yards), and was kept mostly for pleasure.  Young fruit-trees and flowers were taken to the city daily to be sold, and besides this income 1800 Dollars was still being spent annually in wages and for seeds and such things.  During the summer-months 4 gardeners and 16 workers are being employed.

   The name of the first gardener or Baas is Krausnek, a native of Berlin.  Practically all the workers were Germans.

   April 10th.  Nothing new was to be seen or heard here, the work was always the same and for this reason I have passed over the intervening days.  Today we had a heavy thunderstorm, and lightning struck a house and it burned down.  For several days we have had the sultry atmosphere that precedes a thunderstorm, and it has been oppressively hot; besides we often have frost during the night.  It is frequently oppressively warm [p.38] in the morning, and so cold before noon that one has to put on gloves.  From this one may conclude that it must be very unhealthy in these parts.  During the summer months cholera and yellow fever are the usual diseases.  I had now been working for 3 weeks, and as I came home on the 22nd.  My little Anna had died in the morning.  This was a hard blow to me.  She was buried today.  She was 7 years old.

   . . .

   26th.  Heavy thunderstorm, accompanied by wind and hail.  Many large trees were uprooted, and some houses collapsed; but the greatest damage was caused by the hail-storm.  In St. Louis and the neighboring districts, most of the windows facing west were smashed, so that there was a shortage of glass.  It had already been decided by the Mormon church that we Germans were to leave St. Louis on May 10th, and as our month comes to a close tomorrow, we shall stop working.

   27th.  Today we said good by to our boss, and parted as friends.  As long as I was working every day, I was not troubles by thoughts of my dead child . . . but now it all came forcefully to mind, I worried deeply over both and had to suffer a great deal.  I was almost sick from sorrow.

   28th.  Went to the harbor to look at the work of loading and unloading the ships.  Plenty of people are busy here every day.  A merchant told me that the number of workers employed at the harbor each day is placed at 1200, and the number of vehicles drawn by 1 or 2 horses at 200, while it could be truthfully said that every morning, one could figure 3000 people had business of one kind or another at the harbor.  Quarrels and fights are common here.  People stab and cut with knives or shoot with pistols, and not infrequently someone is being killed.

   Such a brutality as holds sway here, not only among the lower classes but also among the so-called educated classes, is unknown in Germany.  The newspapers continually contain [p.40] news of murders and robberies, but so far I have not read that a murderer has paid the customary penalty for his crime.  Women too shoot, stab and fight.  Today 2 women, who apparently belonged to the educated classes, had a fight while the men were looking on.  When the women got tired and stopped fighting, the men continued anew.  One of the ladies had a pistol and shot her opponent in the back.  She was arrested, but was immediately out on bail, and the whole case comes to nothing.  In Germany I often heard American freedom praised; but Germany will remain a happier country, if this freedom is never introduced.

   29th.  I wrote all day.  In the evening 5 houses burned down, and it was the cause of much fighting in the streets.  The fire engines are beautiful and well made, but the workers or firemen are undisciplined.  They are usually intoxicated and rob and steal.  The fire engines look like locomotives.

   . . .

   Today I visited a factory where locomotives are being made.  Never before have I seen in a factory such beautiful and splendid machinery as in this one.  I was also in a factory, where agricultural machines were made of iron and wood.  Many of these machines are not known in Germany, and many of those which are also being used in Germany, are made quite differently.

   May 1st.  Writing.

   2nd.  Beautiful promenades, parks as well as antiquities or other curiosities, are not to be seen here.  Everybody is merely striving to become rich, and this is the reason for the brutality.  From a German, who has been here for a considerable length of time, I today got some writing to do.  To me this was a pleasant way of passing the time.  Thought was also given to our approaching departure, and preparations were being made.  There is a very considerable immigration this spring.  It is said that already 12,000 have arrived here in St. Louis since New Years.  Yesterday 3 steamers sank near the city, while 1 was destroyed by fire.  This evening 3 houses burned in my immediate neighborhood.

   3rd.  The fire alarm was heard at 3 different times during the day.  11 houses burned down.  When I saw a fire engine here for the first time, I did not know what kind of an engine it was, and took it for a locomotive, as it is quite [p.42] similar to it.  It is beautifully made and answers the purpose very well.  All fittings, excepting the tires around the wheels, are made of brass.  I looked at the interior of a factory where turned work is being made.  Here there were 24 lathers, all of them driven by a steam engine.  The finest work for wheel-wrights, carpenters, joiners, chair-makers and turners was being manufactured here at great speed.  This evening I watched a fight between wagon drivers.

   4th.  I went to see 2 steam-driven flour mills.  These also contained beautiful machinery and these steam mills produce better flour than the usual water and windmills.  8 new churches and about 200 new houses are under construction.  The building of houses proceeds ver rapidly here, and the architecture is not like that of Germany.

   5th and 6th.  Writing continuously.

   7th.  Writing.  I also took a walk through the city.  The neighboring region is beautiful and romantic at some places, and work is being done there to make it still more beautiful.  Many new streets are also being planned.  A forest near the city, also included in the area that is to be built up, was in the process of being cut down, and this work gave employment to close to 1,000 men.

   8th. . . . In the evening 4 houses burned down.  A number of Indians have been stopping over here for several days.  Today I saw 5 of them.  They were naked and only the back was covered by a hid.  They were armed with bow and arrow, and displayed their ability in shooting.  At a distance of 50 steps, two of them knocked a 5 cent piece from where it was placed.  This is as large as a usual Schilling piece (German coin. P. G.)  They also showed us some of their dances and in doing so made comical jumps.  One moment they were standing on their legs, and the next on their heads.  In these dances they also demonstrate the strength of their nerves.

   10th When I was out on business today, my attention was called to some stone-cutting establishments of which there are many here.  Finished stone [p.44] are also displayed.  I found them beautiful and decided to visit some of the displays, which I had an opportunity to do today.  I was in 2 establishments, and must admit that never before had I seen such beautiful and ornamental work in stone, as was displayed there.  Practically all the work was slabs of marble of various sizes.  Whoever sees this beautiful work, must admit that the stone-cutters in St. Louis belong among the greatest artists in that line.

   11th and 12th.  Were spent writing.

   13th.  Took a short trip into the country with my children.  We saw some turtles of which one was rather large.  We came across farmsteads, where more than 200 pigs were being kept.  It was getting dark as we were on our way home, and we were overtaken by a heavy thunderstorm.  It blew and rained besides, and we came home tired and wet to the skin.

   14th.  I learned the I probably cannot get away from here as yet, and that I shall perhaps have to be here a whole year.  This news was discouraging to my family, as well as to myself.  The reasons were these: I did not myself possess the money or the means by which I myself could obtain the necessary capital for the long journey, and Jurgens’ widow from Schleswig, who had already promised to lay out the need travel money, went back on her word, as missionary Carn [Daniel Garn] had cheated her out of a considerable sum of money, and she was not going to leave yet. [p.45]

   15th. . . .

   16th to 20th.  Were spent in writing.  I have also been ill from melancholy and gloominess.

   21st to 25th.  Sick.  Today several of my friends left.  Among them were practically all the German Mormons, whom I would like to have accompanied.  There was thunder and lightning, combined with storm and rain, and some of the streets in the lowest part of town were quite flooded.  Houses and basements were full of water.

   26th.  The local papers write a great deal about the European war.  I read today that some English and French warships were lying at the harbor of Kiel.  Much is also being written about Denmark, and it is stated that the Schleswig citizenry of Eckernforde and Husum, still do not want to be entirely obedient to the Danes, and that quarrels and arrests are common occurrences.  One does not hear much news at this place.  The fire-alarm is usually sounded every day; sometimes 3-4 times in one day.  And not infrequently someone is being beaten to death or shot.  This is nothing new, however, but an old and usual happening that goes with American liberty.  There is much thunder and lightening at present, often of a violent character, and of much longer duration than in Germany. [p.46] But it is only seldom one hears that it has struck.  Many ships sink or come to grief in other ways, for both the Mississippi and the Missouri continually become more and more dangerous to traffic, and now, in the months of spring, large pieces of land and forest, as well as buildings, are being washed away by the river, incurring loss of lives.

   27th.  Today I received the joyous news in regard to getting away.  This came about solely through a merchant by the name of Thomas William from Salt Lake City.  Each year this man arrives here to buy goods.  He charters 160 wagons, and every time he takes along some families without means.

   28th and 29th.  Put my things in order for the departure.

   30th.  I brought some of my luggage on board. Saw a child being run over and crippled by an omnibus.  In the evening 5 houses burned down.

   31st.  Spent the day writing, and delivered what was written.

   June 1st.  Had a quarrel with my landlord on account of my going away.  I looked over a saw-mill and a steamer on which the wheel was placed aft.

   2nd.  Saw a fight among Irishmen during which some were severely wounded by [-] I was in a stone-cutters establishment and saw a piece of marble, 21 feet long, 7 feet wide and 3 ½ feet thick.  In this marble was carved a head of Christ, and with the crown of thorns, and 2 folded hands interwoven with garlands.  There were several people [p.47] there to look at the marble, and everyone admired the beautiful and artistic work.

   3rd.  Took leave with one of my friends.  Wrote two letters to Schleswig, to Pohlmann and Ulrich, and took them to the post office.  In the evening 4 houses burned down causing the death of 2 children.

   4th.  We went on board the steamer "Australia.  I took rooms on the 3rd deck, as it was most pleasant here.  There were about 200 passengers of us.  At 5 o’clock we left the harbor, to the accompaniment of music.  At 1 o’clock at night we stopped at the mouth of the Missouri, where this river flows into the Mississippi.  As far as we came today, there were beautiful landscapes on both sides of the river.

   5th.  All passengers on the 3rd deck also have their wagons there and sleep in them, the same as I and my family did, and last night we slept very well.  This morning we passed by the city of St. Charles, and towards noon the city of Augusta.  Only a small area of land around here is cultivated, and on both sides are dense forest and high mountains.  In the afternoon we sailed past the towns of Washington and Hermann, stopping at neither one.  From what I could see of all of them they were only small and irregularly built.  In the evening we saw 2 places where grapes were being grown.

   6th.  A strong wind blew during the night, and it was mostly against us.  On the left bank are high mountains and on the right flat land.  Here too grapes were being grown. [p.48] The owners of the vineyards live in small attractive houses near the river, surrounded by beautiful flower and vegetable gardens.  We stopped at the city of Shitubert, but only for a short time, nobody could go ashore.  In the afternoon we passed by the city, Jefferson City, capital of Missouri, and residence of the Governor.  Here there is a penitentiary, surrounded by a 30 foot wall.  The city is only a small one, and has some factories, while the chief business of the residents is the corn-trade.  It was already dark, when we came to the small city of Nahsoun, where we stopped.  This town had been built recently, and had only 50-60 houses that were completed.  The church stands on a mountain, and can be seen from far and wide.  In the evening we had violent thunder and lightning.

   7th.  This morning we were awakened by the rain, and were wet in our beds.  A stop was made at the city of Brunsville.  This too was only small, and there was nothing unusual to be seen there.   At this point the river has a strong current and many turnings.  It is dangerous to navigate, especially at night when so many tree-trunks are floating in it, with only a little of the trunk above the water’s surface.  In these parts there is much level and cultivated land.  The farmers’ dwellings are for the most part log-cabins.  Around noon we passed by the town of Glasgow, it has 2 churches of which one stands on a high mountain.  The town lies close to the river, [p.49] surrounded by high mountains.  Marble is being dug and worked at this place, and there are also several saw-mills there.  In the evening we sailed past Lexington.  All I saw of the town was some houses, as it was already dark.  We ran into a heavy thunderstorm, and it rained almost all night long.

   8th.  It was still dark when we came too close to the shore, and our ship ran aground.  It took time and effort to get loose again; but it was accomplished without doing damage to the ship.  Also at this point the river has a strong current and we could not go faster than 3 miles an hour; we sailed past the towns of Napoleon and Siplei.  They were both small, and were still in the process of being built.  Both lie near the river at the foot of a mountain, but in a beautiful region.  There we saw a steamer that had sunk today.  At this point one sees nothing but forest and mountains from the river, and yet; behind these, there is said to be beautiful, cultivated land.  Towards evening we came to the town, Leiponde.  Of the town itself there is little to be seen, as it lies behind a mountain.  The residents are said to be mostly German farmers who carry on the greatest grain-trade on the Missouri.  It was already dark when we came to the newly built colony, Waine City, where freight was unloaded.  We were asked if any craftsmen, especially carpenters and joiners, were aboard who would care to stay on.

   9th.  At 5 o’clock in the morning we landed at the City of Kansas.  It lies near the mountains, and seen from the river, along which stand some houses, it present a beautiful [p.50] view.  The church stands on a high mountain.  The inhabitants are said to be mostly Dutchmen and Germans.  In this region close to 2,000 Mormons were in camp.  Among them were the Danes, still alive, who had come across the ocean with us.  At this point the current was so rapid, that frequently our ship stood quite still.  Around noon we came to the city of Pakville, which lies on an elevation near the river.  There was much building activity; inquiries were made about craftsmen; and high wages were being offered.  On the right bank is much cultivated land, on the left forest and mountains.  Here marble, sandstone, lime and coal were bing dug.  Neither on the Mississippi nor on the present trip, have I seen such a beautiful and romantic region, as the country we were passing though today.  Here the river is 1 miles wide.  We saw the fort, Levensfort [PROBABLY, Levensworth], a mile to the left and back from the river, sailed past that and landed 4 miles father along, at our destination.  This was located in a forest where an open space near the river was called Liberty Place.  Work was immediately begun unloading the ship, and tents were raised.  Those who did not have any, arranged their wagons so that they could sleep in them, or built themselves huts of shrubs.  The ship was chartered, and for the most part loaded with merchandise by the merchant, Wiliams.  Most of the passengers were Mormons, and they had to pay the captain for their own passage from St. Louis to this place, as well as pay for their luggage.  From here to St. Louis is 480 miles. [p.51] Sleeping was out of the question during the night, as all the freight and luggage was being weighed.  Nobody was mournful about this, however; but everyone was glad to be here, and that the voyage had come to an end.

   10th.  In the morning everyone tried to get his things together.  Places for cooking were being contrived, and people slept, fished or hunted.

   11th.  I learned today that my friends who left St. Louis before me, are still in camp in this neighborhood.  In the evening we were visited by some of them. Near here, but on the opposite side of the river, lies the city of Weston, from where a ferry goes across the river.  From this place 200 oxen came today for our further transportation.  We brought 20 freight wagons with us from St. Louis, of which some were loaded with freight today and sent to the actual meeting place for the Mormons, 6 miles from here.  We liked it rather well here in the forest; but the drinking water, which we drew from the river, was bad and unhealthy.

   12th.  Very angry and up until now unknown enemies last nigh moved in on us.  They were mosquitoes.  They gave us but little sleep, and tormented us so much that this morning our faces and bodies were swollen.  Today I took a walk with my children to the assembling place, where I met with my friends from Germany and St. Louis.  The road leads past fort Levensforth [Levensport].  It is a small, unimportant fort, occupied by 200 soldiers.  It stands on a mountain in a beautiful territory, but has neither earthworks nor wall.  On the way [p.52] back we saw a rattle-snake that had been killed.

   13th.  I helped to keep watch last night.  Not far from us we heard the howling of wolves.  In the morning we had thunder and lightning accompanies by heavy rain and hail, which lasted practically all day long.  We had to sit in the tents and had no hot food or drinks until evening, as the fire would not burn.

   14th.  The last of Wiliams’ freight was taken away today and only some empty wagons still remained behind.  All the passengers likewise got away.  These were [p.53] Americans and Englishmen, many of them with their own wagons, and for the time being Wiliams loaned them oxen to get to the meeting place.  I too had my things in order, but as there were not enough oxen, I had to content myself with staying here today, alone with my family.  The day passed quickly, however, for the ferry went continually back and forth, and the river is still crowded with ships.  This helped us to pass the time.  But it was not without fear and unrest that we laid ourselves down to sleep, because here one is always surrounded by brutal people and wild animals.

   15th.  We slept quite well and were not disturbed.  I waited all day for oxen; but none came.  We had a thunderstorm and once more had to sit in our tents all day.  When the rain stopped, I went with my children into the forest to pick strawberries, of which there are many here, but they were quite sour.  We saw some large snakes and killed 2 of them.

   16th.  The night passed without our experiencing anything unpleasant.  I went to the assembly place to find out about my transportation.  It seemed as if I had been entirely forgotten.  Here everybody was working hard, and when I saw the commotion, the irregular living and disorder, I decided not to take any wagons as yet, and to remain in the forest for some days yet, at least until Wiliams who was not yet here, would return.  On the way back I met some Indian men and women on horseback, who were very much decked out.  In the evening we had thunder and lightning, and never before had I experienced such violent thunderstorm.  It rained heavily besides. [p.54] Our beds were wet through and through, and we had to stay up all night.  The weather has been beautiful every evening, and I took a walk along the river on which an unusually large number of steamers appeared this evening.  I was tormented a great deal by the mosquitoes.

   17th.  Towards morning we lay down in the grass to sleep; but one of us had to be on guard all the time.  Then we tried to dry out beds again, and this did not take long.  I went to the ferry every day.  This was only 10 minutes walk from where we were, and there I often met with an acquaintances.  Today I talked with a man who was surprised when he heard that I and my family were quite alone in the forest.  He advised me to leave the place before the Indians discovered me, which might lead to serious consequences.  My family immediately began to pack. I went to the assembly place, obtained a carriage and we drove up there today.  We had hardly left before Wiliams arrived with another shipload of merchandise.

   18th.  All the families that were to get transportation through Wiliams, (we were now 12) had been accepted on condition of working on the journey, in whatever, manner and whenever they were able to do so.  For this every worker was to receive 15 dollars per month, besides free board.  (Adults who did not work, such as women, had to pay 75 dollars for transportation and board, and besides, they were required to pay 12 ½ dollars for every 100 pound of luggage they carried with them.  Everyone of the workers could take along 100 pound of freight free of charge.  We were told of this today, [p.55] as nobody had any more money with which to go back.)  I too was immediately put to work today, and had to look after the oxen, to which work 3 of us were assigned.  In the evening I visited some friends.  Here about 2000 Mormons were encamped, besides a caravan which traveled about among the Indians with merchandise and traded with them.  This is a beautiful region.  The land is level, but not cultivated.  Here runs a small river, called Salt Creek.  The State of Missouri ends, and the territory of New Brasco begins.  It formerly belonged to California; but now the entire region is divided into 3 sections, New Brasco begins.  It formerly belonged to California; but now the entire region is divided into 3 sections, New Brasco, the territory of Utah and the state of California.  The territory of New Brasco is as yet inhabited only by Indians.  In recent times the government has bought or forcibly taken this land from the Indians, and has let it be known lately, that whoever wanted to stake out land for cultivation could do so.  A piece of land measuring 160 square yards costs from 1 1/4 to 5 dollars.  The payment falls due after a period of 5 years.  Whoever does not then want to keep the land, may turn it back again, but obtains nothing for the work on it.  The Indians are free to live in the territory, but just as is the case with strangers, they have to buy back their own land from the government, and must pay three times as much for it, as they got it for in the first place.  Also a sample of American liberty. [p.56]

   19th.  Today the first train of Mormons departed, it was made up of Englishmen, Germans and Frenchmen.  I took car of the oxen until noon, and in the afternoon went out to fish.  There is only one kind of fish here, and it is just like the bream in Schleswig; only not so good.  I often long for a meal made up of the latter.  I saw 2 large rattle-snake of which I killed one.  I took off the rattle which is at the end of the tail.

   20th.  Another train of Mormons departed, and most of them were Germans.  Only a few German families are left behind.  I took care of the oxen and today saw the first wolves.  In the afternoon a German family came back.  They were Swiss and the man’s name was Rebello.  With them was the tailor Lau as driver, and for some reason it was mostly his fault that the oxen would not pull, and that the man had to return.

   21st.  My friend Rebello took sick this morning and died 3 hours later of cholera.  During the last few days several have been sick with cholera here, and 5 have already died from it here in camp.  The sickness first broke out among the Danes, who live like pigs.  I accompanied Rebello’s remains to the grave, and then went with 5 other men to the landing place to load H. Williams’ freight wagons with cargoes.

   22nd.  Helped in loading.

   23rd.  Had to help in getting 4 loaded wagons out of the forest.  Each wagon was being drawn by 12 oxen.  All of them had never been yoked before and for this reason they were very wild.  The road was bad and we often got stuck.  Finally 2 [p.57] wagons turned over, and 2 remained sticking in the mud.

   24th.  Together with 3 other men I had to remain on guard with the broken wagons during the night.  It was beautiful weather; but the wolves and mosquitoes frightened us and gave us trouble.  In the afternoon I again helped with the loading, and 2 oxen that were yoked together fell.  They came too close to the river and tumbled in.  After much long drawn out and difficult work we got them out again alive.

   25th.  Helped to load wagons.  In the afternoon I helped reloading the 4 wagons that had suffered mishaps.  At this work a man was injured.  Here, near the river, the mosquitoes tormented us so much, that frequently we could not get an hour’s quite sleep during the entire night.  They are not bigger than small gnats, but sting as badly as large bees.  Our faces and bodies are swollen therefrom all the time.

   26th.  Today I only helped with the loading until noon, and then went back to Salt Creek, as the work was too hard for me.  Every day strangers pass through here to buy land or to pick it out.  Some raise a tent on it and remain, while others hammer stakes into the ground bearing their names, and return.  When I look at this beautiful and cheap land, my thought often go back to Germany where the land is so densely populated and so expensive, and where so many people, now living in poverty, could make a good living, if they were only over here. [p.58] I just learned that the departed Mormons are camped only 14 miles from here, that Cholera has broken out among them, and that several have died already.

   27th.  Took care of the oxen.  Here where we are, all land has been staked out and bought.  Already today began the hauling of lumber and building of houses.  All the required lumber as well as doors and windows, can always be obtained ready-made, and a log cabin or a house of sawed lumber is built in two days.

   28th.  The same work as yesterday.  To me it is the most tedious work I have done in all my life.  Almost all of William’s oxen are now here, and we have 728 to take care of.  10 men, of whom 4 on horseback, are continually engaged in the work; but I am on foot all the time.  Strangers are still passing through here every day, in search of land they which to buy.  All land is said to be bought up 300 miles away from here.  All that is said to have been sold, covers an area of 11,000 square miles, and it is mostly level and had good soil.

   29th.  Last night I was keeping watch. The farmers in this region, of whom there are only a few, however, go in a great deal for raising pigs.  There are people who have from two to three hundred pigs, they run for miles, and often for weeks into the wilderness, but always find their masters again. [p.59] One night recently they paid a visit to our pork, and wrought great damage.  We were also visited by a herd last night, and had difficulty in driving them away. Again took car of oxen.

   30th.  I went to the river early to help with the loading.

   July 1st.  I stayed here overnight.  Helped until noon, and then returned with 6 wagons, 2 of which turned over.  I saw 11 wolves.

   2nd.  I took care of the oxen until noon.  An ox ran into the swamp, and as it could not be gotten out, it was shot and killed.  An hour later I saw that 5 wolves were around it, devouring it.  There are already several houses ready, and ploughing is already under way at some places.

   3rd.  I went with 2 men to the river to keep guard over the freight which was lying there.  We passed the time fishing.

   4th.  During the night we took turns keeping watch.  There was much shooting all night long.  This shooting was a forerunner of today’s celebration.  The Fourth of July is the greatest and practically the only holiday celebrated in North America; at least this day only is celebrated as a day of joy and festivities.  On July 4, 1776 the Americans cut themselves loose from England, and made felt their rights which still obtain.  In the morning there is divine service, [p.60] and in the afternoon all the imaginable amusements take place in towns and villages throughout America.  Today we received orders to make ourselves ready for departure.

   5th.  I put my things in order and the day was spent in doing this.  My wife was ill today.  I again learned the some of my friends and travel-companions have died among those that are ahead of us.

   6th.  Took car of oxen.  A man was kicked by an ox and severely wounded.  I counted 30 small rattle-snakes in a puddle.  My son Freidrich found a large turtle.  I spoke with a man from Husum named Andresen, who was a relative of Straus of that place.

   7th.  I helped load wagons until noon, then the oxen were yoked up and we were off at 4 o’clock.  Our train consisted of 68 persons, 21 wagons and 260 oxen.  One wagon belonged to Rebello’s widow, and the tailor, Lau, was its driver.  Each wagon was drawn by 12 oxen and carried a load of 5-6,000 pounds.  Women and small children were distributed among the wagons, and the men who were in good health had to work.  Some men and women were chosen to cook on the journey.  An old Englishman, named Mohr, I and 3 boys got the job of driving the loose and superfluous oxen, and of caring for the oxen on the road, morning and night, and on rest-days.  The leader [p.61] of our train was an American, named Farr, and the man in charge of the commissary was also and American, named Danny.  Both had already made the trip several times. . . . [p.62] [ON PAGE 119 THE TRANSLATOR NOTES THAT THE FEW REMAINING LEAVES DESCRIBING THE ENTRY INTO THE SALT LAKE VALLEY ARE UNFORTUNATELY NOT AVAILABLE].



Journal of Christian J. Larsen

Larsen, Christian J.  Journals (Ms 1090), vol. 4 (manuscript translation) pp. 90-104, 110.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives



   23rd.  We obtained some hot drink and was soon busy in getting our luggage ashore and o board the railroad train.  I administered to Sister Tolman, who had a fit or convulsions.  I had to do some business with Mr. Berting agent for the Morris-company.

   24th  At seven o’clock in the morning we started for the city of Glückstadt, arriving there at 11 a.m.  We were all hustled into a large hall, where we were given some hot drink and later we brought our luggage on board the steamer "Advin of Skablund.  I wrote a letter to Pres. Van Cott, giving an account of our journey so far.  Elder Daniel Garn brought 33 German Saints to join our company, which brought our number up to 354 souls.

   25th  At 7 a. m. we started down the river Elbe and encountered some difficulty with the ice, but got out all right.

   26th  The wind was favorable when we started for Hull in England at 7 a.m.  A baby boy, nine months old, son of Brother Anderson, died that day.

   27th  A child of Jens Anderson died and was buried in the sea that day.  Between 5 and 8 p.m. we reached Hull.  Brother Sven Larsen and I went ashore and took lodgings for the night.  Brother Peter Jensen from Hals died and the ship company attended to his burial.

   December 28th  After getting our luggage on board the train we left Hull about 2 p.m. and arrived in Liverpool at 11 p.m.  After getting a bowl of warm soup, we all went to bed, which was a [p.90] sweet rest for all.

   Dec. 29th  I called on President F. [Franklin] D. Richards, at the Mission Office and later in the day, I took a stroll out in the city.  In the evening we had a meeting and Elder Daniel Cearns [Garn] moved that the 33 German emigrants should be included in the company under my charge, which was agreed to.  Johaunes Bohn was proposed and sustained as clerk and recorder for the company.  Several of the brethren spoke in that meeting, giving good advice and council.  From that time till January 1st all were kept busy in getting their luggage and themselves on board the big sailing vessel: Jesse Munn.

   Dec. 30th & 31st  I wrote a letter to President Van Cott and also to my brother C. G. Larsen, in Bornholm.  This day all the emigrant came onboard the ship.  An aged woman, mother to Christen [Christian] Kjar [Kjaer]  died here.[p.91]

   Jan. Sun. 1st & Mon. 2nd 1854 In company with several others, I made a stroll up in town.  Later in the day, provisions were issued according to the number of persons in each family, and the ship was brought of the docks and anchored in the river.

   Tues. 3rd  A steam tug pulled our ship out to sea this day.  According to instructions from President Van Cott, I divided the company into wards, appointing an elder to have charge over each.  Brother A. Berthelsen was ordained a priest.  In the evening, we had a very good prayer meeting.  The following ten days are not recorded.

   Fri. 13th  We had a very interesting meeting- the Spirit of God was in our midst- I united in marriage, Sister Sophia Larsen to Brother Anders Petersen [Pedersen], and, in connection with Elder Iven Larsen, ordained 3 elders, 3 priests and one teacher; we also blessed children, belonging to Brother Eriksen [Ericksen].  My wife and I fasted.

   Feb. Wed. 8th  We held a council meeting with a view to raise some means for some people, who had not the money to pay for their passage up the river, and it was unanimously agreed, to not leave anybody behind, and to this end, a savings-box or bank was established, into which anybody might contribute according to means to spare and their charitable dispositions; the funds to be used under direction of the president. [p.92] We had a very much blessed day, enjoying ourselves by songs, speeches, and prayers, and the Spirit of God was over us all.  The day before, we had passed the island of Santa Domingo, and in the evening we had the island of Jamaica to our left and Cuba on the right of us.

   Sun. 12th  We held a meeting, beginning at 10 a.m. and several of the brethren spoke- the Spirit of God was with us.  I joined Sister Sophia M. Christensen to Brother Laurity Smith in marriage.  Re-covering our meeting at 2:30 p.m.  I spoke at some length on the theme of the powers and gifts of the priesthood, and we then partook of sacrament, and I then ordained one elder and seven priests, and we all gave praise to our Heavenly Father.

   Thurs. 16th Thursday We arrived at the mouth of the great Mississippi River, and anchored about 4 p.m.  We all gave praise to God, that he had so well preserved us across the great Atlantic Ocean.  Each one of the presiding elders had had regular prayers meeting in the ward, every week, and we held two public meetings every Sunday and partaken of the sacrament.  We had five adult persons die on the voyage, and 7 small children had died.  3 of these had died before we came upon the Atlantic, and two of them were very old people.

   Sat. 18th  A steamer pulled our ship up tho the telegraph station, where we anchored for two hours; then [p.93] another steamer took us in tow, but that slow progress.  I wrote a letter to President Van Cott and also one to Brother Widenborg in Norway.

   Sun. 19th  We held our meetings as usual and I ordained Brother Hans Jensen, Hals, an elder, and married him and Maren Eriksen [Erickson], making them man and wife.

   Mon. 20th  We readied New Orleans this morning, but we were disappointed in not finding the emigration agent, and none of us could express ourselves much in the English language, consequently we took up the Danish counsel, but he gave us very little encouragement, but as we were leaving him, we were followed into the street, by his secretary who seemed in sympathy with us, and asked us where we wished to go next, and we then told him, that we were Mormon emigrants, and he then told us that he was himself a Mormon, but that it was not known, and he believed that he was the only Mormon in the city, and he was afraid of being discharged, if it became known.  He gave us information about the place where the Mormon emigrants had bought their provisions the previous year and the next thing was to find a steamer to take us farther up the river, to St. Louis, and we succeeded in making a bargain with a Mr. Brown, who was the captain of the very large steamer, by name: "St Louis.  Our company had the second [p.94] cabin, which consisted in a number of small rooms, outside the great saloon, but yet on the same deck as the first cabin passengers had place, and our accommodation we very satisfactory, except for the slow progress made by the steamer.  The brethren were made busy in getting all the luggage onboard this steamer, from the sailing vessel, while Brother Sven Larsen and I made arrangements for and bought the provisions to take with us up the river and also for our further journey across the desert plains.

   Wed. 22nd  By 6 p.m. we had everything belonging to our company on board the steamer, and the next day, Elder James Brown, who was appointed by Apostle Orson Pratt, to be the agent this year, and it was a great relief to us.  I informed him our situation and of our arrangements and bargains, and he said, that it could not have been made better, if he had made them himself- it was the hand of God, who has done it for us.

   Sat. 25th  About 11 a. m. we left New Orleans- all were in good spirit and felt well.

   Sun. 26th  We held meeting in the afternoon, and I married Nora Weinberg to A. Berthelsen.

   March Wed. 1st  We held a council meeting at which Sven Larsen and I gave an account of all our expenditures for the company.  I took occasion [p.95] and say to the assembly to be patience and forbearance with one another and making it as convenient for all as circumstances would permit.

   Sun. 5th  We held a meeting in the afternoon and partook of the sacrament.

   Wed. 8th  We held a private council and settled some difficulties, that existed between some brethren from the Aalborg Conference and their president.  After some talk and explanations, everything was made straight.  Thanks to God for it!

   Sat. 11th  In the forenoon six of our company were attacked by "Cholera Morbits, and were taken on board the Quarantine Boat, a few miles before we reached St. Louis.  Five of them died, but one, Sister Kjor [Kjaer], got well and joined us in St. Louis, three days later.  We reached the city before night, and called on Brother H. [Horace] Eldridge, at his office, and I there received two letters, one of them from Zion.

   Sun. 12th  I attended the English (American) meeting, and spoke a short time.  My wife and I were invited for supper to an English family, and we returned on board the steamer, we found that my wife’s brother had been attacked by "cholera and we watched over him all that night.

   Mon. 13th He, Waldemar [Valdemar] Olsen, died at 6:30 that morning- passing away quietly in the Lord.  Assisted by a Brother Buchland from Zion, I tried my [p.96] best all day to rent a house for the company, but in vain, and the sick people were therefor under the necessity of making beds of their clothing on the floor of the pier by the river. We could proceed no farther, on account of ice in the river at that time.  After much persuasion, I succeeded in renting a small room for my wife and I, and also one for Christen Hansen and his wife the owner was a Brother Gjare (?).  It was a very quiet night.

   Tues. 14th  After much effort on my part and assisted by Brother Buchland, we had all of the emigrants comfortably house before night that day, for which all felt very thankful.  We had rented two large halls; one in the Mounds Hotel, for the emigrants from Copenhagen, and another with the Ullaget Hotel, for the rest of the emigrants.  I had much to do by administering to the sick, during that week, as several had been attacked by cholera and some died after we had reached St. Louis.

   Sun. 19th  I attended meeting with Saints from Copenhagen, and spoke to them and administered to some of the sick.  In the afternoon I and my wife attended English meeting, and at 5 P.M. I attended meeting with the Saints in Hotel Ullaget.  Several of the brethren spoke in that meeting, and we all tried to cheer up and encourage one another, and we realized that the Lord recognized our prayers; [p.97] for many of the sick were healed, although some died.

   Tues. 21st  This day I filled my 23rd year, and Horace Eldrige, Empey, Buckland, his wife, and Brother Folkman took dinner with us.  During the week, I was much taken up with waiting upon and blessing the sick.  One day I was across the river to find work for some of the brethren.  I wrote a letter to President Van Cott.

   Sun. 26th  I was to meeting with our people in the Mound Hotel and administered the sacrament to them, and at 5 p.m. I met with the Saints in Hotel Ullaget and we enjoyed the presence of the Spirit of God in our midst, and we were almost free from sickness- Thanks be to God!

   Fri. 31st  We had this day a special council meeting, . . . A company of English speaking people, numbering 460 persons past St. Louis this day. [p.98]

   April 2nd  We had fast day and meetings in both the hotels- partook of the sacrament and thanked God, that all sickness had left us, and the spirit of peace prevailed among us, for which gave praise to God.

   Mon. 3rd  This day, the emigrants in charge of H. P. Olens arrived, and I conducted him to President Eldridge’s office.  Afterwards, I went on board the steamer, that had brought them and there I found my parents and my brother and sister, who had come in that company, and they were all well.  My parents then remained with me until we left St. Louis.  In the evening we had a special council meeting at which complaint was presented against Jeppe Christensen for drunkenness and some thieving also, he felt very humble and asked forgiveness, and promised to do right.  At the same meeting the subject of raising means for those who were deficient, so that all could go together, that wished to , if there were means that could be spared, and, after a lengthy discussion, it was voted unanimously that all would help as much as in their power, and some of the brethren who had donated at the former meeting, donated again.  During the week, I was busy assisting the people in various ways. [p.99]

   Sun. 9th  I attended meeting in the Mound Hotel and spoke there and confirmed two brethren who had been baptized here.  We partook of the sacrament and had a very blessed day.  Eight adults and eight children had died from cholera, since we left New Orleans.

   Thurs. 13th  This day we went on board the ‘Houdauson the steamer that was to take us  to Kansas, leaving St. Louis at 6 p.m. arriving there in safety.

   Tues. 18th  We landed at the same place that H. P. Olsen’s company went ashore; and as usual, according to our instructions and customs, while we were on the sea and traveling on the steamers on the rivers, I called the company together for prayer, but soon after, Elder H. P. Olsen, who had been in charge of the other company, and who we expected to be our captain across the plains, came and forbade us to assemble for prayers and for any religious meeting as long as we remained encamped in this locality- for, said he, we were now only a few miles away from the very people, who had persecuted and driven the Saints from their homes, but our company felt very much disappointed by this order.  I answered, that as he was now in charge, I would submit and do as he wanted.

   Wed. 19th  I collected the money from the company, where with [p.100] to pay the freight for our provisions and luggage on the steamer, and settled my accounts with the company and also with the captain, and from that day and till the 9th of May.

   May Tues. 9th  I was kept busy, by assisting the Saints in their preparations for their journey across the plains.  I administered to many of the sick, also in Olsen’s company and wrote several letters, etc.  We moved in small parties, or by families, to Westport- eight miles from Kansas- and when we all had gathered there, then the company was more fully organized by Brother Empey, in the following order: H. P. Olsen, captain; C. J. Larsen, chaplain; Brent Nielsen, wagon master; Peter Thorseu, captain of the guard; Jens Hansen, captain of the camp; Jens Jorgensen, captain for 10 Wagons; A. Weinberg, captain for 10 wagons; Peter Beckstrom, captain for 10 wagons; A. Anderson, captain for 10 wagons; C. Capson, captain for 10 wagons; Valentinensen, captain for 10 wagons; Captain H. P. Olsen was to have a wagon and two yoke of oxen for himself, besides a horse to ride or else a mule, and that the company should also have 4 or 5 horses for their use.  Each wagon might have eleven persons and not more than 25 hundred pounds of luggage and provisions to carry.

   Wed. 10th  Assisted by Brother A. Weinberg and A. Andersen, I consecrated some oil and blessed Sister Hansen and Brother Paterson’s children, and wrote in my journal.  In the [p.101] evening, a meeting was held, to take under consideration what use should be made of the 900 dollars which were surplus, after all the wagons and oxen had been paid for and it was decided, that 90 dollars was given Captain H. P. Olsen, to buy a horse; 300 dollars for horses to the company; 200 dollars set apart to pay for being ferried across some rivers, and the remaining 310 dollars to be kept in reserve, to buy provisions with when needed.  This latter provision was with the understanding, that the money should be refunded, as soon as they circumstances would permit, by the parties borrowing such money, after their arrival in Zion.  I blessed some oil and the next thing I was to solicitate for some more money for Captain Olsen from such parties, who had surplus means.

   Fri. 12th  I had collected 60 dollars and five cents for Captain Olsen, which I handed over to him, which it 150.00 to buy his horse for.  From this day, I and some other brethren were made to make trips back and forward, to buy provisions for the company, to take across the plains, I kept accounts of all this business, besides blessing a number of children nearly every day.

   Wed. 10th  Brother A. Winberg, this day, baptized a man and in connection with him, I confirmed him a member of the church. [p.102]

   May Sun. 21st  I married Brother Jens Black and Baletta and on the 22nd wrote in my journal.  A Brother Jens Petersen died this day.

   Fri. 26th  This morning at 8 o’clock, I had the people together for the first time, since we left Kansas, and we attended to prayer and singing, as we where years do before, and we did likewise in the evening at 6 o’clock.  Jepppe Christensen’s wife died.

   Sun. 28th  This day we held meeting in our camp; both fore and afternoon and observed it as a fast day, partook of the sacrament, and we rejoiced in the opportunity that we thus had, again to sing, pray and speak openly.

   Mon. 29th & June 3rd  I wrote a letter to President Van Cott in Copenhagen, and to my brothers in Denmark.  During the week, I made a list of names of all the emigrants, and also made account for our expenditures for provisions and other items bought for the company, and, in company with H. P. Olsen and Brent Nielsen, met the agent, Brother Empey, to whom we presented the accounts, between us and him, which was satisfactory on both sides.  This had taken up the whole day.

   Sun. 4th  We held a council meeting at which complaint was entered against Brother Hans Jensen Straud, for unchristian-like conduct and for apostasy against certain principles in the gospel.  His certificate of priesthood was remanded, and he was warned [p.103] and advised to repent, and ask God for forgiveness, that he might get the good spirit again.  In the afternoon we held meeting and partook of the sacrament, and I spoke to the people for some time, and the Spirit of God seemed inspire and cheer every heart.  As the time was now near for our start on the plains, it was decided to draw lot for the animals.  Our captain informed us that he had been advised or ordered to take the companies over a new road for several days-but by whom so ordered, I never learned- but, said he, there would be found better grass that way, and he then enquired if the company was willing to do so- all agreed to this proposition.- He farther stated, that it would be necessary to equip five men with arms, like soldiers, to be on guard on that road, and the following brethren were selected: William Walentnsea, A. Andersen, Frederick Nielsen, Peter Madsen, and Brother Rüs.

   Sun. 11th  We held meetings, both in the forenoon and in the afternoon, and partook of the sacrament.  Brother C. Schou and I occupied the time speaking, blessed some sick persons and consecrated two bottles of oil.

   Thurs. 15th  After prayer in the morning and breakfast, we started and traveled. . . . [p.104]

   . . . Tues. Sept. 12th  A company from Salt Lake Valley brought us some flour, and from that time on, we were not left in want for anything, as teams would come out to meet us with provisions.

   Oct. Thurs.  5th  We, this day, reached the end of our journey-making our final camp in Salt Lake City at 6 p.m.  I then settled my account with the brethren. . . .[p.110]


Autobiography of Svend Larsen
Larsen, Svend.  Extracts from my Autobiography.  (Ms 2943) item 2, pp.10-11 (typescript translation).  LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   . . . I again took leave of my family 2 ½ hours after my arrival at Hals and sailed off for Copenhagen on the 3rd with some brethren.  Had a gentle wind from northwest and arrived at Copenhagen on the 6th in the evening.  Labored for sometime among the Saints and among non- member strangers.  Again sailed away, with Brother and Sister H. P. Jensen [POSSIBLY: Hans] to Hals, where we arrived September 26, and found my family well, and happy at my arrival.  Stayed for a few days and sailed on October 4th for Copenhagen with a cargo of Saints, where we arrived on the 7th; had storm and contrary wind.  I now the [-], after having offered it for sale at many places, left it with Brother Van Cott to sell; was called to take a mission tour in Jutland; preached in Randers and vicinity and unto my wife’s 9 relatives, who lived at 2 ½ [10 English] miles north of Randers; baptized [-] Marie [-] on Nov. 24th, and later Fredrick [-].  On the 27th I arrived at Hals and found my family in the best of conditions.  On December 1st we took farewell of the Saints in Hals and I set off to Aalborg with my family, where we departed on the following day with the steamer "Iris for Copenhagen and arrived on the 3rd; were lodged in a [-] hall where 172 Saints were now living.  On the 22nd we were embarked with a number of the Saints on the steamship "Slasvig for Kiel (here our journey to Zion is commenced), where we arrived on the next day and continued to journey to Glückstadt where we embarked on this steamship "Queen of Scotland and sailed for Kiel on the 25th, where we arrived on the 27th, and continued the journey to Liverpool on the next day by railroad.  Were shown to the Hotel Inn[-] in Paradise Street, from where we were embarked aboard the mailship [p.10] Jesse Munn, Captain John [-].  Brother Christian Larson was appointed president of the company of emigrants, I and Brent Eileen his counselors.  We sailed from Liverpool on the 3rd of January, 1854, and arrived at New Orleans on the 20th of February.  Had about 14 persons die on the journey.  We started out for the city of St. Louis with the steamboat company, several took sick and died.  On March 5th we arrived at St. Louis.  On the 19th my wife died; three of the children had died before her.  Two children and the wife are buried at St. Louis.  On April 17th we left St. Louis and came to Kansas City on the 18th some month.  We pitched our camp about two miles from the city, where we tarried about two months, and thereupon left with [--] team train for Salt Lake City.  Out of about 700 Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, there were more than 200 that had died on the journey.  Of my family which consisted of seven members, we were three living who came to Zion on the 5th of October, 1854.
S. Larsen

   I do not expect that all this will be published in the Stjerne.

   On October 6th, in the morning, I hoisted from the wagon on a tent pole the white banner with the ‘coat-of-arms’ "The Lion of Zion, which brought to me which brought to me [SIC] many visitors and I had to make explanation about the meaning of the symbol.  I was kindly received by a resident Norwegian family and in their company I attended conference for three happy days.  At sight of God’s prophet and apostles my mind was penetrated by a strange good feelings ever that I had been favored by the Lord to live in a time when a telegraph line has again opened between heaven and earth, by means of which the kingdom will forever remain.  The Lion with the radiant eye in its gilded halberd [-] during these three days, whereupon a brother whose means I have forgotten took a liking to the symbol and paid me one dollar for the same.  It was continuously in my mind to travel southward in order to seek work.  Where upon it full to my let to be offered work at the place of Brother [-] Phelps in Alpine City 30 miles south of Salt Lake City, and waited for him during the autumn and winter, in building a house, cutting down logs and [-] lumber. [p.11]

------------------------------

 
 
 

John Bright

1858 Voyage
 

Diary of Anton Andersen Jansen
Jansen, Anton Andersen.  Diaries (Ms 745), fd. 2, pp. 90-101. 
LDS Historical Department Archives


   Tuesday, March 2.  Still in Hamburg - no way has opened for our trip as of yet.

   Wednesday, March 3.  Brother Iversen talked to the agent and he promised to get through to Bremen to see about the trip.

   Saturday, March 6.  It was presented to the company, and unanimously accepted, that we should pay into a fund $5.00 for everyone over 12 year old and $2.50 for those between 1 and 12.  This was to pay for our lodging and food along the way, which amounted to about 3 R.S. 8 M daily.  Any money left over would be used for company emergencies.  I was chosen foreman for Group Number 4.  This evening about 9:00 p.m. we started toward Bremen by train.  We went through stations at Bosehøede, Hanøver and got to Bremen about 10:30 p.m. and boarded the ship.  The ship left about 2:00 a.m. and things went well until about midnight.  Then a storm came up and they had to lower the sails.  They didn’t fire up the motors but let the ship drift around in the North Sea about 50 or 60 miles out.  We all got seasick.  Some of us were less sick than the others.  After a day of sickness I got so I could help the others - which I did with great pleasure and thanked God that I could.

   Sunday, March 7.  The weather became better.

   Monday, March 8.  We’re still on the sea.  There is no wind.  They have no coal and we’re out of food.  So we returned to Bremen Harbor.  We got there about 7:00 p.m.

   Wednesday, March 10.  We remained in the harbor.  Sister Madsen died this morning.   Some of the brethren and I carried her off the ship and into town.  This is where she’ll be buried.

   Thursday, March 11.  We were out and should have sailed today but couldn’t because of Iversen.   [p.90]

   Friday, March 12 - Sunday, March 14, 1858.  We sailed out of the harbor about noon and continued heading rapidly west until we could see the coast of England.  We dropped anchor in the late afternoon and could have gone ashore - but decided to remain on board.

   Monday, March 15.  We got to the railroad about 10:45 a.m. and rode to Liverpool, arriving about 6:00 p.m.  We were lodged in quarters made especially for emigrants and we had things very good.

   Tuesday, March 16.  In Liverpool - I looked around the town a little.  There are many happy people here.

   Wednesday, March 17.  In Liverpool - I wrote a letter home.

   Thursday, March 18.  We boarded the ship, John Bright, in the afternoon.

   Friday, March 19.  We anchored just out of the harbor.  We were given provisions for eight days.  Several attendants boarded.

   Saturday, March 20.  More ship's helpers boarded.  We were all given medical examinations.

   Sunday, March 21.  Still under preparation.

   Monday, March 22.  We weighted anchor and a tugboat pulled us out into the open sea about 2:00 p.m.   It stayed with us until about 2:00 a.m. the next morning.

   Tuesday, March 23.  Beautiful and still weather.  We didn't sail far today.  But we are all well. [p.91]

   Wednesday, March 24.  A steamship came by about 10:30 a.m. and towed us until about 9:00 p.m.

   Thursday, March 25.  Good wind.  We sailed on quickly - beautiful weather.

   Friday, March 26.  Beautiful weather - didn't sail very far.

   Saturday, March 27.  The same.

   Sunday, March 28.  Fast day.  We got a strong wind and sailed speedily.  Several people go seasick today.  Sophie had been sick a couple of days before the strong winds.  She got very sick today.  I'm even a little sick.

   Monday, March 29.  Good weather - we were all on deck.  Received more provisions.

   Tuesday, March 30.  Northeast wind.  Good weather and we sailed forward beautifully.

   Wednesday, March 31.  Went on the same.

   Thursday, April 1, 1858.  Good wind.  We sailed about 20 miles an hour.

   Friday, April 2.  Hard wind, but not exactly on our course.

   Saturday, April 3.  Good weather.  We all washed our clothes and bathed.  We all got on deck today. [p.92]

   Sunday, April 4. Good weather in the morning.  We were all on deck and feeling very good.  Bad weather began in the afternoon and it stormed all night.

   Monday, April 5.  Bad head wind.  Peter Jorgensen's little boy died this evening.

   Tuesday, April 6.  In the night there was a terrible wind.  It blew some safety rails off the ship and blew in the door to the kitchen.  But it settled down in the day and we made good time.

   Wednesday, April 7.  Still weather and we didn't move.  We bathed and cleaned up our belongings.

   Thursday, April 8.  Good weather and we sailed back on course.  Sophie and Karin and some of the others who had been sick began in feel better and get up and around.

   Friday, April 9.  Good weather.  The sea got rough around noon, but later it calmed down and we made good time the whole night.

   Saturday, April 10 - Wednesday, April 14.  Good weather.  We sailed on making good time.

   Thursday, April 15.  A sister from Silkeborg (the Aarhus group) died.

   Friday, April 16 - Tuesday, April 20.  Sailed on, making good time.

   Wednesday, April 21.  Good weather but didn't sail too far.

   Thursday, April 22.  Beautiful and very still weather. [p.93]

   Friday, April 23, 1858.  Morning fog.  Good wind, but we couldn't sail before the afternoon.  We sighted land around 3:00 p.m.  We sailed alongside the land and our  hearts were filled with jubilation and joy.  We thanked God for bringing us safely over the Great Waters and to Ephraim's land of inheritance.  A tugboat came out and pulled us into New York Harbor.  We anchored and remained on board for the night.  We were busy getting our clothes together and preparing to go ashore tomorrow.

   Saturday, April 24.  We finished getting our gear ready and were examined by a doctor.  A steamboat came out and took us to shore where we were recorded.  A Brother Stichousen met us and was a great help.  We went to an emigrants' hotel (Walker Hotel), where we had a very good time both physically and spiritually.  There were very good rooms.  Better, I think, than many places in Scandinavia.  It cost $1.00 per day.

   Sunday, April 25.  We stayed at the hotel and had a good rest.

   Monday, April 26.  We got ready and went to the station.  We got our clothes from the ship.  The package that Anders and I had our clothes in was gone.  We went a short ways on the ferryboat and then got on a train.  We went on day and night.

   Tuesday, April 27.  We stopped in a town by Lake Erie.  We had a fantastic meal for 25 cents a person.  We changed trains there and continued our trip.  460 miles out of New York.

   Wednesday, April 28.  Got into Cleveland this morning and had lunch there.  We changed trains and continued on.

   Thursday, April 29.  To Chicago.  We got off the train and went to the Hotel Waverly House.  A nice place.

   Friday, April 30.  It's about 968 miles from New York to Chicago.  We got on the train, "The Empress, and got into Iowa. [p.94]

   Saturday, May 1.  In the morning we went to a hotel and ate.  There we met a Brother Height and Brother Haier and several English brethren.  They rented a room for us and we went there in the afternoon.  There wasn’t much room and we all slept on the floor.

   Sunday, May 2 - Friday, May 7.  We remained here and it was decided which people should first head out to Zion.  The financial records were completed.  Madsen and Christensen had a meeting to decide what should be done about some company money that there was a misunderstanding about.  It worked out all right.  We’ve gone about 238 miles from Chicago - about 1206 miles from New York.

   Saturday, May 8.  Council in the morning, wherein we were organized.  Fourteen of the brethren and Height and Haier will leave for Zion and four sisters who had to be on their way.  The names of the brethren are: H.T. Lund, N.C. Poulsen, N. Adler, L. Jorgensen, A.P. Oman, T. Johannesen, H. Neilsen, K. Svendsen, N.P. Olsen, M.C. Greigersen, C.A. Madsen, N. Knusen, and myself - fourteen in all.  Those who will remain for now were organized with Folkmand as president and Fjeldsted as councilor.  We left the group about 5:00 p.m. Several were very moved.  We made camp after about 3 miles and slept in our wagons.  I must remark here that Jørgen Andersen has treated me very well and has paid for my trip to Zion without any obligation for me to repay him.  I feel that the Lord has blessed me very much in this for my work.

   Sunday, May 9.  We had very bad weather, but it still went well except for a mud hole that took an hour to get out of.  We went about 18 miles.  We leave every morning between 6 and 7:00 a.m.  We cook and bake only in the morning and evening.

   Monday, May 10.  19 miles.

   Tuesday, May 11.  Through Brooilig.  Stayed in the "Green Mountain House.  20 miles today.

   Wednesday, May 12.  Met J. Yong and Lii - 20 miles. [p.95]

   Thursday, May 13, 1858.  It began raining hard around noon, with thunder and lightning. Went through Nuneten - 90 miles from Iowa border and over Skunk River.  We drove on a little and camped.  Brothers Haight, Lee and two others and the 4 sisters rode on to Fort Des Moines.  15 miles today.

   Friday, May 14.  Through Delphien and over the Des Moines River on a ferry that went under its own power.  20 miles.

   Saturday, May 15.  23 miles today.

   Sunday, May 16.  We didn't travel because of hard rain.

   Monday, May 17.  Very bad weather.  Through Wentlent.  It began to be better.  We made 14 miles.

   Tuesday, May 18.  Bad rain.  Around noon we crossed the South River.  25 miles.

   Wednesday, May 19.  About 30 miles.

   Thursday, May 20.  Through Indian Town and Louis Town.  30 miles.

   Friday, May 21.  Through a hilly area.  Council Bluffs and Crescent City, where we stayed at a hotel with a brother.  We met several members.  35 miles.

   Saturday, May 22.  Stayed there and Brother Haight came.

   Sunday, May 23.  We stayed there.  Brother Joseph Young came and some other brethren.  I talked to Miccelsen. [p.96]

   Monday, May 24, 1858.  Crossed the Missouri River and on to Florence.  I met Brother Grønbak and Brother Ekelund and I went with them to Omaha and stayed the night at Didriksen's.  6 miles.

   Tuesday, May 25.  Grønbak and I talked with several members today.  We heard both good and bad things.  I had a good time visiting with them. Then I went back to Florence in the evening.  6 miles.

   Wednesday, May 26.  We prepared our gear for the trip over the plains.  Took care of the horses, etc.

   Thursday, May 27.  Wrote to Brother Wedeborg and J.W. Andersen.

   Friday, May 28 - Monday, May 31.  Took care of the usual business.

   Tuesday, June 1.  We finished our preparations and our 4 wagons began their trip.  We met up with some who had left before us on our second day out so there were 12 wagons in all.

   Wednesday, June 2.  There was heavy rain last night so travel went slowly.  We camped at Elkhorn.  14 miles today.

   Thursday, June 3.  We drove along the Platte River, past an Indian town and another town.  An Indian came and ate dinner with us.  20 miles.

   Friday, June 4.  Along the Platte River and across the stream that was clear full of water.  25 miles.

   Saturday, June 5.  Across two bodies of water, so we had a lot of work.  We camped outside of Columbus Town.  18 miles. [p.97]

   Sunday, June 6.  We met a group coming from Zion.  They gave us information and said things should go fairly well.  They said some were being moved out of Zion.  There were 6 brethren and a Major Ken, who had been sent to Utah from Washington to investigate conditions there.  He seemed to be a liberal man.  We camped and the members held an evening meeting in the field.  17 miles.

   Monday, June 7.  Had a lot of work crossing the Platte River.  But, luckily, everything went well.  We finished and rested.

   Tuesday, June 8.  We continued on our journey.  The company was organized.  Eldrid was made captain and Joseph Yong his aide, and Haight is chaplain.  There are 37 men, 13 wagons, 29 horses, and 17 mules - 46 in all went from the river and up the bank to the left.  20 miles today.

   Wednesday, June 9.  We crossed a lot of water, bu it went well.  26 miles.

   Thursday, June 10.  We saw a lot of animals today.  Everything went well. 26 miles.

   Friday, June 11.  We got to the Waad River about 10:00 a.m.  The bridge was gone, so we made a new one.  We ate lunch and went over by 3:00 p.m. 28 miles.

   Saturday, June 12.  31 miles.

   Sunday, June 13.  We had beautiful weather and a smooth day traveling.  44 miles.

   Monday, June 14.  Very dry weather.  25 miles.

   Tuesday, June 15.  We met several Indians and gave them some bread.  We saw a large company on the other side of the river.  They had many animals and looked ready to assemble.  28 miles. [p.98]

   Wednesday, June 16.  We met two Indian tribes.  30 miles.

   Thursday, June 17.  We saw a train traveling toward the States on the other side of the river.  30 miles.

   Friday, June 18.  We saw a large and a small company heading toward the States.  We also passed a large Indian camp.  They had many horses and colts.  35 miles.

   Saturday, June 19.  We saw two large trains heading toward the states.  35 miles.

   Sunday, June 20.  20 miles.

   Monday,  June 21.  We passed the wagons traveling back to the states.  32 miles.

   Tuesday, June 22.  We passed Fort Laramie this afternoon and got into a very hilly region.  35 miles.

   Wednesday, June 23.  26 miles.

   Thursday, June 24.  30 miles.

   Friday, June 26.  28 miles.

   Saturday, June 26.  In the morning we passed Deer Creek.  There was a settlement of mountain men on the other side of the river.  They came over and we traded them buffalo hides for provisions.  26 miles. [p.99]

   Sunday, June 27, 1858.  In the morning we came to another settlement of mountain men and traded for some more provisions.  There were also a few Indians.  There was a bridge over the Platte River and the north and south trails joined.  Two wagons left the company.  In the afternoon we passed another settlement.  In the night the two wagons camped along side of us.  24 miles.

   Monday, June 28.  We left the Platte River and found the trail quite sandy.  We met two wagons coming from Salt Lake.  32 miles.

   Tuesday, June 29.  In the morning we drove past a settlement that looked very peaceful.  We came to the Devil’s Peak, where there was a settlement.  We passed about 20 wagons which were trying to get provisions.  There was a large cliff along the right side of the wagon.  34 miles.

   Wednesday, June 30.  In the morning we passed a small company which had a great number of livestock.  But I don’t know where they were going.  34 miles.

   Thursday, July 1.  Very rocky and hilly area.  Loud thunder and rain in the evening.  But it let up in the night.   28 miles.

   Friday, July 2.  Good weather.  We had lunch near Sweet Water.  I had been very sick with fever and have laid in the wagon for about 14 days.  But I am beginning to get my strength back and feel better.  Thunder and rain in the afternoon.  We drove until 1:00 a.m. and then camped alongside a little creek.  34 miles.

   Saturday, July 3.  Very sandy trail.  We had lunch at Little Sandy, where there was good grass.  We veered to the left and finally camped at Big Sandy, having crossed them both.  The grass for the horses here was terrible.  24 miles.

   Sunday, July 4.  We drove this morning.  At lunchtime we encountered a wagon train of apostates.  There were about 16 wagons.  We crossed the water.  Later in the day met another two wagons and [p.100] several men who were laden with provisions.  In the late afternoon we came to Green River.  There were many tents and people there.  We crossed the river on a ferry - it cost $6.00 for 4 people.  The traveling went very well today.  24 miles.

   Monday, July 5.  Early in the morning a messenger from the army came by with some information about the soldiers going into Salt Lake.  Later in the day, when we came to Hensfork River, there were about 10 soldiers who stood watch at a bridge.  They didn’t say anything to us except that we should be on careful guard for Mormons.  They said Johnson had gone into Salt lake and that we should go straight to him and get 300 to 400 men to protect us from the Mormons.  They thought we were going on to California [spelled "Karlefornien].  We met another messenger later in the morning.  We crossed the Hensfork River twice today.  40 miles.

   Tuesday, July 6.  Around noon we drove past Fort Bridger and a little farther on we met another messenger from Salt Lake.  He told us that peace had been arranged and that everything was in good order.  Later we passed some men and a wagon.  36 miles.

   Wednesday, July 7.  We met and passed several wagons.  We’ve gone about half-way through the mountains.  We drove as quickly as possibly because of overhanging banks.  35 miles.

   Thursday, July 8.  We met several brethren and others.  We drove around through much water.  There were steep cliffs, especially on one side, but the brethren had built guardrails there.  33 miles.

   Friday, July 9.  We had very steep cliffs to contend with, but we drove all the way into Salt Lake City because there was no grass for our animals.  We arrived about midnight and spent our first night camped in the street.  30 miles.

   Saturday, July 10.  We were very thankful to the Lord for bringing us happily to our destination.  The most joy I have felt since I first saw the coast of America was seeing Salt Lake.  I quickly met some friends; Peter Hansen and N. Jensen were the first danes I spoke with. . . . [p.101]


Journals of Hans Peter Lund
Lund, Hans Peter.  Journals (Ms 1420), typescript translation
LDS Church Historical Department Archives



   . . . We visited members and prepared our journey.  I bought two woolen blankets and some clothes.  I think I spent a lot of money though I had most of what I needed for my journey.  I visited my family to say goodbye.  As usual, they would not talk about the gospel.

   February 20 - At noon some of us emigrants left and arrived the same night in Korsor where we met some Saints.  President Wiederborg told us if we decided to go via Kiel, this was not possible because the ice was too packed.  We decided to travel over the Isle of Fyn.  I.N. Iverson was our leader, C.A. Matson and C.O. Folgtman [were] his counselors.  Fjelsted was clerk and Wiederborg would go with us to Hamburg.  Even though it was really cold we decided that three brethren and I should go by boat to Fyn the same night and we arrived in Nyborg 21 February at noon.  Some members arrived and we left for Odense and then Assens, where we stayed.

   February 22 - [Went] by steamboat to Aaresund and from there to Haderslev and then to Flensborg where we stayed from morning to noon.  Here we found a man who was very bad for us.  He asked for sixty five rbd. [UNCLEAR] for a cup of coffee, crackers, and a cup of beer for each of us and some had beer in [that] the night.  But the Lord will pay him.  We went by train from Flensborg to Hamburg where we arrived February 23rd happy and joyful.  We stayed at a hotel where we were treated well.  We paid three [-] for food a day.

   February 26 - Wrote a letter to G. Gudmundson.  The ice is still packed and it does not look good for us to continue the journey.  We go sightseeing and we are happy.

   February 28, Sunday - We had two meetings.

   March 1 - Brother Rasmussen, his wife, and daughter arrive.

   March 2 - We decided to go to Bremmerhaven because it is impossible to leave Hamburg for ice.  Same day we were divided into eight groups, ten in each.  I was a leader for the third group.

   March 3 - We left on wagons and arrived in Bremmerhaven March 4th and boarded the steamboat, "Moen."

   March 5 - We left for England, but a terrible storm met us and we had to return to Bremmerhaven, where we arrived saved in the evening, March 9th.

   March 10 - We rested and received coal and our beloved Sister Matson, who got sick on board, died.  We walked around in Bremmerhaven and bought things we needed for the journey.

   March 11 - We tried to leave again but the ship could not move for ice.

   March 12 - We left in beautiful weather and arrived in Hull, March 14th in the late afternoon.

   March 15 - At ten forty five a.m., we left by wagon for Liverpool where we arrived at six p.m. and we stayed overnight in an emigration hotel.  We had a nice meal and visited places in the city.  We saw many nice things and we saw really [UNCLEAR] poverty.

   March 18 - Golkmann and Elsie Funk got married by J.N. Iverson.  In the afternoon we entered the big emigration ship John Bright where we were settled on deck three.  We were towed out of the dock and received provisions which were biscuits, sugar, tea, peas, flour, oat flour, beef, pork, salt, mustard, pepper, vinegar, potatoes, and rice. [p.27]

   Sunday, March 21 - Iverson went on shore.

   March 22 - A boat towed us out.

   March 23 - We had to wait because of the wind.

   March 24 - Another boat towed us out.

   March 27 - We began to feel seasick.

   April 1 - Strong wind.

   The night between April 2nd and 3rd - Poulsen dreamt that Helga died.

   Sunday, April 4 - Easter.  Nice weather.  Peder Jorgensen's son, sixteen weeks old, died and was buried in the ocean.

   April 5 - Members gathered together and we gave a prayer.  The wind was tolerable.

   Monday, April 19 - The strong wind, the yard, the topsail, and the [-] sails broke but no one was hurt.  We were all well and nothing serious happened before April 15th when Karen Marie Svendson died, twenty two years old.  She was buried the same day.  April 16th I got really sick during the night of stomach spasm but I was well again soon.

   April 21 - Several little birds came on board which means that we were near America.

   April 23 - Fog, but clear.  Later on and we could see the coast.  Much joy went through our hearts when we saw the promised land.  A steamboat towed us in and Saturday, April 24th we went on shore.  We found a hotel where we paid a dollar a day for board and lodging.  In a counsel conducted by Iverson we decided to give Omand and Poulsen fifteen dollars each for their work as cooks and we paid two dollars each.

   April 26 - We went by train to New York, [-], Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago, Davenport.  We paid a dollar in Chicago.  We arrived May 1st and met Haight who was left here to lead a group.  We had several meetings Sunday, May 2nd.

   Monday, May 3rd - The sisters washed our clothes.  We should go to Zion with Haight.  Iverson conducted a counsel.  He settled our accounts and Davidson paid thirty dollars for his trip on the train.  We decided that fourteen brethren should follow Haight but we did not have enough money.  But we got help and I borrowed six dollars...

   In the afternoon of May 8th, fourteen brethren, Haight, and Hoer left and the ward was in a bad condition.  We settled in the field and slept in our wagons.

   May 12 - Joseph Young and L. came.

   May 19 - They left us again to go to Fort M.  The sisters followed them.  Our journey went well because the road got better.  We passed several rivers and cities.

   May 21 - We arrived at our camp near Council Bluff. . . . [p.28]

   [July 9]. . . In the evening we arrived in Salt Lake. . . .[p.29]
 
 
 
 

1868 Voyage
Bradfield, William Henry, [Reminiscences], Treasures of Pioneer History, comp. by Kate B. Carter,  vol. 3 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1954) pp. 60-61. 

   I, William Henry Bradfield, son of George and Sarah Vockins Bradfield, was born November 7, 1859, at Newbury Berkshire, England.  We belonged to the Latter-day Saint Church and it was our desire to come to Zion.  By the year 1865, enough had been saved to send Charles, Thomas and Elizabeth with some Saints coming over.  Father was working very hard to get fixed to bring the rest of us when he got sick.  In August 29, 1866, he died in Ealing, England, at the age of 45.  His wishes were that Mother should still come to Zion; so, for the next two years we all worked hard and saved our money to help out.

   With money we saved and made out of selling our belongings, and whatever my brother Charles sent us from Salt Lake City, Mother, Mary, Joseph, Caroline, Jane, Eliza and I left Liverpool, England, June 4, 1868, on the sailing ship John Bright.  We left my brother, George, who was married.  I remember how mother cried when we [p.60] left my brother standing there saying, "My son, I’ll never see you again on this earth, but we will meet in heaven!

   There were 760 on board ship, 660 being Latter-day Saint converts.  We were on the water six weeks, nearly all the time the sea was wild and stormy.  One night Captain McGaw told the Saints they had to give up the ship; so, if they believed there was a God, they had better ask for help.  We children were clinging to mother’s dress and crying.  If ever there were prayers offered up, it was that night, and they were answered!  Next day was a beautiful day and we children went on deck where we could see the rigging all torn away and the masts cracked.

   We arrived in New York harbor July 13, 1868.  Our things were put on a platform and while we children watched them, Mother went into town and got some bread and cheese.  We were then put in cattle cars for the train trip west to Laramie, Wyoming.  The cars were so crowded we could hardly sit down.  There was little food or water for the next ten days.  When we got to Laramie, we were met by wagons and mules.  There were 50 wagons for six hundred immigrants.  Joe Rogers, of Fillmore, drove our wagon.  We reached Salt Lake City in late September, 1868. [p.61]



Reminiscences of Annie Batt Bird Caffall
Caffall, Annie Batt Bird, [Reminiscences] Heart Throbs of the West, comp. By Kate B. Carter, vol. 9 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1948) pp. 35-36. 

   I was born in South Wales on August 22, 1864, the daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Bevan Batt.  I was christened Annie Batt.  In May [p.35] of the year 1868 we left Wales to emigrate to the Territory of Utah.  I was four years old and my sister was five.  My mother was too ill to make the journey; but father and I, and my sister, set sail on the John Bright, with a prayer that mother could join us the next year.  However, she died before this wish was realized.  The John Bright had been discarded as unsafe for ocean travel, but with persuasion and the skillful efforts of the crew and passengers, she made the voyage in forty-two days.  It is interesting to note that this boat sank, with all on board, on her return to sailing.  My father was a ship’s carpenter, and his services were continually demanded.  Of necessity, we two little girls were left in the hands of sympathetic strangers.  A storm arose, our fright mounted, and on more than one occasion, we were lashed to the mast to secure our bodies from being washed overboard.  These experiences, together with our loneliness, lack of sufficient food, and grief to at parting from our mother, tended to so reduce our weight that father carried both of us little girls across the plains on his shoulders.  I became very ill and as a result lost my eyesight for two years.  However, the kind ministrations of friends in Kaysville aided my recovery.  We arrived in the Salt Lake Valley on August 24, 1868, having traveled under Captain Horton D. Haight.

   As one of the numerous honors heaped upon living emigrant pioneers in the Centennial Year, 1947, the United Airlines became host to six men and women over the pioneer route to Nauvoo and return to Salt Lake City.  At age 83, I enjoyed to traverse the plains via the air as a contrast to my journey in the arms of my father at four years of age, seventy-nine years ago. [p.36]





Autobiographical Sketch of Mary Ann Williams Jenkins
Jenkins, Mary Ann Williams, [Autobiographical Sketch], In The Samaritans, comp. by Raymond R. Martin and Esther Jenkins Carpenter (privately printed, 1968). p. 140. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives



   . . . We went on board ship the 4th of June.  It was a sail called John Bright.  We were on the sea six weeks and two days.  The sea was very rough, at times, and I was very sick.  Our life on the ship was anything but pleasant.  My stepmother was the only one who could speak English.

   We were allowed a certain amount of provisions each day.  We would fix it the best we could and take it up on deck to be cooked.  We had oatmeal, split peas, bacon out of brine, hard tack, which is great big, flat biscuits as big as saucers and as hard as iron, very few potatoes, brown sugar and a very small portion of flour.  The water was in large wooden kegs which got very stale before the end of the journey.  There was a man that used to come every day through the ship to clean and gather trash, etc.  Articles he picked up were put in a barrel and then that afternoon were held up to be identified or sold.  One day mother missed her black dress.  She looked everywhere then she thought of the man that cleaned.  She rushed up on deck just in time to see her black dress being held up.  She was certainly glad to get her best dress back again.  I remember a lady getting buried in the sea and seeing the husband and the small children weeping.  In after years I met this man because he had married an aunt of my husband.

   A steamer came out from land to get us from the ship.  We landed in Castle Garden, now called Ellis Island, in New York harbor.  We were examined by doctors.  Then we were put on the steamer again and taken to the harbor of New York.  We landed on the pier.  The pier was out over the water with no railing but a shed over it.  We were there overnight and slept on the ground as we had to have our own bedding.  That evening Mother went up town to get bread and cheese.  She saw some tomatoes and thought they were some nice fruit, so she bought some.  We tried to eat them but couldn't.  That was our first experience with tomatoes.  We saw our first bar of ice here, also.  Next day brother Sammie came up missing.  We were terribly worried as he could have easily fallen over the side of the pier.  We looked everywhere when finally I ran along by the side of the railroad track and there he was across the track playing with some children.  I was surely glad to get hold of his fat, dimpled hand, although I also felt like shaking him for running away.  I saw a woman and a child crying.  The husband had gone up town and drank too much beer, when coming back he walked off the pier and was drowned.

   Next day we boarded the train.  When on the train we had to buy our food whenever the train stopped long enough.  At one stop father sent me after fresh water.  The stream coming from the fountain was small, and it took quite a little time to fill the container.  I thought they expected me to get it full.  Just as I turned I could see the train starting to move.  I ran and a man reached down and grabbed me and lifted me onto the moving train.  It was a close call.  I often wondered what would have happened had I been left behind because I couldn't speak a word of English.  We crossed the Mississippi River on a steamboat.  We then got on the train again.  Some people died because of the heat after we crossed the river.  We came as far as Laramie on the train traveling night and day.  We stayed in Laramie a couple of days.  The boys from Utah were there with wagons and mules to take us to Salt Lake City.

   We left Laramie July 27th and arrived in Salt Lake August 24, 1868.  All that were able to walk did so. . . . [p.140]

Interview of Celestial Roberts Knight
Knight, Celestial Roberts, [Interview], Utah Pioneer Biographies, vol. 17, pp. 131-33. 

   . . . [She] came from England in a sailing vessel.  John Bright, an emigrant ship carrying over 700 passengers, all Mormons from various European countries; Sweden, Norway and Denmark, etc.

   Celestial was seasick before the tug boat went back.  It lasted from shore to shore.  Every morning she was brought a hot jug of coffee, with heavy cream and sugar bread and butter, which she handed to her mother or sister or some of the older women.

   There were two stowaways: one a man and a small child of about 13 years old.  They had seen them as the ship was getting ready to sail.  They used such foul language that the captain threatened to throw them overboard.

   June 4, 1868.  Six weeks on the sea. [p.131]

   Castle Garden in New York.

   July 1868.  Took train to Ft. Leavenworth (it may have been Ft. Laramie) by way of St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, etc.  That was before the Chicago fire.  They bought their food on the way.  They had to wait in Leavenworth (Laramie) for a train.  The people came in a mob to see them and stared at them as if they were cattle.  They acted as if they had never seen a person before.  The reason was that they were Mormons and one well dressed woman with some girls acted so impudent that Philip her brother who was on guard, had to put her out of the enclosure.  The mob became so abusive that the men in charge loaded them on cattle cars and started them westward.

   John Murdock and a man named Warner.

   Mule teams and horse teams.  They could see Indians ahead and in the distance, and Captain Murdock counseled them to drive out around the railroad camps and do not stop day or night till they got out of the way of the camps and thus they would avoid the rough element that is generally found around the railroad camps as well as the Indians which might be hanging around them.  No [-] was to walk.  "The Scandinavian were great for walking and that was for them more than for any of the others, as there [were] to be nobody away from the wagons.  Sometimes women would waylay them and beg them to come to the camp and get warm or get some food.  But they never did.  They reached Salt Lake City August [p.132] 18, 1868. . . . [p.133]



Diary of Michael Mathisen

Mathisen, Michael, Diary.  pp.1-10.  Donated by Lenore C. Passey.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   . . . Friday, May 29, 1868.  In the afternoon at five o’clock our trip began from Christiania in the steamboat Oder to Hull (England).  There were aboard 159 passengers of whom we were 59 Hellig - Mormons.  Together with children, our president C.C. Christensen.  The trip continued in the night out of Christiania Fjord.  The wind was quiet.

   Saturday, 30th.  Arrived at Christiansen at 9:00 o’clock.  Left at 12:00 o’clock.  Rain and fresh southerly winds.  Many of the passengers were seasick.

   Sunday, 31st.  Journey continued well.  The weather was fine.

   Monday, June 1.  In the morning about 6 o’clock we arrived at Humber River and anchored at dock.  The president, Christensen went ashore at arrange our trip further.  At 5:30 we left by train from Hull to Liverpool.

   Tuesday, 2nd.  We arrived at 3:00 o’clock in the morning at Liverpool, met our hotel agent who had other emigrants from Denmark and Sweden.  A few of us went to the Hotel Columbia and were there the whole day.

   Wed., 3rd.  This day we took our baggage out of customs and put it aboard the ship John Bright: out of New York, 1444 tons.  In the afternoon the emigrants came aboard, 724, and took their places.  The Scandinavians on the lower deck.  In the afternoon the steamship pulled out from the dock and we anchored red.  Weather was fine.

   Thursday, 4th.  In the afternoon the President G. Richards came aboard together with a few brethren from the office in Liverpool.  The president talked awhile and [p.1] asked the Lord to bless us on our trip.  Our ship now had on board English, Welsh, Scotch, Swedish, Norwegian and Danish, with Elders M. Gaw (leader) and C. O. Folkman and F. C. Anderson as advisors.  Conditions continued well all night.

   Friday, 5th.  We could see the coast of Ireland - very clear - the journey excellent.  Some are beginning to get seasick.

   Saturday, 6th.  A little wind which gave us a chance to set our sails and to get along without the help of the steamboat.  Many became seasick in spite of a calm sea and fine weather.

   Sunday, 7th.  Favorable weather which gave speed to the boat - about 10 miles.  Sea was not high.  In the morning we all gathered on the upper deck to receive encouragement and instructions about our new conditions.

   Monday, 8th.  Wind favorable but not strong.  Most of the sick were brought on deck and they improved.  The young ones amused themselves with various games.

   Tuesday, 9th Last night an elderly Welsh woman (70 years) passed away.  She was quite weak when brought aboard, but had chosen to die among her friends rather than be left behind even though a wet grave awaited her.  Little wind and progress slow.

   Wed., 10th.  Wind unfavorable - almost still.  Health conditions better.  Many were on deck and enjoyed a little rain.

   Thursday, 11th.  Wind unfavorable.  There were small inconveniences due to difficulties in preparing food.  The passengers amused themselves on deck dancing and concerts.  We passed a Norwegian brig coming from America.  The captain, [p.2] Senette and first mate came aboard to fine out our condition.  We sent messages back to Liverpool.  In the evening there were dances and concerts.

   Saturday, 13th.  Quiet wind and sea.  In the evening we contacted an emigrant ship, "Harvest Queen, which left Liverpool the same time we did.

   Sunday, 14th.  The wind, north westerly - cool breeze.  Some seasickness.  In the forenoon we met on the highest deck and further instructions were given in the English language.  An hour later the Scandinavians had a meeting on the lower deck.

   Monday, 15th .  Calm and foggy.  Each day at 10 o’clock, passengers gathered on upper deck while the lower deck were cleaned.

   Tuesday, 16th.  Wind variable, southwest easterly.  Cold and foggy and some rain.  An English sister was struck on the head by a piece of loose sail.  Passengers in general happy and content and the young people amusing themselves with dancing.  At eight o’clock a horn is blown to call all together to their allotted place on deck.

   Wed., 17th.  Still calm with thick fog.  Received provisions for 7 days.

   Thursday, 18th.  Northwesterly wind and cold fog.  A few are seasick.  A child has been in the hospital with measles but is now frisky and active.

   Friday, 19th A sister from Gottland is sick with "Blodgang.  We are now about 1300 English miles from Liverpool.

   Saturday, June 20th.  Westerly variable wind and overcast.  The holy ones are divided into groups.  The Scandinavians are No. 1.  They get meat and water first every 5th day.  New moon tonight - wind increasing. [p.3]

   Sunday, 21st.  Strong northwest wind.  A Swedish sister fell on the upper deck on account of high seas.  She was thrown back and forth, got a blow on the head and a crushed kneecap.  Many seasick.  McGaw reminded to remember our duties every day.  In the evening C. Christensen spoke to us.

   Monday, 22nd .  Southwesterly wind.  Fair weather.  Almost everyone well.

   Tuesday, 23.  Same weather.  We get our provisions today.  We are 1600 east miles from Liverpool.

   Wed., 24.  Wind and fog.  Everything going well.

   Thursday, 25th.  Same wind and weather.  Passed an iceberg today.  A boy fell on the deck and broke his leg, thigh.  Evening a high sea so the ship rolled.  A Scotch sister fell and broke two ribs.  Saw another iceberg.

   Friday, 26th.  West wind not so strong.  Passed two more icebergs.  People are dissatisfied with food and cooking.

   Sat., 27th.  Cold fog - no wind.  Because of bad feeling the first "Semmemand tried to poison two English sister by giving them a piece of cake with Spanish flies in the raisins.  But, a crew member saw a gave warning.

   Sunday, 28th.  West wind, cold fog.  Passed many icebergs.  President Christensen spoke to us about now and hereafter.  Very interesting.

   Monday, 29th.  Very cold.  Saw icebergs about 1 ½ miles away.  In the evening the wind was northeast. [p.4]

   June, Tuesday the 30th.  North wind, beautiful weather.  We saw many fishing boats.  One came aboard with fish, codfish, haddie, and halibut; which were bought and we had a very delicious dinner.  Saw many whales.

   July, Wed. 1st.  West wind and fine weather.  Passed fishing boats which were anchored.

   Thursday, 2.  We are about 700 miles from New York.

   Friday, 3.  West, southwest wind, nice weather.  About 4 o’clock we saw land, Nova Scotia ten miles away.

   Saturday, 4.  The U. S. A. Independence Day was celebrated.  We, the passengers were awakened at 4 a.m. and 14 brothers with guns marched around the deck and saluted the captain and leaders of the brothers, then up on the afterdeck where they fired 13 shots.  When the flag was raised a 9 time hurrah was given.  After that we sang a Psalm.  Fireworks in the evening.

   Sunday, 5th.  Westerly wind, fog and cold.  Had a meeting in the forenoon and in the evening on the lower deck.  Everything alright.

   Monday, 6th.  Good wind - east, northwest.  Good weather.  Everyone busy washing clothes and cleaning everywhere.  Getting ready for the train trip and getting rid of the big trunks to have luggage as light as possible.

   Tuesday, 7th.  Same weather.  Scrubbed both decks.  Quiet afternoon.

   Wed., 8th.  North wind and fog.  A couple of children have a light case of measles.

   Thursday, 9th.  Same wind and weather.  Concert of deck this evening. [p.5]

   July, Friday 10th.  North wind, nice weather, fog.  About 200 miles left to New York.  We passed a ship that had left 3 weeks ahead of us from Liverpool with emigrants.

   Saturday, 11.  Westerly wind - nice weather.  Concert in evening.  Things alright.

   Sunday, 12th.  Same weather.  4 o’clock the pilot came aboard.  We [had] two meetings.  One on the lower deck for the Scandinavian people.

   Monday, 13th.  Same weather.

   Tuesday, 14th.  9 a.m. we dropped anchor in New York.  At 11 a.m. we left the John Bright  and boarded a steamship which took [us] to Castle Garden where the luggage was weighed.  Later we crossed the river to the railroad station and where we spent the night.  During the night one of the brothers drowned - - he walked out over the pier.

   Wed., 15th.  We went sight seeing in town and bought a few things for the trip.  We left New York on the train at 9:30 p.m.

   Thursday, 16th.  At 9 a.m. we changed trains, and traveled again at 12 noon - kept on all night.  We passed Utica and Rochester.

   Friday, 17th.  Passed through Albion, Lockport, and stopped at suspension bridge for 4 hours.  Many of us looked at Niagara Falls.  We changed trains and started at 3:00 p.m. and traveled on through many beautiful places.

   Saturday, 18th [19th].  During the night we passed Hamilton in the morning, London.  At 11 o’clock [p.6] we arrived in Detroit.  Crossed the river, took a bath and bought food.

   Sunday, 19th.  At 2 p.m. we arrived in Chicago.  Left at 7:30.  We had seen the town.  We traveled all night.

   Monday, 20th & 21st.  Tuesday at 12:00 noon we crossed the Missouri River to Omaha, Nebraska where we bought food.  Many were sick from the heat.  One sister died of sunstroke.

   Wednesday, 22.  At 8:00 a.m. we passed Grand Island, a big station and many houses.  We saw two prairie fires.  Also saw a large Indian camp.  At 7:00 p.m.  We passed the river to North Platte.

   Thursday, 23rd.  We saw several Indians.  Also antelope.  Here the country didn’t look as good as the country we passed through yesterday.  We saw big Indian camps.  Many animals too.  In the evening we came to the station at Laramie City but stayed in cars during the night.

   Friday, 24th.  In the morning at 4:00 o’clock we were told to get up, take our baggage out of the train and load it on the mule train we followed about one miles.  There we camped by the river, washed our clothes and bathed.  It was very pleasant.

   Saturday, 25th.  Each persons baggage was weighed separately and loaded on the wagon to which we were assigned.  We were gathered in groups of ten to fifteen.  One child died.

   Sunday, 26th.  It rained all night.  For those who had no tents it was very uncomfortable.  Lovely weather today.

   Monday, 27th.  We were called out at 4:00 a.m. to get ready.  Traveled 18 miles and camped by little Laramie. [p.7]

   July, Tuesday 28th.  We traveled about 20 miles, climbing continually.  One child was buried.

   Wednesday, 29th.  Continued our travels over a very rocky country, always more hilly and upward.  Here were lots of antelopes and therefore, called Antelope Hills.

   Thursday, 30th.  Very bad road - many became impatient.

   Friday, 31st.  Came out of Antelope Hills in the evening to Platte River.  Waded over and camped on the other side.

   August, Saturday 1st.  Traveled along the Platte River over many hills.  Bad and rocky road.  We camped by Bridger Canyon.  Very cold during night.

   Sunday, 2nd.  Kept on over Bridger Flat and camped at noon by Pacific Spring; about 5,700 above sea level.  Here the air was very pleasant.  Snow was down in the mountain clefts.  Night cold.  I stood my first watch here.

   Monday, 3rd.  Kept along the same creek until we came out of the pass.  The road was very uneven, overgrown with thistles, grass very poor.

   Tuesday, 4th.  The road was mostly even again.  Naked prairie without water, grass or firewood.  We camped by a little creek where there was enough water.

   Wednesday, 5th.  Kept along on Bitter Creek.  Water bitter with minerals, alkaline salt.  The creek runs through desolate and bleak.  But road was hard and even.  Vegetation, mostly sagebrush, greeswood, with very little grass between.  We saw many antelope, eagles, and several kinds of birds. [p.8]

   August, Thursday 6th.  The road became sandy and uneven.  Part ran along the new railroad.  Water was bad and many suffered from diarrhea and became weak.

   Friday, 7th.  We continued along the same creek and railroad, over the same desolate country.  The air was light and clear, very pleasant, warm during the day but very cool at night.  We traveled about 25 miles a day.

   Saturday, 8th.  Along the same creek the road was very difficult and the water bad.  In the evening we came to a spring (mountain) where we also found "rundgrass which is good for cattle.

   Sunday, 9th.  Traveled upwards about 3 miles and then down until we reached Green River in the evening.  There we found all conveniences for a camp.  Good water, firewood and grass.

   Monday, 10th.  Today the company had rest since the wagons had to be brought over the river.  The emigrants had an opportunity to wash and do other necessary things.  In the afternoon I crossed the river and was then in Utah Territory.  In the evening all who wanted to dance could do so.  So far three English and one Swedish child had died.  The rest of us were well.

   Tuesday, 11th.  We traveled as far as Blacksfork by noon and camped.  In the afternoon we continued up along the same river until we crossed the Hanesfork.  In the evening we made camp on the bank.

   Wednesday, 12th.  Today it rained so hard we couldn’t travel along the Blackfork.

   Thursday, 13th.  Traveled on.  All well.

   Friday, 14th.  Road uneven.  Many were weak mostly from the water in Bitter Creek. [p.9]

   August, Saturday 15th.  Continued the journey under the same conditions.

   Sunday, 16th.  Better road.  Everyone satisfied because we neared the end of our journey.

   Monday, 17th.  We passed through Echo Canyon and through Vibor [Weber] where we refreshed ourselves with milk.

   Tuesday, 18th.  Continued on down the canyon.  Everything all right.

   Wednesday, 19th.  At 12:00 noon we arrived at Tiendegarden in Salt Lake City.  Everyone happy and satisfied.  In the afternoon I brought my baggage over to Brother L. Borg in the 3rd Ward and there I took my first lodging in Salt Lake State. . . . [p.10]



Autobiography of Mary Ann Chapple Warner
Warner, Mary Ann Chappel, [Autobiography], (MSS B-289), bx. 11, pp. 1-3, (Utah State Historical Society).



   . . . Our home was always open to the Mormon missionary and seven years after the church was organized my grandparents joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.  My parents joined the church on July 29, 1852.

   On June 4, 1868, they decided to emigrate to America, and bidding goodbye to relatives and friends, sailed from Liverpool, England on the ship John Bright, captained by John Towart.  The ship was an old one and was tossed about by the waves like a piece of drift wood.

   One day when the air was dense with fog, another ship rammed into us and out a jagged hole in the side of our ship which immediately began to fill with water.  All hands were called to man the pumps.  The sailors dumped all excess baggage overboard, including my mother's prized feather beds, with the exception of one which she refused to part with, saying if it went down she would go with it.  Clothing was taken and supposedly dumped overboard, but later my father discovered a sailor wearing some of his clothing.  It was difficult to persuade father from demanding its return, but the sailors were considered a bad lot and were not past helping one to fall overboard, so father said nothing about it.  Mormon emigrants, of which there were about seventy-five were kneeling [p.1] in prayer and singing songs to keep up their courage.  It was with much rejoicing that the leak was repaired and the voyage continued.

   In the six weeks it took us to cross the ocean, many incidents both good and bad occurred and so our hearts were filled with prayers of thankfulness when we sighted land and sailed into New York Harbor.

   We were in New York only a few days before we started for the prairies.  We rode in a freight car, which was crowded to overflowing, to Laramie, Wyoming, where we abandoned the freight car and started on the last lap of our journey to Utah by mule teams and covered wagons.  Our wagon train was led by a capable man, John R. Murdock.  The teamster of our wagon was Joseph Paine, a lad of 16.

   We shared our wagon with another family making thirteen in the wagon, so it was impossible for us to ride except on rare occasions, when we were too tired to drag one foot after another.  My mother and father took turns carrying a ten month old baby, my sister Emilie, all the way to Utah.  I was six years old and my brother Harry was one year older when we crossed the plains and although we started out with light hearts, our enthusiasm wilted considerable before we arrived at our destination.  On the sides of the wagon were the water barrels from which we got the water with which to quench our thirst but it was usually hot and not very tasty.

   Our journey was a peaceful one, unmarred except by and occasional stray Indian.  Despite the fact we saw only a very few Indians, a sharp look-out was kept so that we would not be taken by surprise in case of an attack.  As we traveled along the dusty, hot trail, father often shot rabbits and other wild game so that we would have a change of diet.  As evening drew near and the wagons were drawn into a circle for the night, I used to go out with the other children and fill my apron with buffalo chips for the fire.  Then mother would start out [p.2] to prepare our evening meal and make soda bread, which was as yellow as gold and tasted as bitter as gall.  Never in her life before had mother baked bread, as in England a person took their bread to the baker and he baked it for one cent.  It was no wonder that our soda bread was so bitter although I think now that is what kept us so well on the trip was the soda in the bread.  After the evening meal and when dusk had fallen, from somewhere came the sound of a violin being tuned and then a burst of merry melody.  Dancing and singing usually followed, blotting out for the time being the thought of the tedious toil that lay before us.  Following this bit of welcome entertainment usually came story telling time.  A huge circle was made around the blazing campfire, following a silence, then began the tales of previous happenings and deeds of the Indians.  Blood curdling stories of massacres, scalping and raids of the Indians were recited, until the very blood in my veins ran cold and as I gazed beyond the cheerful light of the campfire, each sinister shadow seemed to conceal and Indian, hideously painted and half naked.  So terrorizing were some of these stories, that I could hardly move.  After the evening prayer, when silence claimed the camp and everybody was asleep, I often lay awake, afraid to even close my eyes.

   Death kept pace with us from day to day and claimed many of the pioneers before we reached Salt Lake City on August 19, 1868.  We stayed at the tithing yard for three days after we reached Salt Lake City until we got located. . . . [p.3]

------------------------------


 

Charles Buck
Details from several sources: Millennial Star, Vol. XVII, pp.73, 202, 267, 300, 315, 490; Desert News of June 13, 1855 Contributor: Representing the Young Men’s Mutual Improvement Association of the Latter-day Saints 13:12 (Oct. 1892), pp.544-45

EIGHTY-SECOND COMPANY. -- Charles Buck, 403 souls. On the seventeenth of January, the clipper ship Charles Buck, Captain Smalley, sailed from Liverpool, England, with four hundred and three souls on board including the remainder (about seventy) of the Scandinavian emigration for the season, in charge of Elder Eric G. M. Hogan, and the remainder of the British Saints who had been reshipped from the Helios, the whole under the presidency of Elder Richard Ballantyne, who had recently arrived in England from his mission to Hindostan.

The emigrants, who sailed on the Charles Buck, were somewhat depressed in spirits, because of their long detention in Liverpool; and by living in unhealthy places as well as on scanty diet, their general health had become somewhat impaired. When they came on board seasickness also prostrated many, but through the blessings of the Lord attending the ordinance of the laying on of hands, and anointing with oil, together with such medicines as the spirit of wisdom dictated the brethren to administer, the sick were raised to health, and only three children died during the voyage. One of these was a boy, seven years old, who got entangled in the ropes of the ship, about a week after sailing from Liverpool, and was thrown overboard and drowned. One birth also occurred on board. The voyage throughout was prosperous; the winds being light and the sea calm. In consequence of head winds after leaving the Irish Channel, the ship took a more easterly course than usual, and came in sight of the Cape de Verde Islands on the tenth of February. A favorable wind then brought her to the Islands of Guadaloupe and Antigua on the twenty-seventh. The English part of this company who had been shipped on board the Helios at Liverpool by President F. D. Richards, had been provided for on an unusually comfortable and liberal scale on that ship; but when finally reshipped on the Charles Buck, the excellent provisions furnished by President Richards were withheld from them, and in their stead some raw oatmeal, coarse biscuit and a little rice and flour were furnished; and even of these articles a sufficient quantity was not shipped, so that the passengers, after being out six weeks, were placed on short allowance of provisions. This was about two weeks before their arrival in New Orleans. For several days many of the Saints had nothing to eat but oatmeal cakes or porridge, and for three days only two quarts of water was served out to each passenger.

Notwithstanding these unpleasant circumstances, the emigrants manifested an unusual measure of cheerfulness and patience. Whatever sickness and debility they suffered was chiefly occasioned through the want of something nutritious and desirable to eat. About the fourteenth of March, 1855, the Charles Buck arrived at New Orleans from which city the emigrants continued the journey up the Mississippi River on the sixteenth, on board the fine steamer Michigan. Through the exertions and preferred help of Elder McGaw, the church emigration agent at New Orleans, together with the liberal contributions of those Saints who had a few shillings to spare, the whole company were taken along. Had it not been for this, a number of the Saints would have stopped at New Orleans to earn means, wherewith to pay their passage to St. Louis or Cincinnati, later on. The fare from New Orleans to St. Louis was three dollars and a half for each adult passenger; children under fourteen and over one year, half price. The captain of the Michigan behaved very badly toward the Saints. As the boat left the warf in New Orleans, John Eccleson fell overboard and was drowned. Four children died on the way to St. Louis. A Danish brother by the name of Nordberg fell overboard the morning before arriving at St. Louis and perished.

On the twenty-seventh of March the company arrived at St. Louis, from whence one hundred and ninety-one Saints reembarked on the third of April, in charge of Elder Richard Ballantyne, who was instructed to land at Atchison, and take charge of all P. [Perpetual] E. [Emigration] Fund passengers who would be shipped to that place. Forty of the Danish Saints under the preseidency of Elder Hogan, left St. Louis for the same destination on the thirty-first of March, and joined P. O. Hansen's company a few days later in Leavenworth; and thence subsequently traveled to Mormon Grove, near Atchison. In consequence of the rivers being low, boats were scarce, and fares very high, and it was with considerable difficulty that the brethren at St. Louis succeeded in shipping the company to Atchison. The unprecedented rush of people to Kansas and Nebraska also materially increased the rate of fares and the difficulty of shipping to the upper county.

Church Chronology p. 53 "Wed. 17. [Jan. 1855] -- The ship Charles Buck sailed from Liverpool, England, with 403 Saints, under the direction of Richard Ballantyne. The company arrived at New Orleans about March 14th, and at St. Louis March 27th."

Autobiography of Charles Ramsden Bailey
Bailey, Charles R. Autobiography (Ms 8237 1 #10), pp. 6-10,12. LDS Historical Department Archives

. . . We remained in Manchester until the fall of 1854 when in November 16th 1854 we received word to be at Liverpool on the 20th to set sail on the 23rd. We arrived all safe on the 20th at Liverpool and on the 22nd embarked on the ship Hollies for New Orleans after we had all got on board and had gone to bed during the night a terrible gale came from the Irish Channel and took our ship, anchor and all and took over to the New Brighten side of the River Mersey as we was in the River ready for to set sail in the morning and a tug boat was crossing the river in the night and the wind took the boat and dashed her into our ship damaging her very much. On the morning of the 23 when we was expecting to sail we found her to be on her side when the tide went out and was a difficult matter to get her righted however in the afternoon as the tide came in a heavy gale came from the Irish Channel and took a small ship called a brig loaded with wheat and sent her direct [5] [paper torn; two or three words missing] breaking our bulwarks and while the two ships was in this condition [word missing] craft or black flat and the wind took her in between the two ships and it was a terrible job to get them all apart it took two [p.6] hours to clear them away so we could start that day and the ship sprang a leak and some government inspectors came on board to see what damage she had sustained and the word was given that she was not fit or prepared to stand the voyage so we was brought back into Port and we went hunt up lodgings and we remained in Liverpool until the 17th of January 1855 when we embarked on the fine clipper ship named Charles Buck and on the morning of the 17th bid farewell to the old country that gave us birth after we had been out on the sea 3 weeks the sailors said we would be in New Orleans in about 5 weeks but not so for I remember on a Sunday morning when we met together on deck to hold meeting the captain came out in his tarr poling suit and called aloud all hands on deck and I tell you there was not much time for a black squall came up and it was awful wind and rain first mate said it was as bad a storm as he had ever seen and it lasted 6 days sea rolling mountains high and our little craft rolled about like a piece of wood and the crew was afraid we was doomed but I had no fear then for I was too young to realize the danger we was in but I should fear now as I can look back and wonder how in the would those ships ever made the trips but the Lord as ever watched his people in crossing the sea since the year 1837 for none has ever gone down either sailing or steam vessels but all has crossed safe up to the year 1905. We arrived in New Orleans on the 15th of March 1855 making 8 weeks and 4 days crossing the Atlantic Ocean. We remained there for two days. When we arrived or before we tied up to the wharf. Land sharks in the [6] shape of men came along the side of the ship in little small boats and climbed up on board and they came so thick and fast that Brother Ballantyne had to station a [p.7] guard to prevent them from going down in among the passengers and some of them were very impudent and was going down any how but the guard made a stand and said if any one tried it he would do it at his peril but they did not go down or there would have been bloodshed.

On the evening of the 17th commenced piling our luggage down the gangway on to the steamboat Michigan there was between 5 and 6 hundred passengers on our ship and about 400 from another that set sail from Liverpool the same time of day that we did. Her name was Tempest and besides the two ship loads there was other passengers first cabin & steerage making in all not less 1,1000. We had a time to find our Luggage all piled together. Night came on and we had to sleep the best way we could for that night. Next we had to hunt around and find our things. It took us about 12 days to get to St. Louis as there was a heavy current. River was rising ice breaking up large trees coming down the river the Mississippi & Ohio and Missouri Rivers all rising made a large steam and a heavy current and the trees would get into the wheels and smash them. Then we would have to stop and repair and altogether made us about 3 days longer than we should have been however we arrived at St. Louis on the 29th of March in the evening dark and we had to get off the boat and get our luggage on the wharf and fix the best we could for the night to sleep. Mother, two sisters and myself got our boxes and walled them around and spread a tent over and then we got inside and laid there till morning. The tent we had was made on sea coming along Mary Ann and Sarah after making or help to make 40 or 50 tents kept one so we made use of it as I mentioned. The next day the 30th of march [7] cousin Benjamin Broomhead came down with a team and took us up to his [p.8] house. He and his wife Sarah made us very welcome and was as kind as could be. They had been here in St. Louis about 3 years and was very comfortable. We remained there about 6 days and recruited up a little and the folks did some washing &c. On the 5th of April we embarked on the steamboat Golden State and in the afternoon we started up the great Missouri River after traveling slow as the water in some of the places was very shallow there was one of the boat hands was at the front of the boat throwing a lead attached to the end of a rope to see how deep the water was. Sometimes he would say no bottom but not often the next throw would 5 feet then 4 then sometimes on the sand bar then what a work to get her off the sand bar but we arrived at Atchison on the 9th of April. Atchison was just laid off for a city but there was only about 6 houses there then and no landing for the boat but we got off her all right and about one hour about 3 teams came to move us out 2 miles to make our first camp. This was the first time I ever saw oxen work and I asked the man to let me drive. He gave me the whip but the old fellows did not care to be drove by a green horn however we got to our home or Camp and pitched our tent and in a few days felt quite at home. We had four more besides ourselves making 8 in number, in a few days we commenced to work making a landing for boats and making streets some working at saw mill and at different kinds of work we worked for about 6 weeks in Atchison in company with 2 others. Went over on the other side of the river to work in Missouri [8]. We was ferried over we was there one week only and came back then. The emigration commenced coming in boats every boat brought a load of Saints till we soon numbered thousands and our company [p.9] move about 5 miles to Ickery Grove [Possibly, Hickery Grove]. We called it Mormon Grove and we commenced working on the large farm some plowing some planting corn and some making a ditch around the farm. It is a beautiful farm rich land this taken for the outfitting post to cross the plains. There was about 3000 Saints emigrated that year 1855 there was three independent companies started before our company got ready however just before we started some of our relatives came on the last ship and came to the grove 2 weeks before we started. There was old grandma Robbins over 93 years old Aunt Nancy James Joseph Mary Cyrus Robbins we was the first of the 13 Pound Company. Our relatives came in the second company. We started on our journey on the 27th of June and then started the fun. Green cattle and green drivers made it amusing. Cattle running away wagons upsetting however I was very fortunate myself as I had drove cattle ever since I came to Atchison and I found it a good thing. . .[p.10]. . .we felt thankful that we arrived this was on the 27 day of September 1855 after being on the way for about 10 months. [p.12]

Diary and Reminiscences of Richard Ballantyne
Richard Ballantyne Emigrating Company. Journal. pp.1-45 LDS Historical Department Archives


. . . (Monday 15th I went down to the ship Charles Buck in the forenoon and gave the emigrating Saints their berths to sleep in. During the afternoon they came on board with their luggage.) Tuesday at 1 o'clock the doctor [p.205] and other officers came on board to inspect the passengers and see that none go to sea sick they were all allowed to pass.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 206 IS WRITTEN, 1855 Liverpool, January 16th] Wednesday morning, 17th I bade my brethren and sisters in Liverpool farewell, and after receiving some books from Brother Richards and settling some business with him, I went down to the ship and got on board about two o'clock. The passengers were then called, and, with the exception of one by the name of William Leigh were found on board. Between seven and eight o'clock at night the steam tug came along, and after weighing anchor, took us out to sea. As we were going out the River Mersey I called all the brethren together and Brother Mark Fletcher read the following letter to them:

15 Wilton Street Liverpool December 20th, 1854 To the Latter-day Saints on board [p.206] the Charles Buck This certifies that Elder Richard Ballantyne is appointed to preside over the company of Saints sailing on board the ship Charles Buck hence to New Orleans, and they are hereby exhorted to receive his counsels and abide in the same, that the blessings of life and salvation may attend them on their journey. Elder Mark Fletcher and Eric G.M. Hogan are appointed to aid Elder Ballantyne as his counselors in conducting the affairs of the company while crossing the sea; and inasmuch as the company continue united, remember their prayers in the season thereof, and are obedient to the instructions of their presidency, they will be blessed with a safe and prosperous voyage.

Signed by Franklin D. Richards President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints in Britain [p.207]

On board the Charles Buck January 17th. After the forgoing letter had been read the brethren voted unanimously to sustain me as their president during the voyage, and also to sustain Elders Hogan and Fletcher as my counselors.

I afterwards blessed my counselors and set them apart to their office then called upon as many as are willing to serve the Lord and work righteousness on this voyage to raise their hands to heaven in token of it. They all with one accord raised their hands to heaven. I then gave such instruction as their circumstances and the preservation of their health required, and, as was necessary to the preservation of their virtue and chastity.

I also observed that if any one felt disposed to grumble while on this voyage we would like him to volunteer his services, and we would set him apart to that work. No one would volunteer, and my counselor, Mark Fletcher, [p.208] nominated me to that office. I said I would accept of it if they would with one heart sustain me, and I would endeavor to magnify my office and grumble only as a man of God should. They voted unanimously to sustain me in this.
[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 209 IS WRITTEN, Teaching to the Saints]

I observed during the meeting that if any one was resolved to work wickedness on this voyage we would like him to make it manifest. No one manifested a disposition to do so. I said if any one felt a lacking desire to do anything evil in secret they might as well avow it openly, because if they did not repent the Lord would make it manifest to His servants, and they might rest assured that we will not spare. It is too late in the day to work wickedness in the Kingdom of God, and have that wickedness concealed. The spirit of God will scrutinize the acts of the children of men, and openly reveal the deeds of the transgressor.[p.209] After singing a hymn the brethren were dismissed with the blessings of the Almighty.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 210 IS WRITTEN, 1855 ship Charles Buck January 17th.]

January 18th Thursday. During the day I visited through the ship and administered comfort and blessings to the sick. In the evening I met with my counselors and divided the company of Saints into four parts, to be organized into four wards, and appointed a president and his two counselors over each. Elder Eric Hogan, my first counselor, was appointed to preside over the First Ward, which is entirely composed of Danish Saints. Elder William West was blessed by me and set apart to preside over the Second Ward, which is composed, as are also the Third and Fourth Wards, of English and Scotch Saints. Elder Mark Fletcher was appointed to preside over the Third, and Elder David Hutchison was blessed and set apart to preside over the Fourth [p.210] Ward.

[NOTE: AT THE TOP OF PAGE 211 IS WRITTEN, Organization into 4 wards]

I then gave instructions concerning the cleanliness of the ship, and appointed the male members of each ward to take their turn in cleaning out all the filth in the morning, at 6 o'clock, before any of the families are up. The First Ward to do the [-] cleaning and sweeping out the ship the first morning, and so on to the second and last, so that each able bodied man may do an equal share in this work. Then as soon as the ship is cleaned the people shall be called upon to arise and dress themselves and immediately thereafter unite, under the direction of the president of each ward, in prayer, praise, and thanksgiving to the Lord. Then after morning devotion prepare breakfast and enter with cheerful hearts upon the duties of the day.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF 212 IS WRITTEN, 1855 January 18th ship Charles Buck]

In like manner, in the evening, I instructed the presidents of wards, with their counselors, to call the people of their wards together at 7 o'clock before retiring to rest [p.211] that they may again call upon the Lord in a united capacity, and receive such instruction as may be necessary from time to time, doing all things, and exercising themselves in meetings in that way, that the Holy Spirit shall dictate.

After I had given the forgoing counsel the president proceeded immediately to carry it out, and while the different wards united in singing the songs of Zion, and listened to the counsels of their presidents, the Holy Spirit rested down upon them so that my heart was inspired to rejoice in the Lord, and the society of his Saints.

[NOTE: Another Cabin Passage IS WRITTEN ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE OF THE PAGE]

January 19th Friday. Having obtained a first cabin passage, and having a comfortable private room to myself, besides the privilege of occupying other two rooms with the captain and his lady, and another passenger, and also being blessed with the most excellent food at the same table with the captain, I felt, under these favorable and pleasant circumstances [p.212] [AT TOP OF PAGE 213 IS WRITTEN, The Lord’s goodness recorded] to give praise and thanks all the day long to the name of my God. For what I am more than others of my brethren that the Lord should deal so graciously towards me. Since I left my home the Lord has ever been very gracious and though I left without purse or script to travel many thousands of miles, and to go round the world. [A cabin passage all the way round IS WRITTEN ON THE SIDE] the Lord has ever opened my way, to not only obtain a passage by sea when it was necessary, but has provided me, through his great goodness, with a cabin passage from San Pedro to San Francisco from thence to Calcutta in the same comfortable manner, and from Calcutta to [UNCLEAR POSSIBLY, Madras] where I had accomplished my mission, and nearly wore out my body in the latter place, He again was near, and ever present, to open my way, so that without money, I again rode upon high places over the sea, and enjoyed all the comforts of the captain's cabin and now that my journey is terminating and I am crossing the Atlantic to complete [p.213] my voyage around the earth, He has more abundantly blessed me than heretofore.

[AT TOP OF PAGE 214 IS WRITTEN, 1855 January 19th ship Charles Buck]

We are riding on a fine, first class ship, of 1400 tons tonnage, with a splendidly furnished cabin, and the captain and his lady makes me welcome to their generous hospitality. What more could I desire? The Lord has far more than fulfilled my expectations when I left my home in His service, He has inspired me with a desire to be comfortable, while crossing the oceans and seas, and according to the faith thus begotten within me, and these desires, my way has been opened to go forth from nation to nation, and over each successive sea, bay, or ocean, in His name with thanksgiving and praise. And, as I have hitherto done, I have dedicated my private room where I may worship the Lord and call upon His holy name. This I do that I may improve the privileges He has given me to His own glory, and that I may [p.214] so manifest my gratitude in suitably appreciating His mercies as that He may not in His anger deprive me of them.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 215 IS WRITTEN, Two teachers appointed in each ward]

In the evening of this day I called on the four presidents and requested them to appoint two teachers in each ward, to watch over the Saints, and see that no iniquity is practiced.

In connection with my counselors I visited the Saints in every part of the ship and administered to the sick. Found no cases of dangerous illness, but many that felt sick in their stomach, and pained in their heads, owing to the motion of the vessel, and their not yet being used to it. Found no case of affliction only what is common among the Saints in crossing the sea. To all such we spoke words of encouragement and consolation.

Saturday January 20th 1855. This morning I feel to [p.215] to [SIC] give thanks to the name of my god for His marvelous kindness.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 216 IS WRITTEN, 1855 January 20th ship Charles Buck]

During the day I visited the Saints and administered comfort to the afflicted. In connection with the ordinances of anointing with oil, and laying on of hands, I administered castor oil to such as were feverish, from colds, and costiveness in the bowels. They have all been relieved by this treatment. In some cases of debility and weakness, accompanied with derangement and chilliness of the stomach I have counseled them to use a little brandy, in warm gruel. This has also had the desired effect. In one case of colic I administered a dose of peppermint and laudanum, and Brother Hutchison was relieved by it, and now feels well.

In the evening of this day a council of the Priesthood was held, and various opinions, and amendments to the organization offered, which only indicated to me that [p.216]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 217 IS WRITTEN, Difficulties of legislation]

persons destitute of experience, however zealous they may be, and anxious to do right, make very poor and injudicious legislators. There was warmth enough manifested which I had to check and moderate, but far too many schemes to lay needless restrictions upon the brethren and sisters. The subject that engrossed the most attention was how every one should have an equal privilege in cooking their food. This question seemed to perplex the minds of the brethren, and is one, above all others, difficult judiciously to manage. If too many laws are made to regulate it, contention for individual rights would be the result, and we therefore decided to get along without imposing on the brethren and sisters a multitude of improfitable laws and ordinances, recommending in a most urgent manner the necessity of charity, mutual forbearance, and a kindly disposition to accommodate each other. In [p.217] so large a company viz. 403 Saints, and about 40 Irish who are not members of our church, it is next to impossible for every one to be as well accommodated as they would like, as they only have one large stove to cook by. The meeting was adjourned till Monday at 12 o'clock. I thought I would give the brethren the privilege of reflecting a little more on the various questions before passing unnecessary laws and ordinances.

[NOTE AT TOP OF PAGE 218 IS WRITTEN, 1855 Bay of Biscay, January 20th]

Sabbath January 21, 1855. This morning after visiting the Saints and the sick, and finding the most of them well, and three sisters, who have had slight fever, recovering we met, between decks, in a public capacity to worship the Lord and partake of the sacrament. We administered the sacrament with unleavened bread, and water. We had an excellent meeting. The Lord blessed me greatly [p.218] imparting instruction, and the Saints listened with the most intense interest. The Danish Saints met by themselves and Elder [ERIC] Hogan taught them in their own language and administered to them the sacrament also.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 219 IS WRITTEN, Meetings and sacrament between deck]

In the evening we had a testimony meeting, and I never before was in a meeting where a better spirit prevailed, and where better feelings and resolutions were manifested. I rejoiced in the Lord for the goodness and mercy to His Saints, for they truly seem to be of one heart. And the elements are all apparently under the control of the Lord for our good. During the meeting the ship continued to sail as smoothly and though we were in a comfortable room on land. My soul feels to say what shall we render to the Lord for all His great goodness, for thus far no company of Saints ever made better progress, or in [p.219] all respects were more highly favored.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 220 IS WRITTEN, 1855 January 21st between Spain and the Azores]

My discourse today was, partly, exhorted by Brother Speicht, and shall have it recorded in my other journal. Many things taught were precious to myself, and they may be to my family. For which reason I shall endeavor to preserve some of my teachings or rather such things as the Holy Spirit shall communicate for the salvation of the Saints, in my charge.

Monday January 22 1855. The Saints generally are in good health; and all are recovering from seasickness. Everything seems prosperous.

At ½ past 12 I met with the Priesthood in council. It was then agreed that 8 men be appointed to stand successively at the galley doors, two at a time, to see that every person has their turn in cooking.

2: That the teachers make it their [p.220] special duty to watch over the sisters and see that they have no improper familiarity with the sailors.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 221 IS WRITTEN, Meeting of Council]

3: That the sisters have the use of the water closets on one side of the ship, and that the brethren, and the sailors, have the use of those on the other side.

The meeting was after, singing and prayer, adjourned till Wednesday at 2 o'clock afternoon.

A meeting was appointed for the sisters the evening to know their determination in regard to keeping aloof from the sailors.

7 o'clock: The meeting being opened with singing and prayers, I arose and spoke to the sisters, especially the unmarried, to beware of associating with unbelievers, for what fellowship hath light with darkness and what communion hath she that believeth with an infidel and so far as preaching the gospel to the sailors is concerned the sisters are relieved from [p.221] all responsibility.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 222 IS WRITTEN, 1885 January 22nd on board ship]

The brethren who hold the priesthood are appointed to that work, but until they repent and are baptized, and have proven by their faith and works that they love righteousness, repose no confidence in them. Have nothing to do with them, but show by a proper and positive reserve that you respect yourselves as Saints, and that your confidence is in those men who are able to counsel you for salvation, and promote you to honor and exaltation in worlds to come. The sisters in the valley of the mountains hardly consider a man entitled to their confidence till he had gone forth to the nations to preach the gospel, and has proven his integrity in work and in deed. Those who are weak in faith and righteousness can hardly have the privilege of associating freely with our females, far less those who have never made any confession of Christ or obedience to his gospel. [p.222]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 223 IS WRITTEN, Meeting of the Sisters]

The sisters being now called upon to manifest their resolution in regard to this matter, and testify as they might otherwise be led by the Spirit, . . . Others expressed their feelings in like manner testifying that they were willing to obey counsel, . . .

The Spirit of the Lord was copiously poured out upon the sisters, and all present, and we had a heavenly time and an entire amalgamation of our feelings in one. I rejoiced greatly and felt to praise the Lord because of His good spirit and the unity that prevails.

During the meeting I united [p.223] in marriage two young couples. Previous to so doing I instructed them concerning what would be their duties as husbands and wives and of the sacred and endearing ties which they were about to form.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 224 IS WRITTEN, 1855 January 22nd]

Tuesday 23. Served out 1 lb. butter each to the passengers, and other provisions provided for them. Administered to several persons who are still feeble. A quarrel took place between one of the brethren and the cook, about cooking sooner for an Irish passenger then he was entitled to.

The last 24 hours nearly a dead calm, and a very unpleasant rocking of the vessel.

Wednesday and Thursday 24th-25th. Much seasickness, in consequence of a heavy sea, and an unusually unpleasant motion of the ship. Friday evening had a prayer meeting [p.224] that was pretty well attended.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 225 IS WRITTEN, Prayer Meeting on Board]

I opened it with a few remarks showing the privileges of the brethren and sisters, and that a record in kept in heaven of those who appreciate their privileges and talk often one to another for mutual strength and consolation. And, saith the Lord, "they shall be mine in that day when I shall make up my jewels." A Brother Grimmett [ Grinnett] arose and spoke in tongues, but not by the Spirit of the Lord. I had made a few remarks concerning our duty to pray for those who are afflicted, and Brother Grimmett through over anxiety, and not being sufficiently aware of the subtlety of the evil one, gave way to a spirit that was not of God. I was constrained to rebuke it in the name of Jesus Christ, and we had a good meeting. I was led to remark that a person may for a moment be under a false influence, like Peter the Apostle of our Lord, and yet in the main course of life, and in the discharge of duty, that same person may [p.225] habitually be under the influence of the Spirit of the Lord.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 226 IS WRITTEN, 1855 January 24 Prayer]

I felt to admonish the brethren and sisters to be sober, and call upon the Lord, so that when we pass through the valley of death, where the Destroyer rideth upon the face of the Mississippi and other western waters, and where many of the Saints have fallen a prey to His grasp, our faith may not fail, and our lives may be preserved.

I also said that when I am alone upon the waters, my only care is to so live before the Lord as that He may preserve me in storms or tempests or in whatsoever I am called to pass through on sea or land. But I am now associated with the Saints of God, and I can not only for myself, but also for them, for whatever they are called upon to pass through I must pass through it with them, so that we are all interested one in the welfare of the other and if one member suffers our sensibilities [p.226] should be so acute as that we may all suffer with it. And when one rejoices we may all rejoice together. When the bond of our unity is so perfect, and our feelings are so sanctified by the Spirit of the Lord, then shall we realize that exquisite happiness into which the Lord desires we should enter, and then shall the knowledge of God be unfolded to our understandings.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 227 IS WRITTEN, Meeting and Teachings

After many testimonies and much singing, and several prayers, I admonished the brethren to continue humble and united and especially to see that the sick do not suffer. I expressed a desire to have meeting on the upper deck on Sabbath morning if the Lord will favor us with good weather and which I believe He will grant.

Friday 26th. This morning a most distressing accident occurred. One of the sons of Brother Grimmett, [Grinnett] [p.227] a boy seven years of age, fell overboard and perished in the sea. The ship was sailing so fast and the boats so difficult to launch, that nothing could be done in time to save him. He lay on his back on the surface of the waters for a few seconds, and then disappeared. His parents were greatly distressed. His father was in an agony of distress. I tried to comfort him and his wife, and though a most distressing providence, the Lord gives them grace to acknowledge His righteous hand and to reconcile their feelings to it.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 288 IS WRITTEN, 1855 Death of Brother Grimmett’s [Grinnett’s] boy by drowning]

27th Saturday. In various ways I tried to comfort the hearts of Brother and Sister Grimmett and their distressed family, such as by blessing and instruction, and furnishing them some nice biscuit, cheese &c, for I have learned that such tokens of sympathy and interest goes much further and has greater [p.228] efficacy than words alone.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 229 IS WRITTEN, Sabbath 28 January 1855]

In the evening I met in counsel with the priesthood, and from the reports it appeared that every one on board was doing about as well as could reasonably be expected, excepting some commissions [-] on the part of the presidents of wards and the teachers in keeping the water closets clean for the sisters. Some of the sisters have such filthy habits that they all get up on the seat with their feet, instead of sitting on it, and so besmears it that the next sister who comes finds it so filthy that she cannot use it.

I am ashamed of such nasty habits, and, to prevent them , we have been obliged to appoint a guard to watch over their water closet, and see that they are kept clean.

Sabbath 28th. I preached a funeral [p.229] discourse to comfort the heart of Brother Grimmett's family. And that all present may improve this solemn and distressing providence.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 230 IS WRITTEN, January 29 and 30th 1885]

Partly through sympathy with this afflicted family, and ministering to others who have been sick, I have been very unwell for several days but I pray my Father in Heaven to strengthen me for the duties which rest upon me, and give me a large portion of the Holy Spirit that my wisdom and usefulness may be increased.

Sacrament was administered in the afternoon and prayer meetings were held in the evening.

Monday and Tuesday, considerable seasickness as the weather has been boisterous, and the sea high for the last three days. The between decks have been very uncomfortable with the spillings of water and other [-] [p.230] while the ship has been rolling. And on Wednesday 31st the day being fine and the sea calm, every trunk and box was removed, and the between decks was thoroughly cleaned by sweeping, scraping, and washing. The unwholesome vapor which, during the stormy weather, was fast accumulating has been removed by removing the wetness and filth by which it was occasioned. And much sickness is thereby prevented through the blessings of the Lord.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 231 IS WRITTEN, January 31, 1855]

Served out provisions today for one week, it being one day later than the usual time. Notified the presidents of wards that a general meeting will be held this evening as I wish to speak, through the aid of the Lord, on the following subject, viz: How to manage the cooking - obeying counsel - necessity of personal cleanliness, and thorough cleaning of the ship, and keeping it dry between decks, to preserve health. Our present circumstances [p.231] and how to prevent the adversary from taking the advantage of us - also concerning provisions, lights, oil, &c.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 232 IS WRITTEN, January 31, 1855 Accident]

Yesterday morning the daughter of Sister Hall, a girl of eleven years met with a severe accident, by which the forepart of her leg, below the knee, was and open to the bone about eight inches in length. A large piece of wood slid from one side of the deck and struck her leg, producing the fearful gash referred to. Fortunately the bone does not seem to have been injured. It was so badly laid open that the captain and I had to press the wound together and sew it up with a needle and thread. We also poured some liniment on it after bandaging it well, and further bandaged it with four pieces of thin wood to prevent her bending her leg and thereby injuring the wound. [p.232] The little girl was very patient and the sewing of the wound did not seem to pain her much. It now seems to be doing well. Has not swollen much, neither does it pain her much since it was dressed.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 233 IS WRITTEN, February 1st 1855]

February 1st Thursday. Last night we had an excellent meeting. The spirit of the Lord rested on me and on the people in an unusual manner. In connection with topics mentioned in the previous page, I spoke a little on the principle of our marriage relations, and how after a servant of God multiplies his family by commandment of the Lord, and according to His Law, the Lord increases his substance so that he is enabled to sustain what the Lord hath given him. But if a man through ambition, or lust, or any other impure motive, seeks the enlargement of his family, and his dominion, and not to obey the commandment [p.233] of God, and glorify His name, that man is taking the surest steps to ruin himself and lose those members of his family which he previously had. No man should run in these matters any faster than the Spirit of God directs. Seek the counsel of the Holy Spirit and not the guidance of your own feelings. Do not run away from the Holy Ghost and follow after the dictates of your own evil hearts.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 234 IS WRITTEN, 1855 February 1st Provisions Murmurers]

In relation to the provisions furnished for the passengers I said that Brother Richards had done according to his contract, but when the accident happened to the Helios, and the passengers were shipped on this vessel, the captain of the "Helios" did not furnish the same provisions for them, but swindled them out of their cheese, pork, butter, vinegar and their articles, and sent the passengers on this ship, with only, biscuit, oatmeal, rice, flour, sugar, and tea, and further more has ordered that the surplus provisions shall be retained, and not given to the passengers, as would have been done if [p.234] they had gone on the Helios, and no accident had occurred. I said I did not feel to curse him for his rascality in thus cheating the Saints, for I believed that God will do it without, unless he repents, and makes ample restitution. And I said that Brother Richards had more than fulfilled his contracts by kindly giving to you a present of 6 ½ firkins of butter.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 235 IS WRITTEN, there appointment, with councilors]

Some disaffection was at first manifested by a Brother Dixon and others, but after a more full explanation they seemed to be satisfied, and I said if after what has been said any one feels disposed to murmur for the provisions on the "Helios" I will pray the Father, in the name of Jesus that he may be sent back to get them, or we will at our next meeting appoint that person to grumble for the company, and as many as unite with him we shall appoint to be his counselors.

Today I waited on the sick all the forenoon and gave such medicines as they needed. [p.235]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 236 IS WRITTEN, 1855 Sanctification]

In the evening a prayer meeting was held, and after the meeting had been opened, and several had spoken, I addressed the brethren and sisters on the principles of sanctification, and observed that sanctification must begin in us with the Holy Ghost purifying our hearts, eradicating every evil thought and desire, suffering no evil expressions to flow out of our mouths, nor any jealousies to nestle in our feelings; then after the spirit is sanctified by the Holy Ghost or the worth of sanctification is begun in the heart, we must cleanse our bodies with pure water, and our clothes; and our bedding; and our floor, and our habitation we must purify and every thing pertaining to it and us. Our children we must also instruct, pray with and for, and keep them clean in body and pure from sin.

After having thus cleansed the [p.236] ship, ourselves, our children, and every thing pertaining to us, then will the atmosphere be pure and healthy, the unwholesome vapor depart, the Holy Spirit will rest down upon you, and cheerfulness, life, and salvation will be the inheritance of the Saints on this ship. This is the kind of sanctification that we need for present salvation, while crossing the sea, and while you are all pent up together in the hold of the ship.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 237 IS WRITTEN, How accomplished.]

I said I was ashamed that the mate of the ship should have had occasion to keep the water back till this should be done. Thus it is that the Lord brings on us the law of the Gentiles when we will not keep His commandments.

In regard to sanctification I would say that the work devolving on us in [p.237] order to enjoy the Holy Ghost, and become perfect, differs under different circumstances, as when we enter into a temple we are required to purify ourselves in a somewhat different manner.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 238 IS WRITTEN, 1855 February 1st]

Friday 2nd. February spent the most of the day administering to the sick, and I am thankful that they all seem to be doing well.

Have commenced making tents with which to cross the plains. Saturday 3rd I was sorry to observe a quarrel between two of the brethren. I went to them, and told them to stay themselves, and we would meet in council and settle the difficulty. They immediately parted, and afterwards settled it themselves, and confessed their faults in a public meeting.

When the council meeting was [p.238] held in addition to other business, we admonished Brother King for rebelling against my decision and saying that I was partial, and that he would not approbate a certain arrangement concerning a berth. Brother King confessed that he gave way to a wrong spirit, and was sorry for what he had said, and asked forgiveness of the council, and of me, which was readily granted.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 239 IS WRITTEN, Council Meeting]

We altered the arrangement concerning each ward cleaning the whole ship by turns in the morning, and ordained that the president of each ward see to the cleaning of his own ward every morning, and also that the ship be kept clean during the day.

Much anxiety was manifested to make new laws, which amounted to this that the brethren through indolence are not wiling to carry out those already made. I gave some counsel and reproof on this point which was well received.[p.239]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 240 IS WRITTEN, 1855 February 4th Sabbath]

Sabbath 4th. Had meeting on the upper deck. Brother Mark Fletcher preached, and Brother Hutchison gave a good exhortation. The day being damp not many attended. The sailors were invited but did not attend. In the afternoon we had sacrament and the Lord was with us. Good instructions were given, and those who had offended, confessed, and were forgiven.

Monday 5th. Visited the sick; cut out 19 tents, and gave them to Emigration Fund passengers to make, as they will have the use of them while crossing the plains. We have cut up 9 bolts of Nankeen, and there as yet 10 bolts in the hold.

We had an excellent prayer and testimony meeting in the evening. Many of the brethren spoke and I gave much good and precious instruction, concerning which and other instructions that I have given to [p.240] the Saints, Brother Hutchison said they were precious to him, and such that he would not forget in time nor in eternity.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 241 IS WRITTEN, February 6, 1855]

I felt truly joyful in the society of so excellent a company of Saints, that are willing to obey counsel, and who enjoy a peaceable and lovely spirit.

February 6. Tuesday. This morning the upper deck is crowded with a busy crowd of cheerful Saints all intent on sewing the tents according as they have been taught. It is truly pleasing to see so much happiness and contentment, combined with our active desire to do all that is required.

There is only two persons confined to bed today, and these are going to be removed into the hospital that they may have more fresh air. Mr. Label, who shipped some of the passengers, had put some passengers [p.241] into the hospital but the captain has given orders for their removal to the 'tween decks in case the sick require it.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 242 IS WRITTEN, 1855 February 7th]

Wednesday 7th. The weather is beautiful and warm, but in consequence the 'tween decks are getting very unwholesome, as the 2nd mate has had the 'tween deck washed every day, which caused such an unwholesome vapor to arise that I spoke of it to the captain, and he has given orders not to wash, but to scrape the 'tween decks clean, thereby preserving the dryness as well as cleanliness of the ship. I have had much concern and anxiety of mind to preserve the health of the passengers, and I pray the Lord to give me wisdom, to manage aright, and influence with the captain and officers to secure what is for their welfare.

Thursday 8. Yesterday, and today, there has been a busy scene on deck. The most of the sisters are seated in happy groups making the tents, while the children are playing happily and contented around.[p.242] Had a meeting on the upper deck in the evening. We hung up two lanterns and assembled between the main mast and the galleys. After singing and prayer, and singing Brother Fletcher made some remarks on the subject of faith, and as some of the sailors were listening I spoke for some time on the first principles of the gospel and the gathering of God's Elect. Also made a few remarks showing how the Saints come into possession of that knowledge by which they can without presumption say "We know we are of God and all the world lieth in wickedness."

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 243 IS WRITTEN, Meeting on Deck]

Friday 9th. Day fine. Saints busy making their tents. Meeting in the evening when Brothers West, and Sturrock made some very edifying remarks. The second mate acted very ugly after meeting, and laid hold of a boy to hurt him, but I told him he must not do so, and he let the boy go.

Saturday 10th. The few sick are getting well, for which, and for general improved health, let the Lord be praised.[p.243]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 244 IS WRITTEN, 1855 February 10th Cape Verde Islands]

We have not obtained the North-East Trade winds, as we expected, and in consequences of this, and head winds, we are this forenoon in sight of the Cape Verde Islands. The names of those we see nearest to us are St. Antonia, an inhabited island, and St. Vincent, an island that is without inhabitant. The following sketches I have taken of them at a distance of 75 miles, bearing south.

[Sketch drawn labeled St. Antonia. Underneath Latitude 17° N. and Longitude 25° West is written.] [Sketch labeled St. Vincent is drawn.][p.244]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 245 IS WRITTEN, February 10TH 1855]

Saturday. Held a council meeting in the afternoon and instructed the Priesthood to beware of rendering evil to evil for any man but rather pray that God may soften the hearts of the officers and men for his own glory, and the good of the Saints. Also taught them to be careful not to bring up or encourage false accusations either against individuals, or the company in general. And if a sinner arise that anything is stolen, be very careful to make a through search before you believe it. Rather believe good concerning the people of God than to believe evil, and as many rumors of this, and that, being stolen has prevailed, and been encouraged, check this disposition of false accusing, as it appears that the most of such reports are afterwards proven to be false. I wish to maintain the good character of the Saints, and of individuals, till it be clearly proven that they are guilty of some misdemeanor.

In the evening we called a meeting of the Fourth Ward as some of the members of that ward have manifested a disposition from time to time to trample the president of the ward [p.245] and the laws of the priesthood under their feet. It was thought more good would be done by calling the whole ward together than by calling the individuals before the council. After the meeting was opened I said that any person who is disproved to rebel against the authority of the Kingdom of God has no right to be in that Kingdom, and if they are determined to maintain their opposition they shall be renounced from it.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 246 IS WRITTEN, Ward Meeting-Instructions &c]

After much instruction, and exhortation, two sisters arose and made confession, and asked forgiveness. They were forgiven, but some of the brethren who were in fault did not confess. We did not name the guilty parties as we thought that all whose consciences convinced them of sin might be led by the spirit of the Lord to freely make restitution. I exhorted those, who had not, to confess their faults to their president, and do better in time to come.

My counselors also spoke, exhorting the brethren and sisters to give heed to counsel.

Sabbath February 11th. The infant child [p.246] of Charles Hartley died at two o'clock this morning of diarrhea, and was buried in the ocean at ½ past 10 o'clock in the forenoon, in Latitude North 17.° 30." and West Longitude from Greenwich 36.° 53.".

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 247 IS WRITTEN, 1855 February 11th Death of Brother Hartley’s child]

The corpse was sewed up in a blanket instead of being put in a coffin, and a quantity of sand wrapped up with it, towards the feet, to make it sink. Before depositing the body in the ocean the brethren, and sisters, assembled on deck, sung a hymn and offered up prayers, dedicating the body of the child to God to come forth in the morning of the first resurrection. Brothers Fletcher and Hutchison then carried the body of the child on a flat board to the bulwark of the ship and it slid down into the water, and immediately sank out of sight. We then sang another hymn, prayed, and I preached a discourse concerning the general dealings of God with the righteous and the wicked, and their families, and the necessity of submission to all of His providence. Also spoke of the preexistence of the spirit, its union with the tabernacle, in [-] [POSSIBLY, order] [p.247] to receive a fullness of glory in the resurrection, and of the salvation that is in Christ Jesus for young and old.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 248 IS WRITTEN, 1855 Funeral Discourse-February 11th]

The salvation of the child is unconditional-all are alive in Christ, and at death they depart from the ills of this life to mingle with the spirits of the just. Not so with those who have grown up and have sinned. They must repent, and be baptized and receive the Holy Ghost, before they can enter into the Kingdom of God. On this occasion I also spoke a few words concerning the "Spirit in prison" and justified the dealings of God to men, by showing that all who hear not the gospel in this life will hear it in the spirit world. Jesus preached the gospel to the spirits in prison, and so must His servants, when they leave their ministry in this life.

At 2 o'clock we met and partook of the sacrament between decks. I had earnestly prayed to my Father in Heaven to refresh me, and the congregation, and he heard, and answered my prayer. My weakness of body departed and I was enabled to give much instruction to comfort [p.248] the Saints. My discourse was chiefly concerning the necessity of living by prayer and fasting in order that we may enjoy the Holy Spirit, for when we lose the Holy Spirit we feel doubtful and like John say "Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another."

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 249 IS WRITTEN, Testimony concerning my counsels]

There was a good spirit prevailing, and after some testimonies, and singing, Brother Fletcher arose, and said, that during the forenoon services, after the funeral, many questions arose in his mind, and one was "has our president’s counsels to the company been judicious or have they not?" He said a voice answered, saying, the counsels of your president have been given in wisdom and by the revelations of Jesus Christ, and if the company of Saints on this ship had given strict heed to them they would have been more blessed than they have.

While my brother delivered this testimony a thrilling sensation of joy passed through me, and I felt to praise the Lord for such a token of approbation.

Monday 13th. Day warm. My health poor. General peace and health on board.[p.249]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 250 IS WRITTEN, 1855 February 15th]

Thursday 15. For some time the 2nd mate, has been very abusive to the passengers and has attempted to use unbecoming familiarity to the females. He goes through the ship in the morning among the deck passengers saying ". . .You pray to the Devil all the evening and want to lay in bed in the morning" and many such sentiments of abuse flow from his lips. But even with this he is not satisfied. Brothers Fletcher and West have informed me that he goes through and puts his hands about the women's heads and necks while in bed telling them to arise &c.

Last night we had a meeting, and among other counsels, I advised the brethren and sisters to be patient and pray for those who have not the light of truth to guide them, suffering all manner of vile language, but by no means should the sisters suffer any [p.250] man to use such rude and ungentlemanly conduct towards them, and if they should leave a mark on such fellows, or throw something around their ears, I would sustain them in it when they are so insulted.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 251 IS WRITTEN, Latitude 19° North, Longitude 35° West]

There has been some quarreling this morning between the 2nd mate and some of the brethren, and the 2nd mate came to me and asked me to one side to inquire if I had said that he used improper familiarities with the women. I told him I had, and who had informed me of it. And also that I had given counsel to the sisters to resent such conduct. But that I had done so in general terms, and no man need consider the counsel as being directed against himself unless he be guilty of the conduct referred to. He went off saying that hereafter he would let them sleep as long [p.251] as they please.

[NOTE: AT TIP OF PAGE 252 IS WRITTEN, February 17th 1855]

Saturday 17th. Yesterday we saw 5 ships. Laid the circumstances of the Saints so far as they have sustained abusive treatment from the 2nd mate, in part, before the captain. He seemed disposed to find fault with our people and to sustain the conduct of the 2nd mate. I said that though our people had failings, and did err sometimes, that they were generally a good people, peaceably disposed, but that Mr. Lewis, to my certain knowledge, had grossly abused them, both in his language and in his actions, having in several instances used violence to the brethren. He said he must sustain the officers, but if I wished he would talk, again, to Mr. Lewis, I said I don't know that it will do any good, but I felt to make known to you [p.252] the situation of affairs.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 253 IS WRITTEN, various difficulties]

I have felt much grieved because of the difficulties that threatens us, and have advised the brethren to be careful to avoid difficulty, to lay aside every feeling of revenge and remember that the commands of the officers must in general be obeyed. Though, if they require in an insulting manner more than is right they should be treated with indifference, for passengers have rights as well as officers.

Found this morning that Sister [Sybella] Pollard had injured herself, and raised hard feelings, in consequence of writing a complimentary note to the Chief Mate, Mr. Parker. I spoke to her, and she confessed, saying that he had done it to represent the feelings of another lady, not in the church, but that she had signed no names to it. I counseled her to seek the spirit of wisdom to direct, and as she has [p.253] brought herself into trouble with her "Sweet heart" and others, in consequence of it, that she must now bear the consequences, and act wisely in time to come. We must bear the smart of our own folly, and make restitution to those we have injured as the spirit of the Lord shall direct.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 254 IS WRITTEN, February 16 [SIC] 1855]

The winds have been light and contrary for some time, but this morning we are sailing in our course.

I got 2 barrels of pork from the captain for which I paid four pounds per barrel, and sold it at five pence per pound which is cheaper than it is sold in England. As the Saints have had no meat allowed them, this has made them very thankful.

This week, . . .

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 255 IS WRITTEN, Death of William Aitkin’s child]

Another child died at 9 o'clock p.m. of the 13th last in Latitude [blank] North and [blank] Longitude West. It was buried in the sea on Wednesday the 14th at 10 in the forenoon. The child's name was Helen Aitkin son of William Aitkin. We sung a hymn and united in prayer before the burial and sing another hymn afterwards.

On Saturday 17th the Priesthood met in council to consider and hear reports concerning the conduct [p.255] and circumstances of the Saints.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 256 IS WRITTEN, February 19th 1855]

The cooking seems to be the only matter that is difficult to manage, but even with this the Saints get along pretty well. The general condition of the Saints was very favorable represented. . . .

Yesterday (Sabbath) I preached [p.256]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 257 IS WRITTEN, Sister Sutton gives birth to a boy.]

on the quarter deck. My discourse was upon the 3rd and 4th chapters of Micah. I was very weak in body and lungs, but the Lord was very gracious to me, and my lungs were made strong, and I was much edified, and so were the Saints. It was a season of peculiar joy and satisfaction; several of the brethren arose and bore testimony to the excellent things which had been given by the Holy Spirit. In the afternoon we partook of the sacrament between decks. The Saints were reproved for their indifference to the ordinance and want of thought as manifested in the want of cleanliness in that part of the ship where we met to partake of it.

Exhorted the Saints to continue in counsel and not get indifferent and careless in cleaning themselves and the ship, lest the Destroyer be let loose among us.

This morning abut 3 o'clock Sister Sutton gave birth to a boy. She, and the child are doing well. She was brought up to the hospital. (February 19th)[p.257]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 258 IS WRITTEN, February 19th 1885]

Monday. This morning, as usual, I visited every part of the ship, where the Saints are berthed, and inquired concerning their health. Found all well excepting a few that are now recovering. I gave those who are weak and have infants some arrowroot to nourish themselves and their infants, and otherwise administered to those who need care and attention.

One of the Danish brethren, yesterday, struck Sister Hutchison in the cook house, and has since accused Brother Hutchison of being an "English Liar." A large lump has since appeared on Sister Hutchison's side. I advised Brother Hogan to try and reconcile the parties.

In the evening an excellent testimony meeting was held. The chief topics discoursed were the sin of ingratitude, the necessity [p.258] of being passive like clay in the hands of the Potter and the mixture of goats with the sheep. A goat may be know in various ways. The breath, spirit, clothing, and general conduct of a goat is different from a sheep.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 259 IS WRITTEN, Sheep and Goats]

February 20. Tuesday. A bad spirit manifest among the Irish passengers, who unite with the sailors, as they are most Roman Catholics. Provisions were served out today. Water is served out every day, but provisions only once a week.

Provisions-this evening I learn that there is likely to be a deficiency of provisions. The question naturally arises have the passengers had more than their just allowance of provisions weekly, or was there too little put on board at Liverpool? Most fortunately we are able to answer these questions. Mr. Lewis, the second Mate,[p.259] first measured the provisions yesterday as usual, or a portion of them, and then weighed that that [SIC] was measured, when it was found that the flour measured overran the weight by about 1/4 lb. The tea was deficient 1/5 - The rice hardly made weight - The biscuit was about right. The sugar measured did not hold out weight - The oatmeal was not weighed.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 260 IS WRITTEN, Provision, deficient and cause thereof]

Thus it appears, by clear proof, that the passengers have not had more each week than their just allowance, and hardly that, equalizing one thing with another; and that the true cause of the deficiency existed in their not being a sufficient quantity put on board at Liverpool for the voyage. Provisions have only been served out for 42 days and the laws of England require that a weekly or daily allowance [p.260] be furnished for seventy days. I am happy that it cannot be proved that in serving out the provisions the brethren have given any more than just measure. And I am also happy that the second mate has superintended the measuring out from week to week ad that neither myself nor any of my brethren have had the charge of this matter. Though the brethren have helped when they have been called upon by the second mate.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 261 IS WRITTEN, February 21st 1855]

Wednesday 21. In stating the fact to the captain this morning that the passengers had not had more than their dust allowance he got very angry. And insultingly and unjustly declared that our people had had the charge of the provisions, and that thinking [p.261] they would have a short passage, they had greedily used more than belonged to them. I said it was not so - They never had charge of the provisions, neither does it appear from evidence that they have had more, but rather less, then they should have had weekly.

He also complained that our people was troublesome to get along with and that he had been annoyed with their complaints. I answered "The people are more intelligent than steerage passengers generally are and understand what their right are, and how they should be treated. They do not feel disposed to submit to abuse without making known their grievances, when endurance ceases to be a virtue [p.262] but treat them as they should be treated and they will prove to be the most orderly, contented, and civil passengers that you ever had.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 263 IS WRITTEN, Difficulty with Captain Smalley]

Some hard words were exchanged and I felt that the captain was disposed to injure and blame our people without cause and he said what he had to get rid of the necessity of making any further provision for the passengers, or calling at some port for supplies in case the wants of people should require it. This caused me firmly to assent their rights and vindicate their characters.

The captain then said that the second mate must have given passengers full rations that are [p.263] only entitled to half rations.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 264 IS WRITTEN, February 21, 1855 Longitude Latitude ]

The passengers were all called on deck to find out if any had received more than their due, and also to learn if any more passengers are on board than should be. Everything was found correct, and the only conclusion is that provisions were never shipped to sustain so many passengers for seventy days.

I am very thankful that every thing appears so clear, and satisfactory pertaining to this matter.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 265 IS WRITTEN, Sickness-Cramp is the stomach and bowels]

February 22. Last night after retiring to rest I was called up by the 2nd mate and found Sister [Janet] McDonald in a swoon! Life seemed to be nearly extinct, her pulse was gone, and her countenance looked pale and deathly. Brother [Mark] Fletcher and I administered to her, and [p.264] blessed her and she opened her eyes and began to revive, but she complained saying "O my stomach" "O my stomach." By which I learned that she had cramp in the stomach which led me first to give her a few drops of peppermint in a little water which gave her some relief by breaking the wind which had accumulated: but as she still complained I gave her about ½ a teaspoon full of powdered ginger in a little brandy and cold water, and this gave her additional relief so that she shortly fell into a sleep and got into a free perspiration. In about 2 hours I gave her a tablespoon full of Caster oil and 2 drops of the oil of peppermint to carry off any acrid matter, relieve the bowels and prevent inflammation from increasing.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 266 IS WRITTEN, February 22nd 1855]

This morning she is better, though very weak, and I felt last night and do feel this morning to praise the name of my God for His [p.265] marvelous mercy in blessing me with wisdom and judgement in my administrations to the sick. And I pray my Father in Heaven to continue His great mercy to me and to give me a wise and understanding heart that I may know how to walk in and out among this people over whom I have a charge, and be able to walk before my God this day, and all others, with a perfect heart, and that all my administrations to the sick and afflicted may be increasingly efficacious and that I may have wisdom and power to instruct them in the things of the Kingdom of God.

. . .

In the evening we had a general prayer meeting, but there was not much of the spirit [p.267] of prayer manifested. Some singing, a little teaching concerning "growing in grace and in the knowledge of the truth," and a few testimonies of the truth of the work.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 268 IS WRITTEN, February 23rd 1855]

Friday 23rd This morning the second mate drove a "Brick bat" at Brother Hostmart for not getting out of the doorway in obedience to his commands. Bro. Hostmart being from Denmark does not understand the English language, and did not understand what was spoken to him. The 2nd mate afterward came upstairs from the ‘tween decks, where he was serving out the water, went into his room got a pistol, and carried it down stairs in his pocket.

Fortunately the "Brick Bat" did not hurt any person, but might have killed or seriously injured some of the children. I spoke of this to the captain, and he [p.268] told the 1st mate, Mr. Parker that if Mr. Lewis cannot give out the water without abusing the passengers some other person must be appointed.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 270 IS WRITTEN, Causes of diarrhea]

Two or three persons are still unwell but they are recovering.

Saturday 24th Day fine. Fair wind. Some cases of diarrhea owing to diet and hot weather. Administered all forenoon to those who are unwell. No cases of serious illness except Brother Campbell's child who has been coming down with diarrhea since some time before we left Liverpool. The diarrhea is generally accompanied with great debility, and loss of appetite and is chiefly occasioned by the use of too much oatmeal, ofttimes not more than half cooked, and the lack of those necessary comforts which should have been furnished for the use of the passengers. [p.269]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 270 IS WRITTEN, February 24th 1855]

Today Sister Amelia Mercer sent me the following poetry:

"Ode to our Respected President" Elder Ballantyne's the man who stands an head,

He is one of the great and noble bred, His kindness and wisdom, and perceptive powers,

Far, far exceeds the depths of ours.

2nd In the morning you'll see him prancing along,

To visit the active, the sick, and the strong, Dispensing his blessings to friends and to foes,

His presence is sunshine wherever he goes.

3rd Now Saints I would have you be up with the lark,

Elder Ballantyne's the man can catch in the dark. And if his good counsel you will but take,

I believe you will land in Great Salt Lake.

4th And when we reach there we’ll shout and sing,[p.270]

"Brother Ballantyne's acted to us like a King," And may the Lord bless him with a 100 wives

And thousands of children, and thrones besides.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 271 IS WRITTEN, Rotten Branches-where to leave them]

February 25 Had an excellent meeting on deck in the forenoon. The opening the meeting I said I was thankful to the Lord that our voyage has been so tedious and long, as we now begun to learn murmurers and complainers, and by and by we will begin to prune the tree and leave the rotten branches and those who bring not forth good fruit, at New Orleans, St. Louis, and other places. The wicked are carried along with us in the day of prosperity because they love the things of this life, but in the day of adversity they murmur, because the love not the Lord, nor the truth of His Kingdom. Brother Fletcher preached a good discourse and I afterwards gave the Saints a test by which to know their own heart. I said when sheep are attacked by dogs, they do not grin, and show their [p.271] teeth and bark and snarl, and snap like a dog. But they are passive, or flee out of the way of the pursuer.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 272 IS WRITTEN, February 25th 1855]

Should we see the sheep growl and snap like a dog, we would begin to think that it was not a sheep, but possessed a disposition entirely different. Neither do we expect the Saints to return railing for railing, but contrawise blessing. They should not manifest the disposition of a dog, if they are sheep, or if they wish to be considered sheep neither should they manifest the frisking vanity of a goat if they do not wish to be considered goats, neither should they if they wish to be looked on as sheep besmear the sheep with their filthy and unwholesome breath, and their evil spirits and conduct. Again, among this people we see, as in the natural world, the disposition of every kind of animal - both wild and tame. But the more ravenous, such as tigers, grizzly bears, and lions, we keep out of the fold, lest the flock should be devoured. The ass is less dangerous, but he is stubborn, and lazy: And some we have among us.

In the afternoon we partook of the sacrament "tween decks" as usual, as we have not felt that it would be pleasing to the Lord [p.272] to partake of the sacrament on the upper deck, where we might be disturbed by those who are not of us. In the evening we held another meeting, below, and the spirit of the Lord Jesus was largely enjoyed by the Saints, and by the brethren who spoke. I did not speak as the brethren had spoken so sensibly, and by the Spirit, and we had much good instruction. Brothers Hutchison, West, Fletcher, Harrison and Dixon were the chief speakers.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 273 IS WRITTEN, Who is a concubine?]

After the meeting I asked Brother [Mark] Fletcher (as he had been speaking about Concubines) if he knew what constituted a person a concubine? He tried to explain, but I told him he was incorrect, and I said that a concubine differs from a free woman in that she is given to a husband by her mistress - she being the property of her mistress, the same as a horse, or other property, and not a free woman, as Hagar, Bilhah, and others, but that when she is so disposed of to a husband by her mistress, she becomes his legal and lawful wife, before he has any sexual intercourse with her. And thus she is called a concubine to distinguish her from the woman that was originally free, but she is not a prostitute, or whore, but a virtuous and lawful wife: Neither were Abraham, Jacob, and other men of God, whoremasters, or those who held unlawful intercourse [p.273] with the other sex.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 274 IS WRITTEN, February 26th 1855]

Monday 26. Near the Island of Guadeloupe and others of the Windward Islands. This morning as usual went through the hospital and tween decks visiting the sick, and learning the condition of the Saints. Two days ago several persons were much trouble with diarrhea and other sicknesses, but this morning I feel thankful that they are all some better and the most of them are restored to health. I feel to praise the name of the Lord my God that He has blessed all my labors for the benefit of the sick, whether in anointing with oil, and laying on of the hands, or in giving medicines to such as have not faith to be healed. I have found a dose of “prepared chalk” and a few drops of laudanum, or a little brandy, a safe and effectual cure of diarrhea, in every instance when the bowels have first been cleared of the acrid matter by a dose of caster oil or rhubarb. I sometimes give rhubarb and magnesia, and generally in giving rhubarb, I give a little ginger with it, as it helps the action of the physic, and prevent it gripping the stomach or bowels.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 273 IS WRITTEN, Who is a concubine?] [Sketch labeled Guadeloupe is drawn.] and many spices that are grown in the East Indies. It is governed by the French. About the year 1842 the Island was visited by terrible and destructive earthquakes. It is in Latitude 16 N. and 61.48 West Longitude.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 275 IS WRITTEN, Islands of Guadeloupe]

Antigua

To the southwest we saw, at the same time, the island of Antigua at a distance of 25 miles. The following sketch I took of it while sailing between the two islands. [Sketch is drawn labeled Island of Antigua.]

The above is an English Island. There is but little fresh water on it, and the inhabitants are obliged to save rain water for use.[p.275]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 276 IS WRITTEN, February 27th 1855]

While yet in sight of Antigua we saw the island of Montserrat directly ahead presenting a lofty, rugged appearance. The following sketch I took of it when distant about 5 miles. The bearing of the island was north west.

[Detailed sketch labeled Island of Montserrat is drawn.]

This island was very interesting and discovered by Columbus. It is 9 miles in diameter and has a beautiful appearance. We saw beautiful farms on the slopes of the mountains, and in connection with farm steads, two windmills, that are probably used in grinding the sugar cane. The mountain sides were studded with cedar, and other trees. The passengers were much delighted with the sight of these islands after being about 6 weeks at sea and having seen no land during that time only the Cape De Verde Islands.

This morning there is excellent health on board.[p.276]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 277 IS WRITTEN, Provisions getting short]

Provisions are being served out. There is no more sugar, nor flour, and 1 lb of biscuit to each adult passenger, only, is being served out instead of the usual weekly allowance of 2 ½ lbs.

In the evening I called a general meeting and after singing and prayer and singing again I arose and spoke to the Saints, saying, "I am very thankful to my God and Father, that we are permitted to meet under such favorable circumstances. We have good health, yea as good as any company that ever crossed these waters considering the condition of the people when they came on board we have pleasant delightful weather, and a good, comfortable, well ventilated ship to sail in. And above all I feel grateful to my God, and Father, for so large a portion of the Holy Spirit, as this company enjoy, whereby they have been patient, and content, under all circumstances, since my first acquaintance with you at Liverpool. And now my brethren and sisters shall we murmur when we have no more sugar, and flour, and when we have only a small portion of bread? Will murmuring and complaining bring us these things or will they only add to our sorrows? We are in [p.277] circumstances where we cannot help ourselves.

The captain and officers are not to blame. Who then is to blame? Probably a little more flour and sugar has been given out than should have been given weekly, and in regard to the biscuit, it appears that the ship broker in Liverpool never shipped a sufficient quantity. Did the Lord know that we would be brought into these circumstances? He did, and has suffered it for our good, and if we acknowledge His hand in this, and be patient, and walk uprightly before Him, He will sanctify the food you have, and give you a relish for your oatmeal, and rice, and biscuit, and tea, and inasmuch as you walk humble before Him, and keep all of is commandments, He will not suffer the destroyer to enter among you to destroy your lives. Brethren, will you do these things? They testified that they would, and be obedient to counsel. We had a joyful and blessed meeting for which I felt to praise the name of my God. And if the Saints will only do as they now feel the Lord will bless us, and prosper us, and would send us relief in a way we do not look for.[p.278]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 279 IS WRITTEN, February 28/55 Opposite the Island Puerto Rico]

Wednesday 28. This morning the captain kindly gave me about ½ a barrel of sugar to give to the feeble, and to those who have young children. I had said to him at the breakfast table that I really felt sorry for those who are in poor health, and for those who have little children, as the latter cannot be pacified without a little sugar to their food, and the former are so languid that they have no appetite for their food without it. Thus he was moved upon to open his heart for which I feel very grateful to God my Heavenly Father.

In the course of the day I give out some of the sugar, and those who received it felt very grateful for it. We are sixty miles south of the island of Puerto Rico: Fine sailing.

Thursday March 1st. During this day we have managed to get the tents finished, and Brother Fletcher cut out cloth for 20 wagon covers. There was cloth enough left for another tent, and so we cut it out, and will have it made tomorrow. Thus we have 20 wagon covers, and 21 tents with which to cross the plains. Today we are sailing past [p.279] St. Domingo.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 280 IS WRITTEN, March 2nd 1855]

The island is directly North about 75 miles. This island is governed and settled by Negroes. It is 350 miles long and about 3/4 as large as the territory of England, not including Wales, or Scotland.

We had an excellent meeting this evening, ‘tween decks. Brothers Fletcher, McDonald, and West spoke their feelings which were very good, and gave some excellent instruction. I afterwards arose and said that I was thankful to God for the peace we enjoy among ourselves, and that the officers on board, especially the second mate, is now more civil, and peaceably disposed. Some of the brethren testified to the preciousness of my counsels and said they had learned much from them and during the last 10 weeks had learned more than they had for 10 years previous. I observed that I loved the confidence of my brethren and their testimonies in my favor, but that I loved the confidence of my God and a conscience void of offense before Him much better.[p.280]

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 281 IS WRITTEN, Opposite the Island of Santo Domingo] As those who are under me are not always capable of judging righteously of the actions of those who are over them. But my God is, and so is my brethren of the Priesthood that are over me, and therefore I must highly prize their favor, and testimonies in my behalf. I said we are learning each other, and those who feel disgraced by us we will withdraw the hand of fellowship from, that they may have full liberty to associate with those they love better. But I am thankful that but very few feel so. Not more than about half a dozen out of four hundred. . . .

Friday 2nd General good health one woman, not in the church has the gravel. I have given her some medicines, and she feels some better.

[NOTE: AT LEFT-HAND SIDE OF PAGE 281 IS WRITTEN, this treatment soon relieved her and she felt very grateful to me.] Hot solutions of Cream of Tarter, Linseed gruel, and about a teaspoon full of spirits of Nitre every hour in a little water, is what [p.281] I have given to her. Some children, and others are occasionally troubled with diarrhea, for which, after the bowels are cleansed, I have given Laudanum and "prepared chalk," which has invariably strengthened the stomach and checked the purging and also giving a better appetite.

[NOTE: AT TOP OF PAGE 282 IS WRITTEN, February 2, 1855]

This sketch I have taken of the South West point of the Island of St. Domingo the bearing of the land is north from the ship, and distant about 20 miles.

[SKETCH OF TWO ISLANDS IS DRAWN LABELED SAINT DOMINGO.] Note: The little island to the right is separate from the island below.

Saturday 3rd. Still in sight of the St. Domingo. Met in council this afternoon . . .

Sunday 4th. A good meeting on the upper deck. Day fine. After much instruction to the Saints, and cautioning them not to murmur for want of provisions, and other things. I counseled the Saints to divide their biscuit, and other articles, one with another, that the present scarcity may be a cause of uniting, and cementing our affections, and not of discord and complaining. The Saints lifted up their hands in token of their willingness to do so, considering it better to show liberality and love toward each other than to be stingy and selfish. We had sacrament in the afternoon when the infant child of Brother and Sister Sutton was blessed. I took it up in my arms and blessed it as an heir of eternal life and a member of the Kingdom of God, and as one whose genealogy shall be reckoned in Zion to come forth in the first resurrection.

This evening excellent fair winds and good sailing.[p.283]

Tuesday 6th. This evening the infant child of Bro. Sutton died about 7 o'clock, of canker.

Wednesday 7th. This morning after singing ,prayer, and some instruction to the Saints, we committed the body of Brother Sutton's child to a watery grave.

The second mate has of late been quite civil and pleasant to the passengers, and we do not hear from him so much profane and abusive language. General peace and good feelings on board. All the flour and biscuit was served out yesterday. The water is getting short. The captain and his lady are more kind and pleasant than previously. With this lady (Mrs. Smallen) I had a long conversation last night after tea. She wished to know if we believed it is right for a man to have more than one wife. I said, yes, when he is commanded of God, but not for his own pleasure.

12th. Anchored at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Sailor fell over board and was drowned.

13th. An old lady of the Danish Saints died, and was buried on an island.[p.284]


Letter from Richard Ballantyne - March 5, 1855
Caribbean Sea, March 5, 1855.

Ballantyne, Richard, [Letter] Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star. 17:19 (May 12, 1855) pp. 300-303. LDS Historical Department Archives

My Dear President Richards--Through the tender mercy of God, our Heavenly Father, I am at this time permitted to take my pen, in order to give you a brief account of the voyage thus far of the ship Charles Buck, and the Saints on board.

We have been longer in accomplishing the voyage to New Orleans than was expected when we left Liverpool, yet for this I am not sorry, as the Saints in consequence have in many important respects gained a profitable experience; and some of them say, that they have learned more during the last few weeks than they had during as many years previous. We have had peace and quietness, and a ready disposition to receive and obey counsel. [p.300] Indeed, in this respect, the British Saints on board seem previously to have been well instructed, and I have had much joy and satisfaction in my presidency over them.

It is well known to yourself and others, that this company of Saints were much exposed while in Liverpool, and that the general health of the company was somewhat affected thereby. Their long detention had somewhat depressed their spirits, and living in unwholesome places, and on scanty diet, had somewhat impaired their health. When they came on board, seasickness prostrated many, yet through the blessings of the Lord attending the ordinances of laying on of hands and anointing with oil, together with such medicines as the spirit of wisdom dictated us to administer, the sick were raised to health, and only three children have died. One of these three was the son of John Grimmett, a boy about seven years old. He got entangled in the ropes of the ship, about a week after we left Liverpool, was jerked overboard and perished in the sea. This was a most distressing accident, as the ship was sailing fast at the time, and the boats were in such a position, and so fastened, that nothing could be done in time to save him. His father and mother were greatly distressed, but I comforted them, and their feelings were soothed, and they feel to acquiesce and acknowledge the hand of the Lord in this severe affliction. His mother had a dream during the night, concerning this accident, and both of his parents had charged him to be careful, but the little fellow, as if doomed to a watery grave, was soon out of their sight, and while leaning over the bulwarks, was jerked into the foaming ocean. This has been a solemn warning to other parents and children. The next death was the infant child of Brother Charles Hartley. It had been afflicted with dysentery before coming on board, and nothing that we could do was sufficient to save its life. The third was the infant child of Brother William Aitkin.

We have had one birth on board, but the infant is suffering severely from canker, and is in a very precarious condition.

The provisions were not of the best quality, and these consisted of oatmeal, flour, biscuit, rice, sugar, tea, and salt. Having no meat nor butter furnished by the ship, the little of the latter article which you generously donated was gratefully appreciated by all good Saints. Some few have murmured because they had not the variety which you furnished for the Helios, but since the reasons were set before them they have generally been content.

Our voyage upon the whole has thus far been very pleasant. The winds have been light and the sea calm. In consequence of head winds after leaving the Irish Channel, we sailed a more easterly course, and came in sight of the Cape de Verde Islands, on the 10th of February. We then obtained a wind that brought us to the Islands of Guadalupe and Antigua, on the 27th. We did not obtain the trade winds so soon, neither were they so strong as usual, which accounts for the length of the voyage.

The captain has been kind, and has allowed the passengers all the privileges which could be expected. The day after I came on board, he gave me charge of the medicine chest, and has since given me the privilege of using such medicines as he had for his private use.

We have got along well with all on board, only the second mate. He began to use the brethren in a rude and tyrannical manner, and to use improper familiarities with the sisters. . . . . . . In various ways he acted in an abusive manner. Sometimes, when calling the people up, he would put his hands into bed, around the heads and necks of the sisters, which caused me to counsel them to leave a mark upon him, or throw something about his ears; but this coming to his ears, he has since let them alone, and he is now quite peaceable.

The provisions began to fail after being six weeks out, and, since, we have had no flour, nor sugar, except about half a barrel of sugar, which the captain gave me, of his own, to divide as medicine among the feeble, and those who have little children. This gave great relief, as the children could not be pacified without something to their oatmeal and rice. He has also sold about three barrels of pork, and some molasses to the passengers, which have given them a better relish for their food, and proved a great blessing. The pork was sold at 5d. and 6d. per lb., and the molasses at 6d. per quart.

There are yet oatmeal and rice enough; and one pound of biscuit a-piece to be distributed today. Last week there was [p.301] only one pound of biscuit served out to each adult.

It appears there was not a sufficiency of biscuit put on board at Liverpool for the voyage, but of the flour and sugar I am not able to speak positively. I am however inclined to believe that these articles were rather liberally served out during the fore part of the voyage.

I am glad that I took no charge of the provisions, as the captain might have blamed us for extravagance. Neither had any of the brethren the charge of this business. The second mate always got out, and kept an account of, the provisions served out, and neither the captain nor myself knew till the sugar and flour were gone, that there was any danger of being short.

I do no know that any one is to blame, as the voyage was not expected to be so lengthy, except that Mr. S., the broker, did not ship a sufficient quantity of biscuit. The captain did not feel to be stingy nor rigorous, so long as there was plenty, neither did he expect that any article would not hold out. It was served out by measure, instead of being weighed, and this probably is the cause of the sugar and flour failing so soon. But this cannot be said of the biscuit. There never was biscuit enough shipped to serve during the voyage. Monday Morning, 12th March

I resume my pen, beloved President Richards, to give you a few more items of news. And, first, I would inform you that we got 21 tents made and 20 wagon covers cut out some time ago. The sisters engaged in making the tents with much pleasure, and while thus employed they enjoyed themselves exceedingly.

I would also mention that we held a Conference on board on the 8th and 9th, to refresh the Saints, and much precious instruction was given, and a large portion of the Holy Spirit was enjoyed. Elders Fletcher and Speight are making out the minutes, to be sent to New York and St Louis; and I thought of also sending you a copy of them, but to save postage it may be as well to let you have them through the medium of the Mormon, or Brother Snow’s paper.

Many of the Saints have had nothing to eat but oatmeal cakes or porridge for several days, and they have been on two quarts of water daily for three days, yet they feel happy and content. We have excellent health on board, with few exceptions, though the people don’t look rugged as they probably would, had they been better fed. The experience we have had in being supplied with provisions by a ship broker in Liverpool, should be a caution to the Saints, and should inspire them with many feelings of gratitude for the liberality you have manifested in providing for them across the ocean.

[It should be borne in mind that the passengers on the Charles Buck were transferred from the Helios by her captain after she had stranded, which is the reason why we had not the provisioning of the Charles Buck. --Ed. Star.]

My health began to give way about two weeks ago, in consequence of much care and anxiety for the Saints, and continual labors in administering to the sick, and imparting instruction, but I am again recruiting; and I thank the Lord that He has enabled me during the whole voyage to be around administering blessings to His people. I hope you have recovered from the excessive fatigues an anxiety that devolved on you through many unfavorable circumstances connected with the shipping of this company and that you have secured payment for damages sustained; and I pray God, our Eternal Father, to bless and uphold you.

The Saints on board, during the Conference, proposed a special vote of thanks to you, for your great care and kindness towards them, and it was heartily and unanimously carried. A very sincere and cordial vote of thanks was also give to Elder Edward Martin, for the valuable services he render to these Saints in Liverpool. And I was very happy to see that neither your kindness nor Elder Martin’s has been forgotten.

We are now within thirty or forty miles of the Mississippi River, with a good fair wind, and we hope to be in the river alongside the tug, sometime today.

I might here say, that a full supply of provisions will have to be provided for the company from New Orleans to St. Louis, as there are no surplus stores. About 320 of the Saints will go to St. Louis. The others will have to stay in New Orleans a short time, to obtain means to take them to St. Louis or Cincinnati. I think all the Danish will make their way to St. Louis. They held a Conference, and have had their own meeting during the voyage. They feel well. Elder Hogan has given them good instruction. [p.302]

It has been thought wisdom to provide for the Danish Saints at New Orleans, the same as for the P.E. Fund passengers, as they are not acquainted with the coin of the country, nor the prices of provision, &c. They feel thankful that we have proposed doing so.

Elder Fletcher, and the other three presidents of wards, have been a great help to me; they are good men, and have always been unanimous and cordial in the discharge of every duty. We have had prayer meetings morning and evening, preaching and sacrament meetings on the Sabbath, and a council meeting of the Priesthood once a week. Three have been cut off from the Church--two sisters, and a Danish brother, who was baptized in Liverpool. One of the sisters desired to be cut off that she might have full liberty to keep company with the first mate. The other was cut off for general inconsistency of conduct, and keeping company, during untimely hours, with the second mate. Though these have been a dishonor to us, the sisters generally have respected themselves, obeyed counsel, and maintained a modest and becoming reserve. We have had a guard all the time, which has been a little annoyance to the sailors, but through it they have been kept out of the between-decks, and some that might have fallen have been preserved. As one of the sisters cut off is a P.E. Fund passenger, it is expected that she will pay her own passage, in the event of leaving us.

All the receipts have been signed. March 17th.

I again take my pen to inform you that we left New Orleans last night, late, on board the fine steamer Michigan. Through the exertions and proffered help of Elder McGaw, together with the liberal contributions of those Saints who had a few shillings, we have taken the company along en masse. One of the sisters before named left us, refused to pay her passage, and secreted what goods or clothing she had. Brother McGaw accompanies us to St. Louis.

The health of the Saints in general is very good, but we are greatly crowded, as there were about 150 deck passengers on board before ours were shipped, and there was no other boat in port for St. Louis, only the Michigan. It was, therefore, our only alternative to crowd our passengers on after the best part of the boat had been taken up. There are on board over 500 deck passengers in all. This may militate against the health, as it does against the convenience and comfort, of the Saints, but we trust, through exertion and care on our part, and the blessings of the Almighty, not may will perish on these waters. The river is very low, which is the cause of so few boats being in the trade at present.

Praying the blessings of the Almighty to rest upon you, I remain your brother in Christ, R. Ballantyne P.S.-- Elder McGaw sends his love, and he will write you soon. R.B. [p.303]


Letter from Richard Ballantyne - March 13, 1855
Ballantyne, Richard, "Arrivals," The Mormon, April 7, 1855, pp. 30-31 LDS Historical Department Archives

Near New Orleans, March 13, 1855

Dear Brother Taylor:

I take my pen to inform you of our present position and circumstances, on board the ship Charles Buck, which left Liverpool on the 19th of January for New Orleans, having on board 400 Saints and a few other passengers. The company are in good health, good spirits, and are contented and happy. It is eight weeks tomorrow since we left Liverpool. Provisions began to fail two weeks since, and during the last few days we have been on short allowance of water. The voyage has been longer than was anticipated. Nevertheless, we have had no murmurings. The Saints have been patient and happy.

We are now in the Mississippi River, being tugged up to New Orleans in company with other three ships. We crossed the bar this morning. Yesterday cast anchor, for the night, outside the bar, where one of the sailors fell overboard and was drowned, and where at two o’clock this morning, an old Danish lady died. We buried her on one of the little islands at the mouth of the river. We have lost four children by death during the voyage, and had one birth and five marriages. Three have been cut off from the Church.

We divided the company into four wards, and each one appointed a president with his two counselors and two teachers. We had also a guard to protect property and virtue, which probably saved some from the evil power and influence of ungodly men.

Most of the company will sail for St. Louis. About 70 persons may be obliged to tarry in New Orleans to provide means for further progress. We would gladly have taken them all with us, but this is a poor company and there is no means to help the needy.

A part of the company are Scandinavians. They are a good people, and Elder Eric M. Hogan has had the presidency over them.

I would say for the whole company that for the light they have attained they are as good a people as I ever associated with.

I hardly expect to see you before I return to the mountains, but if we had got here a little earlier I had entertained a hope of making you a visit, both that I might be refreshed with your company and counsel, and benefited in other respects.

We had a conference on board, a few days ago, which lasted two days, and we had a blessed good time. The Saints were much refreshed and encouraged. Praying God, our Eternal Father, to bless and prosper you in your responsible calling.

I remain your brother in the gospel, Richard Ballantyne

March 19, 1855

I write this postscript to inform you that after tarrying at New Orleans two days, the entire company was shipped for St. Louis on board the steamer “Michigan.” Last night we left New Orleans. On the previous date I said we probably would have to leave some at New Orleans ; but through the liberality of [p.30] the Saints themselves, and the exertions of Brother McGaw, together with aid which he has liberally proffered, we took the responsibility of putting all of the Saints on board.

There was only one steamboat in port for St. Louis and we had to pay $3.50 per head for passengers over fourteen years, and for children between one and fourteen years, we pay half price, infants free . . . .

Before our people came on board, there were about one hundred and fifty other deck passengers on the boat, which makes it very unpleasant, inconvenient and unhealthy. But the Saints are generally in good health at present and I trust through our efforts and the blessings of the Lord, not many of them will perish. R. [Richard] B. [Ballantyne] [p.31]


McFarland, Archibald. Reminiscences (Ms 5333), pp. 8-10. LDS Historical Deparment Archives

. . . After I got married commenced the most eventful period of my life for I with all my Father’s family started to the gathering place of the people of God in Utah. We left Liverpool or I should have said was going to leave Liverpool on the ship Helious [Helios] but after we had embarked and had been on board two nights during a storm she broke loose from the anchor in the river and run aground and the government officers would no let her got to sea until she had been inspected on the dry docks so we was put ashore again and had to stay one month. She was advertised to sail on the twentieth of December 1854 but we did not get to sail until some time in January 1855. We then sailed in ship called the Charles Buck. And as there was [p.8] some dispute between our shipping agent Brother Franklin D. Richards and the captain of the “Helious” we did not get the provisions that was provided for us. And the consequence was that before we got half over the sea our provisions began to run short and we had rather hard times but then it was only a prelude to prepare us for what was before us. Suffice it to say we was greatly blessed of the Lord in our journey and arrived all safe at New Orleans some time in March. From here we took steamer to Saint Louis up the Mississippi River. We was eleven days on the river between Mew Orleans and St. Louis we stayed here some eight days and met with some of our old friends who were very kind I will just mention some of their names, formost among them was Alexander Dow who has since come to Utah and apostatized and gone back, and Brothers James & Thomas Adamson from the Boreland who were very kind. James never came to Utah but Thomas gathered that same year and is now a faithful man of God. From there we took steam boat for Atchison in Kansas. We was nine days from Saint Louis to Atchison. There was then but few inhabitants in this part of the west there was only some three houses in the town. We moved out some six miles from the river and took up a section of land, that is to say the brethren who were in charge of the emigration for that year. And we the emigrants commenced to build houses and fence and plow the land. We stayed here until the second day of July when we was organized in to a company with Richard Ballantyne as captain. William Glover as captain of the guard. While we was camped here cholera broke out in the camp but through the blessings of the Lord there was not many died. There was eleven persons to each wagon to travel across the plains and there being nine of our own family there was only two persons traveling in our wagon. The cattle and wagons belonging to the P. E. Emigration Company and the emigrants paying so much for their use. Therefore there was in our wagon my father & mother with their family consisting of myself and wife, I being the [p.9] only one married at the time. My brothers James, William & Robert with my sisters Mary Ann & Janet there was also a young woman by the name of Jane Pilkington and a motherless girl by the name of Eliza [Elizabeth] Pinder. Our traveling from the Missouri River was not then as it is now with the exceptions of the wagon tracks that former companies had made. It was a trackless desert, we saw the first herd of buffalo the second day after we started and if I mind right killed one the third day. We would average about fifteen miles per day and we saw herds of buffalo and deer almost every day and when we got up on the Platte River the whole country seemed alive with them. We killed what we wanted for use but never wantingly destroyed any. Our journey across the plains and through the mountains was very labourous and wearying. And I have many times thought there was no comparison between us and ancient Isreal for with them the Lord preserved their shoes and clothes but with us when we arrived in the valley of Salt Lake the most of our clothes were wore done [PROBABLY MEANING, down] and our shoes wore off our feet. We arrived in the valley on the 25th of September 1855 almost wore out men and women of us but full of hope and full of the spirit of our holy religion.[p.10]

Journal of Richard Ballantyne Emigrating Company
Richard Ballantyne Emigrating Company. Journal. pp.1-45 LDS Historical Department Archives

A general record of the organization, transactions, and circumstances of a company of Saints on board the ship Charles Buck crossing from Liverpool to New Orleans under the Presidency of Elders R. [Richard] Ballantyne.

The Saints came on board this ship on the 15th of January 1855. The laying in the Bramley Moor Docks we remained in the dock until the morning of the 17th. By this time the Saints had got their berths arranged their luggage and passed their inspection of government officers [p.1] not one of them was rejected by the doctor all were in good health and spirits to begin their journey. At 10 o'clock the ship let her moorings and was towed out of the dock into the River where she lay waiting for the evening tide. At 8 o'clock P.M. the steam tug came along side of us for the purpose of taking us out to sea. Mr. Smaley [William Smalley] the captain came on board at this time having come down the River with the steam tug. Having got the steam tug fastened to the ship we put to sea with a fair wind [p.2] and a fine night. Not many of the Brethren saw the ship start as we were holding a meeting between the decks at the time, Elder Ballantyne having called on the brethren to meet together to read to them the letter of appointment which he had received from President Richards, appointing him to be the president of the Saints on board this ship and Elders Erick G.M. Hogan and Mark Fletcher as his counselors. The letter was read and gave great satisfaction to all present - it promised a safe and speedy passage across the Atlantic inasmuch as the Saints carry [p.3] out the instructions given them by Elder [Richard] Ballantyne.

Elder Ballantyne spoke to the Brethren of the importance of keeping themselves pure and virtuous and of walking as becometh the Saints of God that the captain and sailors might read our religion by observing our walk and conduct. He exhorted them above all, to use their influence to preserve the virtue of the sisters by counseling them not to associate with the sailors and strangers on board and to protect them in every possible manner that not one of them may be deceived by any means [p.4] while crossing the seas. It was decided that the ship be divided into 4 wards that each ward have a president with his 2 counselors and 2 teachers to hold prayer meetings every morning and evening and to go round among the Saints as circumstances might require to administer to them and build them up in their most holy faith. The following are the names of those appointed for each ward; Ward No. 1 Erick G.M. Hogan president, Stefanus Moss and Hans Lunblad counselors; Rasmus Brun [Brunn] and Lars Nelson [Nilson] teachers.[p.5] Ward No. 2 William West, president, and William H. Sturrock & Thomas. Orr, counselors, etc. Thomas Palmer and Archibald MacFarland [McFarland] teachers. Ward No. 3 Mark Fletcher president. James Mercer, Samuel Mullner, counselors; George Crowley and Joseph Leadbrook [Ladbrook] teachers. Ward No. 4 David Hutchinson, president. Matthew King and William Irvin counselors. Samuel Park and John Todd, teachers.

Council meeting January 20th Elder Hogan opened the meeting by prayer. Elder Ballantyne presided. The council discussed the following subjects; [p.6] keeping guard by night, cleaning out the ship, arranging about the water closets, and the management of the cooking galley. It was unanimously voted that each ward take it in their turn to guard the hatchways by night, cleaning out the ship every morning and that the water closets on the left hand side of the ship be left for the use of the ladies and those on the right side for the gentlemen. The management of the cooking galley was found to be a very difficult subject [p.7] to legislate about and as some of the brethren were getting rather warm on the subject, Elder Ballantyne proposed that we have a special council for the purpose of discussing the subject which thing was readily agreed to. It was proposed and carried that we have 2 meetings on Sundays and 2 testimony meetings during the week. Monday and Thursday evenings were fixed on for this purpose. The council adjourned until Monday the 22nd at 2 p.m.

January 21st Elder [David] Hutchinson opened the meeting with prayer. Elder Ballantyne addressed the Saints [p.8] for a short time. He said it was a privilege which he had not enjoyed for some time. He had been on the sea before so that it was nothing new to him but he had never crossed the Atlantic under so favorable circumstances as we were doing at the present time. The winds and the waves were in our favor for which blessings we should be thankful to our Heavenly Father. He exhorted the Saints to be faithful that they might have the blessings of health and strength that disease and sickness might have no place among them, [p.9] that the spirit of God might be with them to protect them from every evil thing that might beset their path while journeying up to Zion. He had been in this church for twelve years and he knew by experience that the blessings of God could only be attained by obedience in keeping the commandments of God. He reminded the Saints of the objects they ought to have in view in gathering up to Zion. Namely that the might be able more fully to learn the will of God and do it. He exhorted all the Saints to bear with each other's [-] he exhorted husbands [p.10] especially to be kind to their wives and wives to be subject to their husbands and to assist each other in training up their children in the fear of the Lord that they may prove a blessing to them in time to come. The sacrament was next administered by Elders [Mark] Fletcher and [William] West after which, privilege was given to the Saints to tell their faults to each other, but not a fault was mentioned. All who embraced the privilege granted them to speak bore testimony of the peace and unity that existed and expressed [p.11] it as their opinion that a better company of Saints never left Liverpool for that purpose of gathering to the Sand of Zion. Elder Fletcher dismissed the meeting by prayer. Notice was given that there would be a testimony meeting in the evening. Elder [William] West opened the evening meeting by prayer when many of the Saints present bore testimony of the truth of the work of the last days and much of the spirit of the Lord was [- - -].

At 2 p.m. the council most to consult the [- - - -] for the better regulation of the cooking [-] as some [p.12] of the sisters & brethren were suffering on account of their not being able to get their victuals cooked in due season. There are two cooks in the galley one of them was provided by F.D.[Franklin D.] Richards (he is a Danish Brother by the name of [Anders] Nielson). In order to cook for the Scandinavian Saints as for as he is concerned there have been no complaining the other is an Irishman, not a member of our church. He has agreed with the captain to work his passage to America as passenger cook. There are on board of this ship a number of this man’s countrymen with whom it appears he [p.13] is particularly connected and he cooks for them in preference to others and strongly depriving the Saints of their rights. How to get this man to do justice to all parties was the principle difficulty the council had to contend with. Elder Ballantyne cautioned the brethren in council against making too many laws, reminding them that the Prophet Joseph said that as many laws was a curse to any people, and spoke of many inconveniences at sea that we could not remedy. It was proposed and carried that each ward furnish 2 men [p.14] to stand guard at the galley at their turns to see that justice be done to all parties and that the cooks place on the fire the pans and kettles as the guard directs. The following are the names of those who volunteered for that purpose: No. 1 Ward A.G. Sandkrist & Hans [POSSIBLY Jens] Gundersen, Scandinavians. No. 2 Heinz B. [Henry B.][S.] Wardman, Joshua Dixon,[-] Englishmen. No. 3 Ward [Thomas S.] G. Bell, John George Pinder. No. 4 Ward Angus McDonald, Augustus Martin.

After having discussed the above subject Elder R.[Richard] Ballantyne proposed that there be a meeting called for the purpose of ascertaining the feeling of the sisters with respect to their [p.15] associating with the sailors and strangers on board and to counsel them not to go on deck alone after dark. At night at ½ past 7 the sisters being assembled together Elder Ballantyne opened the meeting and explained to them that the object he had in view in calling them together was to learn what their feelings were with regard to associating with the sailors and strangers that are on board this ship. He also told them what were the feelings of the sisters in Zion with respect to men out of the church and in what light they look on the Gentiles who go there with the idea of being permitted to associate with them. [p.16] He showed the sisters that it would be time enough for them to begin to preach to men out of the church when they were more of the priesthood there to officiate and if any of the sailors wished to learn anything about the principles of this church & seemed to be religiously inclined they were just to direct them to some of the elders for any information they want and not to let their feelings be turned towards them by any crafty device of the devil. For the Devil can be religious when it answers his purpose. He counselled them not to go on deck after 9 o'clock at night [p.17] without some one accompanying them to protect them. The sisters agreed to carry out the council given on the above subject. Some of them said that they wanted nothing to do with either the mates sailors or any other men out of the church. They were going up to Zion that they might get husbands from the Lord.

January 26th at a general testimony meeting this evening an evil spirit attempted to palm itself upon the Saints through the medium of one of the brethren. Elder Ballantyne was there presiding over the meeting and he rebuked the spirit in the name of Jesus [p.18] to which the Saints responded Amen.

He gave some excellent instruction on the subject of evil influence and showed the Saints that the best of them were liable to be deceived by them and that it did not prove our brother to be a bad man or living in wickedness because our evil spirit had taken possession of him and manifested itself through him this evening.

January 27th I have to record an unfortunate circumstance which happened this morning about 1/4 to 8 o'clock. A little boy belonging to one of the brethren was leaning over the Larboard side of the ship and while in that [p.19] position he got entangled in a rope, which was connected to one of the sails and was thrown over board by it. His father was standing close by and gave the alarm when some of the sailors flew to the boats, others to the ropes with the intention of stopping the ship and towing a boat in order to save the little fellow from a watery grave but the boats were all lashed down and the ship was going at the rate of 8 or 10 miles per hour. Besides there was a heavy sea running at the time which would have made it almost impossible for the boat to have got near him before the [p.20] spirit had left its body and gone to a better place. The captain came on deck and before the sailors had got the boat untied gave orders for the ship to pursue her course. The name of the boy was George Grimmet [Grinnett] aged 7 years, the son of John and Sarah Grimmet from the [-] Branch of the Birmingham Conference.

Sunday January 28th. The Saints held divine service between the decks at the center hatchway. Elder Ballantyne was rather weak and unable to speak much but he felt that it was his duty to say something for the comfort of those [p.21] who had been caused to mourn by unexpectedly losing their little boy in a manner that but few of the Saints have ever experienced while crossing the mighty deep. He brought forward the cases of David, Job and many others of the ancients as well as modern servants of the Lord, to show how they tempered their feeling by the principles they believed when troubles came upon them which were similar in their nature, to this which has befallen Brother and Sister Grimmett [Grinnett]. He counselled the Saints against going on the forecastle and to be very careful and keep their children from the sides of the bulwarks [p.22] and other parts of the ship where there was any danger.

February 3rd. There was a council meeting convened today for the purpose of settling some differences which had risen between Elder Ballantyne and Elder King - The council was opened with prayer by Elder [William] West & Elder Ballantyne presided. Elder Ballantyne having removed Elder King's boy in order to accommodate a sister that was sick some differences afterwards arose between Elder King's wife and the sister that had been removed. Elder Ballantyne happened to be going through at the time and was using his influence to reconcile the parties when Elder King [p.23] came up and got rather warm about the matter and charged Elder Ballantyne with acting with partiality in wanting the boy removed. Elder Ballantyne said he did not bring the case before the council because Brother King had offended him personally but because the case involved an important principle in the Kingdom of God and if such things were allowed to pass unnoticed they would lead to anarchy and confusion Elder [Mark] Fletcher bore testimony to the statement of Elder Ballantyne. Elder [Eric] Hogan and several of the brethren spoke of their feelings with regard to the case all agreeing in their sentiments that [p.24] President Ballantyne had acted right and that Brother King had done wrong in saying what he had. Brother King acknowledged his error and asked forgiveness. The council unanimously forgave him and expressed themselves that they believed him to be a good man and that he would not have said what he had if he had kept his temper. Elder [Mark] Fletcher spoke about the cleaning out of the ship. He thought it would be much better if each family were to clean their own berths instead of each ward cleaning out the whole ship in their turns. Several of the brethren were of the same opinion. Elder [p.25] Ballantyne said he was afraid that if the responsibility fell upon so many that none of them would feel themselves bound to do it. It was proposed and carried that the president of each ward be responsible for the cleanliness of his own ward. The council was dismissed by prayer from Elder MackFarland [McFarland].

February 4th. The Saints held a meeting on deck this morning for the purpose of preaching the gospel to the captain, sailors, strangers and in fact to the whole city if they had chosen to assemble together within the range of the brethren's voices but they did not seem [p.26] inclined to come and hear the gospel of the Son of God which was preached in plainness by Elders [Mark] Fletcher & [David] Hutchinson. There is no doubt but the mates & captain heard all that was said and they were all the time about the cabin. As for the sailors they did not come very far from the forecastle and the meeting being close to the cabin they could not hear very well. Those of the sailors who were off watch had gone to bed and were very much displeased that those praying Mormons as they term us, should be allowed to have the bell ring at such a rate as to awaken them out of their sleep. [p.27] For be it known that the captain had given orders to have the bell rung so that every one in the city might know what was about to take place. As for the strangers who are most of them Catholics they followed the example of the sailors and kept too far off to hear anything that was being preached. They appear to have got enough of Mormonism already for the brethren have been discussing with them almost every night since they came to live among us and although there are some among them who are very clever in bringing forth arguments calculated [p.28] to overthrow the arguments of sectarians in general they found that they did not apply to Mormonism and they appear to be tired if not actually afraid of meeting the Brethren in discussion.

Saturday February 10th. We came in sight of the Cape De Verd Islands about 12 o'clock today. It was very cheering to us all to have a view of land once more, it being over 3 weeks since we lost sight of the Welsh Mountains.

Sunday February 11th. The Saints assembled on deck at 1/2 10 a.m. to see the body of a child which died about 2 o'clock this morning, committed to the watery element.[p.29] Elder Ballantyne made a prayer and discourse suitable to the occasion. The position of the ship at this time was Latitude 17.30 North Long 26.52 West at 2 p.m. The Saints assembled as customary at the center hatchway in the tween decks to partake of the sacrament.

Council meeting Saturday February 17th. Elder [Mark] Fletcher opened the meeting with prayer. Elder Ballantyne presided. The presidents of the various wards represented the Saints under their charge in good standing, with one exception, and that was the case of a Sister belonging to No. 2 Ward. This Sister [p.30] had become rather too familiar with the first mate and the teachers being constantly on the look out to see that nothing unbecoming or unrighteous be practiced on deck, she wished to be from under this jurisdiction as will be seen from the following letter from her to President Ballantyne: Dear Brother,

I am very sorry to have put you to so much trouble. I did not know that I was not able to take care of myself. I cannot go to the stairs head but there are men sent after me. That, I will not stand so you may cut me off as I do [p.31] not want to put these men to any more trouble as I am capable of taking care of myself. That has been my wish for some time. Yours Truly, Elizabeth Kirkpatrick

Elder Ballantyne said he had seen Sister Kirkpatrick since receiving the above letter and he had tried all that he could to get her to alter her course but he had failed to make the least impression on her mind. She seemed determined to be cut from the church although she owned she was rejecting the gospel and the only plan of salvation by so doing. Therefore it was his mind that she [p.32] have the desire of her heart. Elder [Mark] Fletcher said it grieved him very much when he saw Sister Kirkpatrick keeping company with the First Mate. When Elder Ballantyne first spoke to him about her he felt that it would be best to bear with her for a short time to see how things would turn out but he now felt like cutting her off that she might feel her true position. Elder [PROBABLY Thomas] Orr said he knew the girl and had expected better things of her for she had seen & heard enough to have known better therefore it was his mind that she be cut off from the church. Elder Ballantyne called [p.33] on all who were in favor of cutting her off from the church to manifest the same by raising the right hand. Carried unanimously. The council was dismissed with prayer from Elder Hogan from February 17th to the 3rd of March no business came before the council for their consideration. All things have gone on as peaceable and with as much union as could be expected under the circumstances. The Saints have continued to hold their meetings on deck and in other parts of the ship & have been built up in their holy faith by the discourses & instructions of [p.34] President Ballantyne. The presidents of wards and others of the priesthood and but few have strayed from the path of truth and righteousness but today there was a case brought before the council. The following are the minutes of the same council meeting 3rd March Elder West opened the meeting with prayer. . . .

March 8th at ½ past 10 a.m. the Saints met in the capacity of conference. Elder Ballantyne presided and gave much good instructions to the Saints with respect to the manner of regulating their diet, conduct &c. On arriving at New Orleans and in going to St. Louis. The conference adjourned at 1 past M. [PROBABLY MEANING midday] until 6 p.m. conference met according to adjournment to transact business and receive further instructions conference again adjourned to ½ past 10 the following day. [UNCLEAR]

March 9th. Conference met at ½ past 10 & continued together until 1 p.m. A motion was carried [p.38] by the unanimous vote of the Saints that a subscription be entered into for the purpose of giving to Elder Ballantyne a testimonial of their affection and esteem for the kind attention he has paid to their temporal as well as spiritual interests during the voyage and that 6 men be appointed to carry into effect the above proposition. The following are the names of the men who were appointed by the conference for this purpose. Mark Fletcher, E.G.M. Hogan, William. West, David Hutchinson, William McFarland, George. Speight [SPEICHT]. Conference adjourned [p.39] until 7 o'clock p.m. Conference met at the time appointed, when the names of the various authorities of the church were presented to the Saints according to the usual method and were [UNCLEAR PROBABLY sustained] unanimously. The following is the representation of the conference: 2 high priest, 25 elders, 16 priests, 16 teachers, 4 deacons, 225 members, 3 excommunicated, 4 dead, 1 baptized, 91 unbaptized children, one of the 3 cut off belonged to the Scandinavians, who composed No. 1 Ward and was cut off by them for disobedience and unbelief. His name is A.G. Landkrist. At 9 o'clock p.m. the Conference was dismissed by prayer from Elder Sturwick [Sturrock]. [p.40] The following are the names of those who have been married during the voyage:

Mark Fletcher born in Faskin, Scotland aged 28 years to Mary Cook born in [-] Lincolnshire England aged 22 years on the 14th of January 1855. Elder Richard Ballantyne officiated.

Anton Christensen aged 24 born Normask Ribe Amt Lylland Denmark to Caroline Nilson aged 19 born in Nougent Ellang Lylland Denmark.

Anders Christensen aged 21 born in Romark Lylland Denmark to Grethe Christensen [p.41] aged 24 born in Norr Voorcin Lylland Denmark on the 18th of January Elder Hogan officiated.

Robert Nish born in Holytown Parish of Bothwell County Lanmark Scotland aged 18 years Agness Wilson born in Newarthill Parish of Bothwell County of Lanmark aged 18 years.

Joseph Moon born in Burrowash Derbyshire England aged 20 Emma Cook born on Burrowash Derbyshire England on the 22nd Elder Ballantyne officiated.

Samuel Stanton born in Leadbury Herefordshire England aged 24 Maria Bayliss born in Leadbury [p.42] Herefordshire England, aged 23 years on the 24th of January 1855. Elder Fletcher officiated. [p.42]

The following are the names of those who have died on the voyage:

Samuel Hartley the son of Charles and Eliza Hartley died on the 11th of February aged 1 year and four months old.

Ellen Aitkin daughter of William and Jane Aitkin died on the 13th of February aged 1 year & 4 months.

Charles Buck Sutton the son of Josiah and Dinah Sutton. This child was born on the 19th of February and died 2 weeks after. [p.43]

Sarah Autosen aged 57 years died on the morning of the 14th of March and was buried at the Balize at the mouth of the Mississippi.

John Eccleston aged 28 years. This man was drowned on the night of the 16th by walking overboard indirectly after the Saints had got on board the steam boat Michigan in order to pursue their journey to St. Louis.

Ann Hutchinson aged 1 year & 8 months the daughter of David & Sarah Hutchinson died on the night of the 16th . It was entered on Captain Allamy Plantation on the left bank of the river. [p.44]

Thomas Sutton the son of Josiah & Dinah Sutton died on the night of the 21st and was buried on the right bank of the river.

Kenna [UNCLEAR; POSSIBLY Kerena] oss the daughter of Stephanes and Davidsine Moss died on the morning of the 26th aged 6 years. Was buried on the right bank of the river a few miles below Chester.

Christine Nels Christensen the daughter of Nels and Engel Christensen. This child died on the morning of the 26 and was buried on the right side of the river St. Jinerr. [p.45]
-----------------------

John J. Boyd

1858 Voyage

Diary of Anton Andersen Jansen Jansen, Anton Andersen.  Diaries (Ms 745), fd. 2, pp. 90-101. 
LDS Church Historical Department




   Tuesday, March 2.  Still in Hamburg - no way has opened for our trip as of yet.

   Wednesday, March 3.  Brother Iversen talked to the agent and he promised to get through to Bremen to see about the trip.

   Saturday, March 6.  It was presented to the company, and unanimously accepted, that we should pay into a fund $5.00 for everyone over 12 year old and $2.50 for those between 1 and 12.  This was to pay for our lodging and food along the way, which amounted to about 3 R.S. 8 M daily.  Any money left over would be used for company emergencies.  I was chosen foreman for Group Number 4.  This evening about 9:00 p.m. we started toward Bremen by train.  We went through stations at Bosehøede, Hanøver and got to Bremen about 10:30 p.m. and boarded the ship.  The ship left about 2:00 a.m. and things went well until about midnight.  Then a storm came up and they had to lower the sails.  They didn’t fire up the motors but let the ship drift around in the North Sea about 50 or 60 miles out.  We all got seasick.  Some of us were less sick than the others.  After a day of sickness I got so I could help the others - which I did with great pleasure and thanked God that I could.

   Sunday, March 7.  The weather became better.

   Monday, March 8.  We’re still on the sea.  There is no wind.  They have no coal and we’re out of food.  So we returned to Bremen Harbor.  We got there about 7:00 p.m.

   Wednesday, March 10.  We remained in the harbor.  Sister Madsen died this morning.   Some of the brethren and I carried her off the ship and into town.  This is where she’ll be buried.

   Thursday, March 11.  We were out and should have sailed today but couldn’t because of Iversen.   [p.90]

   Friday, March 12 - Sunday, March 14, 1858.  We sailed out of the harbor about noon and continued heading rapidly west until we could see the coast of England.  We dropped anchor in the late afternoon and could have gone ashore - but decided to remain on board.

   Monday, March 15.  We got to the railroad about 10:45 a.m. and rode to Liverpool, arriving about 6:00 p.m.  We were lodged in quarters made especially for emigrants and we had things very good.

   Tuesday, March 16.  In Liverpool - I looked around the town a little.  There are many happy people here.

   Wednesday, March 17.  In Liverpool - I wrote a letter home.

   Thursday, March 18.  We boarded the ship, John Bright, in the afternoon.

   Friday, March 19.  We anchored just out of the harbor.  We were given provisions for eight days.  Several attendants boarded.

   Saturday, March 20.  More ship's helpers boarded.  We were all given medical examinations.

   Sunday, March 21.  Still under preparation.

   Monday, March 22.  We weighted anchor and a tugboat pulled us out into the open sea about 2:00 p.m.   It stayed with us until about 2:00 a.m. the next morning.

   Tuesday, March 23.  Beautiful and still weather.  We didn't sail far today.  But we are all well. [p.91]

   Wednesday, March 24.  A steamship came by about 10:30 a.m. and towed us until about 9:00 p.m.

   Thursday, March 25.  Good wind.  We sailed on quickly - beautiful weather.

   Friday, March 26.  Beautiful weather - didn't sail very far.

   Saturday, March 27.  The same.

   Sunday, March 28.  Fast day.  We got a strong wind and sailed speedily.  Several people go seasick today.  Sophie had been sick a couple of days before the strong winds.  She got very sick today.  I'm even a little sick.

   Monday, March 29.  Good weather - we were all on deck.  Received more provisions.

   Tuesday, March 30.  Northeast wind.  Good weather and we sailed forward beautifully.

   Wednesday, March 31.  Went on the same.

   Thursday, April 1, 1858.  Good wind.  We sailed about 20 miles an hour.

   Friday, April 2.  Hard wind, but not exactly on our course.

   Saturday, April 3.  Good weather.  We all washed our clothes and bathed.  We all got on deck today. [p.92]

   Sunday, April 4. Good weather in the morning.  We were all on deck and feeling very good.  Bad weather began in the afternoon and it stormed all night.

   Monday, April 5.  Bad head wind.  Peter Jorgensen's little boy died this evening.

   Tuesday, April 6.  In the night there was a terrible wind.  It blew some safety rails off the ship and blew in the door to the kitchen.  But it settled down in the day and we made good time.

   Wednesday, April 7.  Still weather and we didn't move.  We bathed and cleaned up our belongings.

   Thursday, April 8.  Good weather and we sailed back on course.  Sophie and Karin and some of the others who had been sick began in feel better and get up and around.

   Friday, April 9.  Good weather.  The sea got rough around noon, but later it calmed down and we made good time the whole night.

   Saturday, April 10 - Wednesday, April 14.  Good weather.  We sailed on making good time.

   Thursday, April 15.  A sister from Silkeborg (the Aarhus group) died.

   Friday, April 16 - Tuesday, April 20.  Sailed on, making good time.

   Wednesday, April 21.  Good weather but didn't sail too far.

   Thursday, April 22.  Beautiful and very still weather. [p.93]

   Friday, April 23, 1858.  Morning fog.  Good wind, but we couldn't sail before the afternoon.  We sighted land around 3:00 p.m.  We sailed alongside the land and our  hearts were filled with jubilation and joy.  We thanked God for bringing us safely over the Great Waters and to Ephraim's land of inheritance.  A tugboat came out and pulled us into New York Harbor.  We anchored and remained on board for the night.  We were busy getting our clothes together and preparing to go ashore tomorrow.

   Saturday, April 24.  We finished getting our gear ready and were examined by a doctor.  A steamboat came out and took us to shore where we were recorded.  A Brother Stichousen met us and was a great help.  We went to an emigrants' hotel (Walker Hotel), where we had a very good time both physically and spiritually.  There were very good rooms.  Better, I think, than many places in Scandinavia.  It cost $1.00 per day.

   Sunday, April 25.  We stayed at the hotel and had a good rest.

   Monday, April 26.  We got ready and went to the station.  We got our clothes from the ship.  The package that Anders and I had our clothes in was gone.  We went a short ways on the ferryboat and then got on a train.  We went on day and night.

   Tuesday, April 27.  We stopped in a town by Lake Erie.  We had a fantastic meal for 25 cents a person.  We changed trains there and continued our trip.  460 miles out of New York.

   Wednesday, April 28.  Got into Cleveland this morning and had lunch there.  We changed trains and continued on.

   Thursday, April 29.  To Chicago.  We got off the train and went to the Hotel Waverly House.  A nice place.

   Friday, April 30.  It's about 968 miles from New York to Chicago.  We got on the train, "The Empress, and got into Iowa. [p.94]

   Saturday, May 1.  In the morning we went to a hotel and ate.  There we met a Brother Height and Brother Haier and several English brethren.  They rented a room for us and we went there in the afternoon.  There wasn’t much room and we all slept on the floor.

   Sunday, May 2 - Friday, May 7.  We remained here and it was decided which people should first head out to Zion.  The financial records were completed.  Madsen and Christensen had a meeting to decide what should be done about some company money that there was a misunderstanding about.  It worked out all right.  We’ve gone about 238 miles from Chicago - about 1206 miles from New York.

   Saturday, May 8.  Council in the morning, wherein we were organized.  Fourteen of the brethren and Height and Haier will leave for Zion and four sisters who had to be on their way.  The names of the brethren are: H.T. Lund, N.C. Poulsen, N. Adler, L. Jorgensen, A.P. Oman, T. Johannesen, H. Neilsen, K. Svendsen, N.P. Olsen, M.C. Greigersen, C.A. Madsen, N. Knusen, and myself - fourteen in all.  Those who will remain for now were organized with Folkmand as president and Fjeldsted as councilor.  We left the group about 5:00 p.m. Several were very moved.  We made camp after about 3 miles and slept in our wagons.  I must remark here that Jørgen Andersen has treated me very well and has paid for my trip to Zion without any obligation for me to repay him.  I feel that the Lord has blessed me very much in this for my work.

   Sunday, May 9.  We had very bad weather, but it still went well except for a mud hole that took an hour to get out of.  We went about 18 miles.  We leave every morning between 6 and 7:00 a.m.  We cook and bake only in the morning and evening.

   Monday, May 10.  19 miles.

   Tuesday, May 11.  Through Brooilig.  Stayed in the "Green Mountain House.  20 miles today.

   Wednesday, May 12.  Met J. Yong and Lii - 20 miles. [p.95]

   Thursday, May 13, 1858.  It began raining hard around noon, with thunder and lightning. Went through Nuneten - 90 miles from Iowa border and over Skunk River.  We drove on a little and camped.  Brothers Haight, Lee and two others and the 4 sisters rode on to Fort Des Moines.  15 miles today.

   Friday, May 14.  Through Delphien and over the Des Moines River on a ferry that went under its own power.  20 miles.

   Saturday, May 15.  23 miles today.

   Sunday, May 16.  We didn't travel because of hard rain.

   Monday, May 17.  Very bad weather.  Through Wentlent.  It began to be better.  We made 14 miles.

   Tuesday, May 18.  Bad rain.  Around noon we crossed the South River.  25 miles.

   Wednesday, May 19.  About 30 miles.

   Thursday, May 20.  Through Indian Town and Louis Town.  30 miles.

   Friday, May 21.  Through a hilly area.  Council Bluffs and Crescent City, where we stayed at a hotel with a brother.  We met several members.  35 miles.

   Saturday, May 22.  Stayed there and Brother Haight came.

   Sunday, May 23.  We stayed there.  Brother Joseph Young came and some other brethren.  I talked to Miccelsen. [p.96]

   Monday, May 24, 1858.  Crossed the Missouri River and on to Florence.  I met Brother Grønbak and Brother Ekelund and I went with them to Omaha and stayed the night at Didriksen's.  6 miles.

   Tuesday, May 25.  Grønbak and I talked with several members today.  We heard both good and bad things.  I had a good time visiting with them. Then I went back to Florence in the evening.  6 miles.

   Wednesday, May 26.  We prepared our gear for the trip over the plains.  Took care of the horses, etc.

   Thursday, May 27.  Wrote to Brother Wedeborg and J.W. Andersen.

   Friday, May 28 - Monday, May 31.  Took care of the usual business.

   Tuesday, June 1.  We finished our preparations and our 4 wagons began their trip.  We met up with some who had left before us on our second day out so there were 12 wagons in all.

   Wednesday, June 2.  There was heavy rain last night so travel went slowly.  We camped at Elkhorn.  14 miles today.

   Thursday, June 3.  We drove along the Platte River, past an Indian town and another town.  An Indian came and ate dinner with us.  20 miles.

   Friday, June 4.  Along the Platte River and across the stream that was clear full of water.  25 miles.

   Saturday, June 5.  Across two bodies of water, so we had a lot of work.  We camped outside of Columbus Town.  18 miles. [p.97]

   Sunday, June 6.  We met a group coming from Zion.  They gave us information and said things should go fairly well.  They said some were being moved out of Zion.  There were 6 brethren and a Major Ken, who had been sent to Utah from Washington to investigate conditions there.  He seemed to be a liberal man.  We camped and the members held an evening meeting in the field.  17 miles.

   Monday, June 7.  Had a lot of work crossing the Platte River.  But, luckily, everything went well.  We finished and rested.

   Tuesday, June 8.  We continued on our journey.  The company was organized.  Eldrid was made captain and Joseph Yong his aide, and Haight is chaplain.  There are 37 men, 13 wagons, 29 horses, and 17 mules - 46 in all went from the river and up the bank to the left.  20 miles today.

   Wednesday, June 9.  We crossed a lot of water, bu it went well.  26 miles.

   Thursday, June 10.  We saw a lot of animals today.  Everything went well. 26 miles.

   Friday, June 11.  We got to the Waad River about 10:00 a.m.  The bridge was gone, so we made a new one.  We ate lunch and went over by 3:00 p.m. 28 miles.

   Saturday, June 12.  31 miles.

   Sunday, June 13.  We had beautiful weather and a smooth day traveling.  44 miles.

   Monday, June 14.  Very dry weather.  25 miles.

   Tuesday, June 15.  We met several Indians and gave them some bread.  We saw a large company on the other side of the river.  They had many animals and looked ready to assemble.  28 miles. [p.98]

   Wednesday, June 16.  We met two Indian tribes.  30 miles.

   Thursday, June 17.  We saw a train traveling toward the States on the other side of the river.  30 miles.

   Friday, June 18.  We saw a large and a small company heading toward the States.  We also passed a large Indian camp.  They had many horses and colts.  35 miles.

   Saturday, June 19.  We saw two large trains heading toward the states.  35 miles.

   Sunday, June 20.  20 miles.

   Monday,  June 21.  We passed the wagons traveling back to the states.  32 miles.

   Tuesday, June 22.  We passed Fort Laramie this afternoon and got into a very hilly region.  35 miles.

   Wednesday, June 23.  26 miles.

   Thursday, June 24.  30 miles.

   Friday, June 26.  28 miles.

   Saturday, June 26.  In the morning we passed Deer Creek.  There was a settlement of mountain men on the other side of the river.  They came over and we traded them buffalo hides for provisions.  26 miles. [p.99]

   Sunday, June 27, 1858.  In the morning we came to another settlement of mountain men and traded for some more provisions.  There were also a few Indians.  There was a bridge over the Platte River and the north and south trails joined.  Two wagons left the company.  In the afternoon we passed another settlement.  In the night the two wagons camped along side of us.  24 miles.

   Monday, June 28.  We left the Platte River and found the trail quite sandy.  We met two wagons coming from Salt Lake.  32 miles.

   Tuesday, June 29.  In the morning we drove past a settlement that looked very peaceful.  We came to the Devil’s Peak, where there was a settlement.  We passed about 20 wagons which were trying to get provisions.  There was a large cliff along the right side of the wagon.  34 miles.

   Wednesday, June 30.  In the morning we passed a small company which had a great number of livestock.  But I don’t know where they were going.  34 miles.

   Thursday, July 1.  Very rocky and hilly area.  Loud thunder and rain in the evening.  But it let up in the night.   28 miles.

   Friday, July 2.  Good weather.  We had lunch near Sweet Water.  I had been very sick with fever and have laid in the wagon for about 14 days.  But I am beginning to get my strength back and feel better.  Thunder and rain in the afternoon.  We drove until 1:00 a.m. and then camped alongside a little creek.  34 miles.

   Saturday, July 3.  Very sandy trail.  We had lunch at Little Sandy, where there was good grass.  We veered to the left and finally camped at Big Sandy, having crossed them both.  The grass for the horses here was terrible.  24 miles.

   Sunday, July 4.  We drove this morning.  At lunchtime we encountered a wagon train of apostates.  There were about 16 wagons.  We crossed the water.  Later in the day met another two wagons and [p.100] several men who were laden with provisions.  In the late afternoon we came to Green River.  There were many tents and people there.  We crossed the river on a ferry - it cost $6.00 for 4 people.  The traveling went very well today.  24 miles.

   Monday, July 5.  Early in the morning a messenger from the army came by with some information about the soldiers going into Salt Lake. Later in the day, when we came to Hensfork River, there were about 10 soldiers who stood watch at a bridge.  They didn’t say anything to us except that we should be on careful guard for Mormons.  They said Johnson had gone into Salt lake and that we should go straight to him and get 300 to 400 men to protect us from the Mormons.  They thought we were going on to California [spelled "Karlefornien].  We met another messenger later in the morning.  We crossed the Hensfork River twice today.  40 miles.

   Tuesday, July 6.  Around noon we drove past Fort Bridger and a little farther on we met another messenger from Salt Lake.  He told us that peace had been arranged and that everything was in good order.  Later we passed some men and a wagon.  36 miles.

   Wednesday, July 7.  We met and passed several wagons.  We’ve gone about half-way through the mountains.  We drove as quickly as possibly because of overhanging banks.  35 miles.

   Thursday, July 8.  We met several brethren and others.  We drove around through much water.  There were steep cliffs, especially on one side, but the brethren had built guardrails there.  33 miles.

   Friday, July 9.  We had very steep cliffs to contend with, but we drove all the way into Salt Lake City because there was no grass for our animals.  We arrived about midnight and spent our first night camped in the street.  30 miles.

   Saturday, July 10.  We were very thankful to the Lord for bringing us happily to our destination.  The most joy I have felt since I first saw the coast of America was seeing Salt Lake.  I quickly met some friends; Peter Hansen and N. Jensen were the first danes I spoke with. . . . [p.101]



Journals of Hans Peter Lund

Lund, Hans Peter.  Journals (Ms 1420), typescript translation, pp. 27-29. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives




   . . . We visited members and prepared our journey.  I bought two woolen blankets and some clothes.  I think I spent a lot of money though I had most of what I needed for my journey.  I visited my family to say goodbye.  As usual, they would not talk about the gospel.

   February 20 - At noon some of us emigrants left and arrived the same night in Korsor where we met some Saints.  President Wiederborg told us if we decided to go via Kiel, this was not possible because the ice was too packed.  We decided to travel over the Isle of Fyn.  I.N. Iverson was our leader, C.A. Matson and C.O. Folgtman [were] his counselors.  Fjelsted was clerk and Wiederborg would go with us to Hamburg.  Even though it was really cold we decided that three brethren and I should go by boat to Fyn the same night and we arrived in Nyborg 21 February at noon.  Some members arrived and we left for Odense and then Assens, where we stayed.

   February 22 - [Went] by steamboat to Aaresund and from there to Haderslev and then to Flensborg where we stayed from morning to noon.  Here we found a man who was very bad for us.  He asked for sixty five rbd. [UNCLEAR] for a cup of coffee, crackers, and a cup of beer for each of us and some had beer in [that] the night.  But the Lord will pay him.  We went by train from Flensborg to Hamburg where we arrived February 23rd happy and joyful.  We stayed at a hotel where we were treated well.  We paid three [-] for food a day.

   February 26 - Wrote a letter to G. Gudmundson.  The ice is still packed and it does not look good for us to continue the journey.  We go sightseeing and we are happy.

   February 28, Sunday - We had two meetings.

   March 1 - Brother Rasmussen, his wife, and daughter arrive.

   March 2 - We decided to go to Bremmerhaven because it is impossible to leave Hamburg for ice.  Same day we were divided into eight groups, ten in each.  I was a leader for the third group.

   March 3 - We left on wagons and arrived in Bremmerhaven March 4th and boarded the steamboat, "Moen."

   March 5 - We left for England, but a terrible storm met us and we had to return to Bremmerhaven, where we arrived saved in the evening, March 9th.

   March 10 - We rested and received coal and our beloved Sister Matson, who got sick on board, died.  We walked around in Bremmerhaven and bought things we needed for the journey.

   March 11 - We tried to leave again but the ship could not move for ice.

   March 12 - We left in beautiful weather and arrived in Hull, March 14th in the late afternoon.

   March 15 - At ten forty five a.m., we left by wagon for Liverpool where we arrived at six p.m. and we stayed overnight in an emigration hotel.  We had a nice meal and visited places in the city.  We saw many nice things and we saw really [UNCLEAR] poverty.

   March 18 - Golkmann and Elsie Funk got married by J.N. Iverson.  In the afternoon we entered the big emigration ship John Bright where we were settled on deck three.  We were towed out of the dock and received provisions which were biscuits, sugar, tea, peas, flour, oat flour, beef, pork, salt, mustard, pepper, vinegar, potatoes, and rice. [p.27]

   Sunday, March 21 - Iverson went on shore.

   March 22 - A boat towed us out.

   March 23 - We had to wait because of the wind.

   March 24 - Another boat towed us out.

   March 27 - We began to feel seasick.

   April 1 - Strong wind.

   The night between April 2nd and 3rd - Poulsen dreamt that Helga died.

   Sunday, April 4 - Easter.  Nice weather.  Peder Jorgensen's son, sixteen weeks old, died and was buried in the ocean.

   April 5 - Members gathered together and we gave a prayer.  The wind was tolerable.

   Monday, April 19 - The strong wind, the yard, the topsail, and the [-] sails broke but no one was hurt.  We were all well and nothing serious happened before April 15th when Karen Marie Svendson died, twenty two years old.  She was buried the same day.  April 16th I got really sick during the night of stomach spasm but I was well again soon.

   April 21 - Several little birds came on board which means that we were near America.

   April 23 - Fog, but clear.  Later on and we could see the coast.  Much joy went through our hearts when we saw the promised land.  A steamboat towed us in and Saturday, April 24th we went on shore.  We found a hotel where we paid a dollar a day for board and lodging.  In a counsel conducted by Iverson we decided to give Omand and Poulsen fifteen dollars each for their work as cooks and we paid two dollars each.

   April 26 - We went by train to New York, [-], Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago, Davenport.  We paid a dollar in Chicago.  We arrived May 1st and met Haight who was left here to lead a group.  We had several meetings Sunday, May 2nd.

   Monday, May 3rd - The sisters washed our clothes.  We should go to Zion with Haight.  Iverson conducted a counsel.  He settled our accounts and Davidson paid thirty dollars for his trip on the train.  We decided that fourteen brethren should follow Haight but we did not have enough money.  But we got help and I borrowed six dollars...

   In the afternoon of May 8th, fourteen brethren, Haight, and Hoer left and the ward was in a bad condition.  We settled in the field and slept in our wagons.

   May 12 - Joseph Young and L. came.

   May 19 - They left us again to go to Fort M.  The sisters followed them.  Our journey went well because the road got better.  We passed several rivers and cities.

   May 21 - We arrived at our camp near Council Bluff. . . . [p.28]

   [July 9]. . . In the evening we arrived in Salt Lake. . . .[p.29]

------------------------------


 

1863 Voyage of John Boyd
America [Letter Extract], Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star 25:26 (June 27, 1863) p. 411. 

Letter Extract
 America.--Since the letter from Elder Staines, of May 28, was in type, we have been favored by the receipt of another, dated the 4th instant, from which we make the following interesting extract:--

   "The John J. Boyd arrived on Saturday, 30 ultimate, having had a prosperous voyage.  The Saints were well and in good spirits; had four deaths on board--two old persons and two small children.  One sister died on Saturday, after they arrived; she had recently been confined with a stillborn child.  They all speak well of the brethren who had charge of them.  They left for Florence at twelve midnight; I accompanied them as far as Albany, and returned yesterday.  They left Albany on Tuesday, at seven p.m., all in good spirits.  The two ships have arrived with the African Saints, all well.  They went on with the companies.  I was sorry to see so much luggage; 597 adult passengers in all, had 90,330 pounds of baggage!  This was not weighed until we arrived at Albany.  They did not land at the Garden [CASTLE GARDEN] until twelve a.m. on Monday and they were all at the depot at seven p.m., and had it not been for two luggage cars getting off the track we should have started at half-past seven.

   The vessels came three days sooner than we expected, but all went off very satisfactory to all parties. . . . [p.411]


Letter from William W. Cluff - May 30, 1863
Cluff, William W.  "America [Letter Extract], Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star 25:27 (July 4, 1863) pp. 428-30. 


On board the John J. Boyd,
May 30, 1863.
President Cannon.

   Dear Brother,--Realizing that you are ever anxious to hear of the progress and welfare of the emigrating Saints, I hasten to report the safe arrival of the John J. Boyd, and give you a few items concerning our progress thus far.

   We cast anchor in New York harbor at seven p.m., yesterday, having made the voyage in 29 days.  We were much prospered and blessed of the Lord [p.428] while journeying on the mighty deep.  The company was comprised of people from seven different nations, speaking different languages, yet the utmost harmony, good feeling and order prevailed.  The brethren associated with me, Elders K. H. Brown, W. S. Baxter and the district presidents, labored faithfully for the welfare of the Saints, administering to the wants of the sick, and giving good advice to all how to make themselves comfortable and happy.

   I am sorry at having to report four deaths.  The first occurred on the 15th instant.  Hans Petersen, aged 46 years, a native of Sjaelland.  He died at five in the afternoon, and was buried at nine p.m.  The cause of death was debility, accelerated by the sea passage.  Elizabeth Ann, daughter of William and Mercy Parkinson, aged eleven months and three days, died of bronchitis, on the 23rd, at half-past eight a.m. and was buried at five p.m.  An infant daughter of Sister Ann [Ane] Jensen died at midnight on the 27th, and was buried next day at five p.m.  It was born at eight a.m. on Monday the 25th.  The other was Sister Ann [Ane] Andersen [Anderrson] , from Sjaelland, aged 72 years.  She died on the 29th, at nine a.m., and was buried at eleven a.m.  At eight a.m., on Tuesday, the 5th, Sister Elizabeth Pearce; from England, gave birth to a daughter.  Mother and child are well.  There was, comparatively, little sickness in our midst; the strict attention to the regulations for cleanliness, and a prompt attention to all who are sick, with the blessing of God, preserved the Saints, generally, in very good health.  We had a number of men appointed in each district, who made it their first duty every morning to brush and scrape the floor around and under the berths, thus preventing filth and rubbish accumulating, and keeping the air as pure as possible.  I mention this plan because I found it to work beneficially, and other companies may also be benefitted by adopting it.

   The weather was very changeable all the time.  Sometimes there would be a day or two of calm and delightful weather, when the Saints would crowd on the upper deck and enjoy themselves, and then again several days of hard blowing, that made the moveable goods tumble about and rendered it rather difficult for the Saints themselves to "maintain their standing; but we did not experience a single storm.  On the 21st, which was an extremely cold day, we passed seven icebergs.  Two of them were within a quarter of a mile to leeward - one was very large - and as the sun shone upon the glittering masses they appeared beautiful.  The "Great Eastern came in sight to leeward of us on the 26th, and crossed our bow at a distance of about five miles.

   By strictly observing the "Mormon creed, that is, "minding our own business, we were preserved from having any serious difficulty with the officers or crew.  The medical inspectors here, stated that they never saw such a healthy-looking and cleanly company of emigrants come into the port of New York as that on board the John J. Boyd. The provisions served to the passengers have given general satisfaction.  They were all of the best quality; much better, in fact than the majority had expected to receive.  We held meetings, for general instruction, as often as possible during the voyage, and prayer meetings were held morning and evening in each ward.  Several social meetings were held in the English ward, in which the Scandinavian Saints joined, and we were much enlivened by the comic and sentimental songs and recitations which a number of the brethren and sisters engaged in.
Chicago, June 6th, 1863.

   It was my intention to have had this report finished and posted in New York, but our stay there was so short and movements so hurried, that it was impossible to attend to it, so, having an opportunity while waiting to change cars, I will just add a little.

   Sister Ann Jensen--the mother of the child whose death is mentioned in the previous part of the letter from Kallehave, Denmark, died on the evening of the 30th ultimate, from the effects of childbirth.  The body was taken on shore and buried.  We were landed at Castle Garden at two p.m., on Monday, June 1st, and the same evening at seven took the cars for Albany, at which place we arrived next day at [p.429] two p.m., and changed cars.  We changed again at Niagara Suspension Bridge on the 3rd, at Detroit on the 4th, and arrived here last night at seven p.m.  A child named Brighamine Eleanora Henritte daughter of Brother [Christian H.] and Sister [Eleonora] Braase, from Denmark, aged 8 ½ months, died in the cars on the morning of the 4th instant.

   This includes the particulars of our journey thus far.  There are many details that might be interesting to those who have not crossed the Atlantic or traveled through the States, but in writing to you I think it is unnecessary to enter into details.  We leave here at noon today.

   The brethren join me in sending their kind love to yourself and associates.  Yours faithfully,
William W. Cluff.
President of Company.
D. M. M‘Allister [McAllister], Assistant Clerk. [p.430]

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A Brief History Of Henry Peter Jacobs
Written by his daughter-Pearl Jacobs Green-Incidents given by Himself Jacobs, Henry Peter.  Brief History of Henry Peter Jacobs [by Pearl Jacobs Green], pp. 1,3-4, 6,  In Maxine L. Breinholt, Biographies (Ms 8691), reel 2. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   I, Henry Peter Jacobs, was born 27th of July, 1851 in Heckenberga, Sweden, about 21 miles from Malmö, Sweden.  Heckenberga is one of five islands surrounded by a large lake.  The only entrance to this island was by a high stone bridge.  It was a very beautiful mountainous country, with rich soil.  I can well remember spending many days picking all kinds of wild berries in the mountains.  The owner of this island lived in a beautiful mansion.  My father had a life lease on a house and five acres of land on this island from which we gained a substantial living together with a job my father had in working in his landlord’s distillery.

   There was a very fine school on this island, one side being enclosed by water.  There was wonderful skating on the lake all during the winter weather.

   We were all happy and everything went well with us until father joined the Mormons.  Two Mormon missionaries came on the island, and my father was very much interested in what they had to say, saying that that was just what he had been looking for.  He joined the church and was baptized in the year 1854 in the Baltic Sea.  Mother was baptized the following year.  When I became eight years old I was also baptized in the Baltic Sea.

   When the owner of the island heard that father had joined the Mormons he became very angry and had him discharged from his work at the distillery after 18 years of faithful service.  He used his influence in seeing that he couldn’t get any other kind of work, so it made it hard for us to eke out a living.  One winter we lived mostly on potatoes.  Out land wasn’t all productive, some of it being quite rocky, and other parts swampy.  The landlord took father to court to try to get the land lease away from him, but the verdict was against him.  This made him all the more angry, and he tried hard to starve us out. [p.1]

   . . . My mother and four children, the baby being only eleven months old, left Malmö, Sweden, on the 15th  of April, 1863.  Our first stop was at Copenhagen, Denmark.  Next we went by water through the North Sea to Kiel, Germany.  Then by rail to Hamburg, Germany.  Here we encountered a big storm and had to anchor for two days by an island called Cuxhaven in the North Sea.  We next set sail on the 30th of April on a three mast sailing vessel, called the John J. Boyd.  The ship was so crowded we could hardly move around, and some of the Saints things were stolen.

   On our way crossing the ocean we witnessed many harrowing experiences.  The sailors were really a tough lot, and would steal anything they could lay their hands on.  In our group of Saints the men would take turns standing guard during the nights.  There were five people died on the way over.  We witnessed one man’s body being thrown overboard.  They wrapped him in a blanket and tied him on a slab, then tied a sack of coal to his feet then tossed it overboard into the ocean.  It was a terrible sight.  Some screamed, others fainted.  It was the last time they let anyone witness this again.  When we neared the coast of Greenland we got in among five big icebergs, and we nearly froze.

   We were four weeks on the ocean and how glad we were when we saw New York.  We were taken from the ship in rowboats to Castle Garden for inspection which took two days.

   Now we had sad news.  When mother went to the Branch President to get our money, he said he didn’t have any for us.  Father had given him enough money to get us to Utah.  We weren’t the only ones that had this happen to us, and when the authorities heard of this he was excommunicated. [p.3]

   Some of the Saints were very kind to us and shared their sea biscuits with us but this didn’t last very long, and by the time we reached Chicago we were pretty hungry.  We had eleven changes by rail and by boat before we reached St. Joseph, Missouri.  There were no bridges over the river so we had to go by ferry.  There was one place in Missouri that we had to go by rail and some soldiers had tried to derail our train by putting big logs on the track and had burned some passenger cars, so we had to go in big stock cars with only a little straw on the floors and we were locked in until we reached St. Joseph.

   When our train struck these big logs on the rails we were all pretty well shaken up and some were hurt, but not seriously.  When we arrived at St. Joseph we were all pretty hungry, and it was pretty hard on Mother with a nursing baby.  My sister Mary had an expensive necklace and she pawned this to get us something to eat and a warm drink for mother.  The white bread she got was wonderful.  We had never seen white bread before.

   Now we had to take a boat again and were three days reaching Florence, which was about six miles to Omaha, Nebraska.  We had to sleep on the ground here.  The next morning we were told that there were to be rations for all the Saints.  While the Saints were getting ready to cross the plains my sister went to Omaha to see if she could get some work, which she did.

   She got a job with an apostate family for 50 cents a day.  She saved enough to get some shoes for herself and a few things for the rest of us.  These people used their influence to try to get her to stay with them, and offered her anything if she would stay.  She prayed about it, and some of the Saints told her not to and if she did she would never get to Utah.  It didn’t take much persuasion, because she said there was such an awful feeling when she was in their home.

   We crossed the plains in John Murdock’s Company.  We left Florence Nebraska June 15, 1863.  I was then 12 years of age. . . . [p.4]

   . . . We turned north over the mountain down Emigration Canyon, and on to Salt Lake City.  We first went to the Eighth Ward Square which is now known as the City and County Building Grounds.  We arrived there about 3 p.m. on the 2nd of September [1863.] . . . . [p.6]

------------------------------


Autobiography of Olaus Johnson

Johnson, Olaus, "Autobiography of Olaus Johnson, Chronicles of Courage, vol. 5 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1994) pp. 298-99.

   . . . My parents had decided already to leave Norway and emigrate to Utah for their religion.  Selling their homes, namely Nordstrand and Grundvick, they obtained enough money to take us all to Zion.  In April 1863, I left the home of my childhood and came to the land of Zion in company with my parents, sisters, and brother.

   We left Christiania the first of April on the steamer "Excelensen and arrived in Copenhagen on the fourteenth.  Here we [p.298] remained eight days until the Saints had gathered from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.  Among these Saints was a sister by the name of Anna Helena Dyresen, whom I later became engaged to.  She had been staying in Denmark with her sister Marie Hansen, and had also prepared to sail in the same company.  From Copenhagen we left by steamship to Kiel, from there to Hamburg, where we were joined by more Saints, and again traveled to Liverpool.  Here we boarded a steamship called the John J. Boyd, captained by J. N. Thomas.  The same afternoon, we were given our respective cabins where we took quarters for our journey, being one thousand in number, of which seven hundred sixty-five were Mormons.

   After twenty-nine days on the ocean we arrived in New York, May 29, 1863.  All members had to remain on board until examined by the doctors to make sure no disease would be spread.  This took considerable time.  After being examined, we were transferred to a place called Castle Garden where we remained until evening.  Here we were transferred by rail across the Hudson and further across the states.  Due to the Civil War at the time, we were transferred several times to several trains a day, sometimes being forced to ride in cattle cars.  This was not very comfortable, as there were no seats and we had to sit on the floor.  In transferring our baggage, the handlers would often break into our trunks and cut holes in our leather satchels to steal our belongings.  We had to be on guard constantly, day and night.  By doing this, they got little for their trouble.  After three days, we arrived in Florence, Nebraska, on the thirteenth day of June.  Dyre Amundsen, a brother of my wife, who had come to Utah in 1862 in Captain Hooker’s company, was called to go back to Florence, Nebraska, to meet the Saints and bring them on to Utah.  While there, he met his sisters, Anna Helena; Berta Marie, her husband, Ole Hansen; and Olaus, Charles, Lilie, and our father Johan and mother Karen Olsen.  We stayed here until July first, when we continued our journey by ox team over the plains with John Young as our leader.  While here, Anna Helena and I became engaged.  We were married in Echo, Weber Valley, September 9, 1863 three days before arriving in Salt Lake City. . . . [p.299]

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Autobiography of John Lingren

Lingren, John, Autobiography, Treasures of Pioneer History   comp. By Kate B. Carter, vol. 1 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1952)  pp. 238, 240.

   April 21, 1863, I immigrated from my native country Sweden with happiness in my soul.  Those I left behind were also satisfied that I should leave for a better country as some of them wished to follow in the near future.  My brother Lars, was the only one who went with me a little distance.  His parting words were: "Please, brother, be faithful.  As tears ran down his cheeks we shook hands and I was off for the seaport.  I had obtained, through the kindness of my elder brother, Anders, 140 rixdaler ($37.80), enough to pay my journey to Florence on the Missouri River.  The company of Saints I traveled with went to Copenhagen, Denmark, Hamburg, Germany, and from there across the North Sea to Grimsby, England, and over the country to Liverpool, where we stopped a few days to get us ready to go abroad the sail ship John J. Boyd, which was to convey us over the great Atlantic.

   I was somewhat seasick crossing the mighty deep.  My berth was down in the hold, 3rd deck in the ship where all single people above 18 years and under 40 were huddled together, male and female.  I and my bunk fellows slept alongside of two young ladies on the right and left of us.  The weather was favorable all the way.  We saw icebergs and a few whales.  We landed in New York, June 1, 1863, after a voyage of 30 days being destitute of money to assist me the next ten days as we now had to board ourselves until we reached Florence.  On our journey through the states we saw railroad wrecks and destruction in many places.  The Civil War was about to terminate.

   Going up the Missouri River from St. Joseph to Florence was the most pleasant trip we had had so far.  But soon we were where the Saints had their Winter Quarters when they were driven from civilization.  Here were relics of different natures; a house that Brigham Young had lived in, a well that Heber C. Kimball had dug and the remains of the dugouts, camping places and other sacred memories of gone-by times.

   We stayed here among the hills and hazel brush for a littler over two weeks, when Captain Sanders with his mountain boys gathered us up and started across the plains. . . . [p.238]

   . . . A little this side of the base of the mountains we see the city of Great Salt Lake.  It resembles in the distance below something like a village where every house was surrounded by a ten-acre lot.  Arrived in the church pasture on Sept. 5, 1863.  The next day we looked over the city we had dreamed about.

   The picture in our minds of the city, and the real city, failed to have any resemblance.  We nevertheless gave it but very little thought.  The city itself was nothing to us, we did not own one house or one foot of ground in it, and I for my part, had not a cent even to buy a meal with if I had been wanting one. . . . [p.240]

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Autobiography of James Mills Paxton
Paxton, James Mill.  Autobiography. (Special Collections & Manuscripts, Ms 949), pp. 5- 7 (Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah)

   . . . no sooner closed than the workman who had been listening attentively gave a hearty three cheers for young Brigham and that was the name I went by till I left the shores of England; and took passage on the John J. Boyd (a sailing vessel) on my way to Utah April 30th 1863.  The following ideas journal by inquiring was written on board the ship, and my first attempt at poetry.

   The quiver played on the lip of pride

   as we parted by the railway side.

   Swiftly from your view we went

   To cross the seas in our assent.

   Then on the prairie pitched our tent

   As through the wilderness we went

   The Rocky canyons we passed through

   Then Salt Lake City came in view

   And joy from soul to soul did flow

   As we viewed the landscape area

   Here is light and here is love

   Here is blessings from above

   Here is peace and unity

   The gospel in simplicity.

   We had beautiful weather crossing the ocean.  Sighted the "Great Eastern and passed very close to an iceberg floating about six hundred feet above water.  Mrs. Polks being seasick asked me to make rice pudding.  I done yet being so it was like the widows [--]. [p.5]

   Began to rise and after taking out more than I had in the [-] was this full.  After 30 days voyage we were delighted with the beautiful scenery as we neared Castle Garden, New York.  I was forcibly struck by the contrast between the English and American soldiers seeing many of the latter when passing through the States from New York to Omaha.  Reaching Florence June 12 we left Florence with an ox train under Captain McCarter, and I walked all the way to Salt Lake City about one thousand miles driving a cow and carrying a gun most of the time. . . . [p.6]

   . . . We arrived in Salt Lake Valley one beautiful evening Saturday Oct. 3 [1863.] . . . . [p.7]

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Journal of John Redington
Redington, John.  Journal (Ms 4514), pp. 351-53. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives



   . . . I received a notification to be in Liverpool with my wife & child on the 29th of April. I made the best preparations I could, and was there at the time appointed and at once went on board the sailing ship John J. Boyd. Here was a company of Latter-day Saints of near 700 all bound for Utah, about 6/7 of these were from the Scandinavian Mission the remainder made up of English, Welsh, Scotch & Irish families. The next day Apr. 30th we were towed out into the River  Mersey and on out to sea and thus commenced our journey to Utah.

   Our journey across the Atlantic was made in safety & we landed in New York on May 29th . My wife however was confined to her berth nearly the whole journey, our darling little girl stood the journey across the water most bravely, she was a little hero. I was well, with a slight exception all the way across. As we neared New York my wife improved, but our darling child sickened.

   We took the railroad cars at New York, traveled up near the Hudson River to Albany. Changed cars & on to Niagara, crossed the river just below [p. 351] the Falls into Canada, run across a portion of Canada to Windsor, then crossed a small lake to the American side at Detroit.  From Detroit on the Chicago, then again to Quincy on the Mississippi River, cross the River to Hannibal, then to Palmyra and on to St. Joseph City, Missouri.  Here ended our journey by rail. We then went on board a river steamboat and traveled up the Missouri River to Florence, Nebraska, being on the boat 3 days and 2 nights. We were about 2 weeks on this part of our journey from New York.  Here myself & wife were called to meet one of the greatest trials of life. Our darling little Polley who was sickening when we left the ship at New York, daily grew worse as we traveled west, and a few days after we reached Florence on June 19th she died. At her death she was 1 year, 9 months, & 15 days old. Since that time we have become more sadly familiar with the sickness that took her from us, having lost two other children in a similar manner in Payson, from that complication of children’s diseases often spoken of as summer complaint, embodying, teething, canker, diarrhea, fever &c. We buried her the next day in what is known as the Latter-day Saints old burying ground at Florence. Here is buried many Latter-day Saints who died on the way from Nauvoo & other places to the Valley, or Utah. Florence is located on the bank of the Missouri River, some 6 or 8 miles from Omaha.

   At Florence we were to commence our journey across the plains with ox teams that were on the way from Utah to meet us.  They, or a least some companies arrived here a few days after our arrival from the east, and it was only about two weeks after we arrived here that all was ready to start out one company on their journey across the plains.

   Myself and wife (We could carry our darling no further) were in the [p. 352] first company under the charge of Captain John Murdock, then of Lehi, Utah, we commenced this part of our journey on June 30th/ 63. . . .

   . . . We arrived in Salt Lake City on the 29th of August, making just one day less that 4 months from the time we were towed out of Liverpool docks. One month on sea, one month passing through the States and remaining at Florence, and two months on the plains & passing through the mountains. . . . [p. 353]

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The Story of My Life of Mary Charlotte Jacobs Soffe
Soffe, Mary Charlotte Jacobs.  The story of my life (Ms 5293), pp. 9-15, 19. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives



   . . . On the 15th April, 1863, we hired a team to take us into town, and from there we took a steamboat for Copenhagen, Denmark.

   My father and eldest brother were left standing on the port, and I felt as if my heart would sink within me. My brother came the following year, with an old man who wanted company, but my father was never seen by us again-having taken pneumonia and died on Good Friday on the 14th day of April, 1865 at the age of 52 years, five months and three days.

   Before we left Malmo, my father had given the captain of the Mormon emigrants $30.00 to keep us going until we were settled, but when we arrived in New York this man denied that father had given him this money, and we underwent a great many hardships because of not having the money.

   The first night out on the steamboat, someone stole part of our bed clothes. The next day we landed in Kiel, Germany. From there we went by rail to Hamburg, which was 11 miles from the harbor, and we had to walk from the depot to the shore and carry our things.  I was so tired I fainted which frightened my mother very much. We now boarded a freighter for England, traveling on the North Sea when we got in the Catiga. [UNCLEAR] A heavy storm came up and we were very nearly drowned. Here we had to cast anchor for two days near an island called Cuxhaven with over one hundred men, women and children on board. [p. 9] We were a week getting to England whereas we should have only been two days.

   We arrived in Grimsby, England, but had to wait a half a day until the tide came in and they then opened the flood gates so we could land. After we did land, I was unable to walk naturally.

   After we landed, another boat landed and they mixed their boxes with ours, so the other company took our boxes and we never had as much as a comb to comb our hair with until someone gave us an old one. Before we landed in Liverpool we had to pass through five tunnels in one or two of which we nearly succumbed with the smoke and dust.

   In Liverpool, England, and there we boarded a three-mast sailing vessel named John J. Boyd. They would not take less than 1,000 passengers on a regular steamer, and our company only numbered 850. I was so used to walking "sailor fashion that I felt fine on the Atlantic.

   After we had been sailing for about two weeks we ran into five icebergs. We came so close to these that we could see the large chunks of ice floating in the water. It was very cold and a number of people nearly froze.

   While on our journey five people died on the ship—three old people and two children. I had the experience of seeing them bury the first person—an old man. They wrapped him in a blanket, head to the East, then laid him on a plank and tied a sack of coal to his feet, and while reading the sermon they tipped the plank down and he went in the water. It was an [p. 10] awful sight to see. Some of the people watching screamed and some fainted, so they never let them see anything like that again.

   After we had been on the water about 25 days we saw the coast of Greenland. One day a small boat came out with a doctor on board to see if any of us were sick, but we were all well, and the next day when we landed in the harbor of New York a small boat came out to our vessel, then all of the sailors left the captain and threatened to kill him and also the Mate if they came ashore. Sometime before this the captain and the sailors had had some trouble while out to sea. We landed in the harbor on Thursday, but this trouble with the sailors and the Captain kept us on the ship until Monday, then a boat came and took us to Castle Garden, and that was my first glimpse of New York.

   We only stayed in Castle Garden long enough to get our baggage through the custom house and on the train. Castle Garden did not appeal to me in the least. In the middle of the street I saw a dead cat and dog and filth and dirt existed everywhere. Nevertheless, we were all glad to be on land again. We were on the Atlantic one month and two days.

   I remember the first night we were off the ship. I sat up all night drinking in fresh air, as it seemed wonderful to get off the ship with its stench and terrible odors.

   After considerable trouble our president of the Mormon company obtained a ticket for us with eleven changes from [p. 11] New York to St. Joseph, Missouri.

   Before leaving Sweden my father had given the captain of the Mormon emigrants $30.00 for mother to keep us going until we were settled, but when we arrived in New York this man denied that father had given him this money, and it was only the hand of fate that kept us from starving to death again. The emigrants gave us some of their sea cakes, and it was indeed hard on mother as she had a nursing baby.

   When we arrived in Chicago we were nearly starved to death. Mother told the president if he did not give us money to buy food she would let people know he was letting us starve so he gave us one dollar. With this dollar I went to buy some bread, and on my way back from the store I met a lady with some bologna so I traded her two loaves of my bread for some of her meat. This was the first time I had ever eaten or seen white bread, as we had been used to dark bread in Sweden.

   We now traveled on and crossed the Mississippi River on a ferry, then we arrived in Missouri . This was during the Civil War and all of the passenger cars had been burned as they locked us up in cattle cars which had straw floors. There were no seats. We passed a soldiers’ camp and it was here we ran into a place where logs had been placed to disrail the cars. I happened to be standing up when the cars struck the logs and the jolt threw me head foremost to the other side of the car among the women and children. Everyone was crying and screaming. A few were hurt.

   The cars were put back on the tracks again and we proceeded on our journey and arrived in St. Joseph, nearly starved, [p. 12] about the 15th day of June 1863. We had no food nor no money to buy any with. All we had was a necklace of cherry colored beads that my aunts and given me. I asked a man to give us some bread and a cup of something warm for mother to drink, in exchange for my necklace, but all he gave us was a cup of coffee and one piece of bread. We children did not get a thing to eat.

   We were then hurried on and we boarded a steamboat on the Missouri River. That afternoon mother saw our president buy bread as she went to him and told him we were starving and the children were crying for bread, but he refused her. She started to tell what he had done, so he told someone to give us a loaf of bread, and that was the last we received for the $30.00 father had given us for our expenses. We later found out for a certainty that he had received the money, for when we arrived in Utah father sent word and told us he had given the money to the president.

   We were on the steamer on the Missouri River two days and two nights. On the first day about noontime I had to pass the sailors when they were eating lunch and one of the men gave me a large piece of pie, but I was afraid to take it and went to the end of the boat and threw it into the river, for I had heard and seen so much of the bad sailors that I thought they wanted to poison me.

   The boat could not travel at night on that river because of sandbars, and on the second day another boat came alongside of ours, and we had a terrible scare for they tried to steal a woman, and they did steal a man’s clothes, watch and keys [p. 13] when he was bathing while the boat was stopped. He called for someone to bring him a blanket to wrap around him to enable him to get back to the boat so he could break into his trunk to get something to put on. Evidently some sailors who had taken leave off their ship had stolen his clothes.

   On the third night we landed at Florence, which is six miles north of Omaha on the banks of the Missouri River at 11:00 p.m., June 15, 1863. Here we had to lie on the ground until the next morning with nothing over us, for all of our things were put in one big heap and we could not find any of our bedding until it was light.

   In the morning mother walked to Omaha which was six miles to get something for us to eat. She was able to get some bread so we were alright for that day. It was scheduled that the next day we would get our allowance of flour and bacon which was sent to us from Utah by the Mormons that were already there and were now helping new emigrants to come. Mother sent me to get our allowance, but when I arrived there the place was so crowded that I sat down in a corner and fell asleep. I did not come home and Mother was worried and came after me to see what was the matter. The place was all closed up so we did not get anything to eat until the third day. They told me to come back and hep make tents and wagon covers for two or three days.

   Then mother talked with some of the apostates in Omaha and they told her to send me down there to stay and not go on to Utah, as the journey was so hard we would die crossing the plains. They told mother they had a job for me cleaning house, and I [p. 14] received 50 cents per day and by doing this was able to get me a new pair of shoes. Some of the apostates in Omaha wanted us to all stop there and not come to Salt Lake, as they said we would die crossing the plains, and they persuaded me to get a room ready for us to move into, but a terrible feeling came over me every time I thought of it, but mother thought we should stay. Then someone told me if I stayed I would not get away and this made me more determined than ever to go.  I told mother I was going on to Utah and would not be persuaded to stay.  Mother then said if I was going she would have to go too, as she could not make a living for the children all alone.

   The third week we were there, there were ox teams which arrived from Utah. Captain John Murdock and Mr. Hatch were in charge of this expedition.

   We were afraid we were not going to get to go with this company, as it was entirely filled up, but one man became ill and the captain told them that he was too ill to make the trip, and advised them that it would be better to stay and wait for the next train. Because of this man’s dropping out, we were able to load our things and go in his place. . . . [p. 15]

   . . . We arrived on the 8th Ward square, (which is now know as the City and County building grounds) about 3:00 p.m. on the 2nd of September.  We were three months coming form Omaha to Salt Lake City and we made from 15 to 20 miles per day. . . . [p.19]

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Kenilworth




Autobiography of Caroline Pedersen Hansen
Hansen, Caroline Pedersen.  Autobiography (Ms 4746), fd. 4, pp. 1-2, 4. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   I was born in Denmark, third of Sep. 1859.

   Parents names were Cristian Pedersen & Jensine Sorensen Pedersen.  They received the gospel & emigrated left Denmark in May 1866 arrived in Salt Lake Sept. [-].  They left with 4 children; Bina aged 10 years, myself 6 years, Peder 4 & Ida one & half year.  We were 8 weeks on the Atlantic Ocean.  At the last the water we had to drink got so bad it was full of white wigglers.

   The last day a steamship came out & brought us to land.  A train then took us some distance & then, I think it was that we laid over for 8 days out in the open.  It was awfully hot there.  Father built a hut [p.1] with brush to shade us.

   I remember I got so sunburnt I peeled the skin of my arms.  I think we were waiting for the ox teams to arrive & take us across the plains. . . . [p.2]

   . . . Sister Bina died just 8 days before we reached Salt Lake.  Oh just think, three children buried in little shallow graves with just a piece of a sheet wrapped around them by the wayside.  When we arrived in Salt Lake mother was so worn out with sorrow waiting on the sick children, & sitting in the wagon that she was all bent, could not straighten. People said she looked like 60 years old. . . . [p.4]

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Reminiscences of Caroline Pedersen Hansen
Hansen, Caroline Pedersen [Reminiscences], Our Pioneer Heritage comp. by Kate B. Carter, vol. 12 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1969) pp. 66-68. 






   I, Caroline Pedersen Hansen, was born September 3, 1859, at Bindslev Sogn, Hjörring County, Denmark.  I was the second child in the family.  One sister, Bine, was two years and five [p.66] months older than I.  My father’s name was Christian Pedersen and my mother was Jensine Christine Sorensen.  My parents joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints three years after I was born.  They were baptized the 21st of August 1862.  In the year 1866 they emigrated to Utah.  By that time there were two more children in the family, one a boy named Peder and my baby sister Ida, just a little over one year old.

   We boarded the sail ship Kenilworth at Hamburg, Germany, May 23, 1866.  The ship sailed north on the east of England, to go up north of Scotland.  We had fierce head winds and were driven back out of our course until at one time we could see the mountains up in Norway.  The last day on board, a steamship came out and met us and we were placed on it.  This ship took us to New Haven, Connecticut, where we arrived on the morning of July 18, 1866.  We stayed there only a few hours then were placed on a train.  History tells me that we went through Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to Montreal, Canada.  We rode in cattle cars part of the time.  The road was on the north side of the St. Lawrence River.  At one time part of the train jumped the track but none of our people were hurt.  When we were across in the United States again we had better train service.  But while we were passing through the state of Missouri the people were very bitter against us.  Our train ride ended July 29, 1866, at a place called Wyoming in Nebraska.  There were Church teams there waiting for us and we soon began our trip across the plains with ox teams.  But while we were there getting ready to leave we found it very hot, and I remember my father building us a hut out of brush to shade us from the heat.  I remember I got so sunburned I could peel the skin off my arms. . . . [p.67]

   . . . When we arrived in Salt Lake Mother was so worn out with sorrow and with sitting in the wagon holding the sick children that she was so bent over, she could not straighten up.  People said she looked like she was sixty year old.  We landed in Salt Lake City on September 30, 1866.  We had been one hundred twenty-nine days since we left Hamburg, Germany, and we had left our home about ten days before that.  There had been four children when we left, now I was the only child left. . . .[p.68]

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Autobiography of Andrew Jenson

Jenson, Andrew, Autobiography of Andrew Jenson (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1938) pp. 14-21,26. 

   . . . At 12:00 o’clock noon the emigrants were all seated in the rail way cars and left Kiel for Altona, about seventy miles distant, where we arrived after three hours’ pleasant journey through the green and beautiful Holstein.  This was my first railroad ride, and the same could be said of the majority of those who composed the emigrant company.  Railroad-building had been commenced in Denmark only a few years previous to 1866.

   From the railroad station in Altona we all marched down the hill to the banks of the River Elbe, where the women and children boarded a little steamer and went by water, while the men walked a mile or so through a part of Altona into the city of Hamburg, where we were all lodged in an emigration house, and we enjoyed a comfortable night’s rest.  Before evening, however, I was out on one of my exploration trips, and after walking long distances I lost my way in the great city of Hamburg, and only after considerable difficulty found my way back to the emigrant house.  Everyone in Hamburg spoke German, which I did not understand.

   On Saturday, May 19, 1866, in the afternoon, we went on board the double-decked packet ship Kenilworth (a sailing vessel, with Captain Brown in charge).  The ship lay at anchor a short distance from the dock in the River Elbe.

   The Kenilworth was an old English sailing vessel and had been chartered on easy terms.  Though not intended for passenger traffic, it had been fitted up on this occasion with bunks and other conveniences on both decks for the comfort of passengers.

   The next day, which was Whitsunday [p.14] (May 20) was spent in locating the emigrants in different parts of the ship and showing each family their bunks.  Our family was given a well-lighted place on the middle deck near the bow of the ship, and from our anchorage in the Elbe we had a fine view of the surroundings, the cities of Hamburg and Altona on the north and the low and flat country (Hannover) on the south side of the Elbe.

   On the 21st a meeting was held on the middle deck of the ship when the elders in charge gave instruction in regard to cleanliness, order, and decorum.  On Tuesday, May 22nd, another company of emigrants arrived and was taken on board at once.  They were in charge of President Carl Widerborg and Elder Christiansen.  This increased our number on board the Kenilworth to 684 souls besides the ship’s crew.

   The next day (May 23rd) the Kenilworth left her moorings and was towed by two small tugs a short distance to a point below Altona.

   On Thursday, May 24th, a meeting was held on board, at which the emigrant company was organized for traveling, with Elder Samuel L. Sprague as president or leader of the company, and Elder Morten Lund as his assistant.  Frederick Berthelsen was appointed secretary and Ole H. Berg, captain of the guard.  The emigrants were grouped into 42 divisions, or messes, with a president over each, whose business it was to receive provisions for each district and distribute them to the several families; also to preside at prayers in the respective districts morning and night, and to watch over the Saints in detail and see that the rules of cleanliness and order were strictly enforced.  On the same occasion the ship was dedicated by Elder Carl Widerborg and the prediction uttered that it should carry its precious cargo of souls safe and well to the "land of promise.  Much timely and valuable instructions were imparted by the brethren, and it was enjoined upon the emigrants to yield strict obedience to the brethren who had been appointed to preside.

   A child, five years old, died on board.  Two other companies of Saints from the Scandinavian countries sailed from Hamburg a few days later, in the ships "Humboldt and "Cavour, making the total number of emigrants from the Scandinavian Mission 1,213 in 1866.

   On Friday, May 25, 1866, about noon, the anchor was lifted and our long voyage commenced.  Old Kenilworth was towed down the River Elbe and at 9:00 o’clock p.m. we passed Cuxhaven, at the mouth of the river, and soon we were far out on the broad face of the North Sea.  The weather was pleasant, the sea quiet and the commencement of the voyage promising.  Most of the Saints on board were in high spirits.  Usually the ships carrying emigrants from continental Europe passed through the English Channel on their way to America, but in our case it was decided to take the longer route north of Scotland.  On the North Sea we were exposed to heavy winds and most of the passengers, owing to the rocking of the vessel, had more or less experience with seasickness.  In the afternoon of June 1st  we passed the [p.15] Shetland Islands lying north of Scotland and before night we were on the somewhat turbulent waters of the Atlantic Ocean.  By this time we had got used to the life on the ocean waves.  We were well organized and willingly submitted to the discipline and regulations which had been agreed upon.  Thus, at 6:00 o’clock in the morning we arose at the signal of the bugle, attended to ablutions and engaged in prayer in the different districts at 8:00 o’clock.  Then we ate breakfast which consisted of tea and rye bread in the beginning, but after all the bread had been consumed we feasted on sea biscuits, which were made of rye, wheat, and oatmeal.  Our food was prepared and cooked in a large kitchen from which it was brought by the several presidents of districts, who distributed it to the respective persons or families in charge.  At 11:30 a.m. we had a good dinner which generally consisted of good and solid food, and after that we frequently amused ourselves in dancing, or engaged in divers games on deck, in order to keep up good cheer, and counteract the tediousness of the long voyage.  Thus the days passed quickly and pleasantly.  At 6:00 p.m. we had supper and at 9:00 o’clock we were supposed to retire for the night, after having had prayers at 8:00 o’clock.  Cleanliness and good order were strictly observed on board and all who were able to spend a good part of their time on deck to enjoy the fresh air and exercise.  Guard was kept up all night, and all the brethren, who were able, and of a proper age, took turns in standing guard.  The captain and the crew were gentlemanly in their department towards the passengers, and we had no difficulty with any of them except the cook, a hot-headed and disagreeable person, who quarreled with several of the brethren, and especially on one occasion when a fight was barely averted.  For several days after reaching the Atlantic Ocean we had favorable winds, but later owing to contrary winds we made but slow progress.  For several days we were also enveloped in dense fogs, and in order to steer clear of danger from icebergs the captain chose a southerly course.  On June 26th we encountered a terrific thunder and rain storm, on which occasion all the sails of the ship were taken down in double quick time, and the good old ship reeled like a drunken man and caused some alarm among the passengers.

   During the voyage meetings were usually held on Sundays and on other occasions, at which powerful testimonies were borne and timely instructions given as circumstances demanded.  A number of marriages were solemnized on board on which occasions we generally indulged in pleasantries, dancing and speech-making.  Even a manuscript paper was issued almost daily, which introduced humorous and spicy articles suitable for the life we led.

   The sad part of our voyage centered around a number of deaths which occurred.  The following is a list of those of our company who found a watery grave: On May 24th a child; on May 29th Hulda Rosengren, 9½ years old and Wilhelmine Berthelsen, 37 years old; on June 2nd a child from the Aarhus Conference; on June 15th Oliver B. Rosengren, an infant; on June 19th Ole Christiansen’s child from Vendsyssel Conference; on June 23rd the wife of Charles Christensen of the Aalborg Conference; on June 25th a young man from the Vendsyssel Conference; on June 27th another child; on July 3rd Christian Beck’s child from the Aalborg Conference; on July 6th Inger S. Petersen, 6 years old; on July 12th Sarah Larsen, an infant; on July 13th Dorthea Beck, a child from the Copenhagen Conference and on July 15th a young man who committed suicide by jumping overboard.  The death of Sister Christensen called forth much sympathy, as she and her husband had been most liberal with their means in assisting their poor co-religionists to emigrate. [p.16]

   During the voyage two children were born, the first on May 26th, and the second on May 29th when Niels Hansen’s wife from the Vendsyssel Conference gave birth to a child which was named Kenilworth Brown, in honor of the vessel and its captain.  I also made records of seven marriages which took place on board during the voyage.

   On Sunday, July 15th, which was a beautiful sunny day, a number of coast vessels were seen in all directions and joy and animation prevailed among the emigrants.  A meeting was held at 8:00 o’clock a.m., at which timely instructions were given the emigrants as to how they should act when they landed in New York.  About noon some of the officers, looking through their spy glasses, said that land was visible to the northwest, but it was not until 6:00 o’clock p.m. that one of our brethren, looking through his glass, called out with a loud voice, "Land, Land and soon the green shores of Long Island were observed on our right by everybody.  Perhaps only those who for weeks and months have been tossed about on the stormy face of the ocean can appreciate the pleasure of seeing terra firma again.  The emigrants who for about two months had been confined to the decks and berths of old Kenilworth appreciated to the fullest extent the change of vision that they enjoyed on this memorable day.  The drooping spirits of all were revived and the desire to live in hope of a happy future was manifested universally among the passengers.  The men shaved, cut their hair and cleaned up on general principles, while the women began to look for their best dresses in which to attire themselves when the happy privilege of landing should be enjoyed by them.  To us, Latter-day Saints, the first sight of America had more than usual significance, as this was the "land of promise, the land of Joseph; about which we had spoken, dreamed, and sung for many years before beholding it.

   About the time we began to see land one of the passengers, a young and foolish man, willfully jumped overboard and was drowned.  The ship hurriedly turned around, a boat lowered, and a number of sailors manning it, endeavored to save the man, but did not succeed; he sank in the billows to rise no more.  It was stated by his friends that he had been induced to emigrate contrary to his wishes and had repeatedly declared that he would never see America, so, when the rest of us began to look so eagerly for land, he, consistent with his resolution, committed suicide by jumping overboard.  We passed Sandy Hook after dark, and about midnight anchor was cast off Staten Island, at the entrance of the harbor of New York.

   The next morning (July 16) most of the passengers rose early to look at the country.  "How beautiful, nearly all exclaimed when we emerged from our quarters on the lower decks and saw the green hills of Staten Island and the tall steeples and magnificent buildings of the cities of New York and Brooklyn in the distance.  The pleasant morning breeze wafted the odor of vegetation and flowers from the shore out to us.  About 11:00 a.m. the doctor came on board to find that there were no contagious diseases among the emigrants and nothing in the shape of disorder or sickness which would prevent us from landing.  Consequently, the anchor was lifted and we sailed into the bay or harbor and anchored a short distance off the city of New York, almost opposite Castle Gardens.  As the sun rose higher, the day became very hot and several of the passengers were severely affected by the excessive heat.  Elders Thomas Taylor and William H. Folsom (emigration agents for the Church) came on board to arrange for our landing on the morrow.

   Shortly before noon on July 17th we took leave of the Kenilworth and boarded a small steamer which took us to Castle Garden.  While taking this short trip the heat was very oppressive and one of our number died.  Others were so overcome by the heat [p.17] that they were carried on shore more dead than alive; but on being placed in cool, airy rooms at Castle Garden, and receiving some medical treatment, they all recovered.  We had spent 58 days on board the Kenilworth; 52 days had passed since we sailed from our anchorage at Hamburg and 46 days since we first reached the Atlantic Ocean.  No serious accident had happened to us during our long voyage, and we realized that the predictions made by President Widerborg to the effect that we should pass safely over the great deep had been fulfilled.  At Castle Garden we passed through the usual examinations and scrutiny, including the enrollment of names, ages, nationality, etc., after which we enjoyed a few hours rest in the large and airy rooms at the Garden.

   At 9:00 o’clock a.m. we left Castle Garden and walked through a part of New York City to a point on East River where we boarded a large steamship which had been chartered by the Church emigration agent to take our company to New Haven, Connecticut, and the night was spent sailing up East river and Long Island sound.

   On our arrival in New York we were told that the different railroad companies which had terminals in New York had arbitrarily broken their contract previously made by the Church agent by adding to the price agreed upon for taking the emigrants by rail westward.  But as it was known that the emigrants were not able to pay this extra fare, Thomas Taylor, the emigration agent, had entered into a contract with a railroad company whose terminal was New Haven to carry us to the frontiers at the rates previously agreed to by the other railroad companies.  This was the cause of us having this extra voyage by steamboat to New Haven.

   After a short but very unpleasant voyage of 80 miles, we arrived at New Haven at 5:00 o’clock in the morning of July 18th.  From the landing place we walked a short distance to the railroad station, where, two hours later, we boarded the cars and started northward on our first journey in America.  Our route led through the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont, and we enjoyed the beautiful scenery very much.  To us, Danes, who had come from a low, flat country, where the highest elevated point was less than 600 feet above the level of the sea, the Green Mountains of Vermont and other elevations along our route of travel appeared grand and majestic.  We traveled in 2nd class cars with comfortable seats, all night and part of the next day.  Crossing the St. Lawrence River on the great Victoria Bridge, we arrived in Montreal, Canada, early in the afternoon of July 19th.  Montreal in 1866 had about 50,000 inhabitants; at the present time the population of that great city is more than one million.  Here we changed cars.  The new train placed at our disposal there consisted of a few second class passenger cars and a number of ordinary baggage cars.  Some of the latter cars, when we entered them, were dirty and abominable.  But our leaders were informed that we would either have to occupy these cars or wait at least two days for better accommodations, and so it was concluded to submit to the inevitable.  The cars were swept and cleaned out as well as possible, so that they could be occupied after a fashion.  Seated on our bedding or trunks and boxes, or lying on the floor of the cars, we rolled out of Montreal about 7:00 o’clock in the evening, traveling westward along the St. Lawrence River.

   It took us two days to travel through Canada this way, as we met with an accident on the shores of Lake Ontario where, owing to the poor conditions of the railroad bed, some of the cars jumped the track and several cars nearly toppled over.  Yet none of them left the roadbed.  This accident happened during the night, and when we, in the morning, beheld the situation of our train we truly felt thankful for having been saved from a terrible railroad disaster.  Our train was broken [p.18] into three sections on the banks of the lake.  Had any of the cars tipped over, the probability is that they would have rolled down the steep embankment into the water.  As it was, the track was torn up for several rods.  In the afternoon, the railroad men having repaired the track, we continued our journey, and at 7:00 p.m. we arrived at Toronto.

   The next day (July 22nd) in the afternoon, we arrived at the railroad terminus on the St. Clair River, which separates Canada from the United States, or the State of Michigan.  A steam ferry boat took us over the river to Port Huron in Michigan, where we spent the following night in a large freight building at the railroad station.

   On Monday (July 23rd) at 1:00 o’clock p.m., seated in good comfortable cars, which we surely appreciated after our experience in the Canada baggage cars, we left Port Huron and traveled westward through the state of Michigan and arrived in Chicago, Illinois, in the evening.

   The next day, July 24th, we changed cars and left Chicago at 10:00 a.m. Traveling all afternoon and the following night through the State of Illinois, we arrived at Quincy on the Mississippi River on the morning of the 26th. There a ferry boat took us over the river to the State of Missouri, where we waited in the forest on the bank of the river until 3:00 o'clock p.m. The weather being very warm, a number of us took advantage of the opportunity to bathe in the river which we thoroughly enjoyed; but a young man of our company who, being a good swimmer, ventured too far out in the swiftly running river was carried away by the current and drowned.

   At 4:00 p.m. we continued our journey through the State of Missouri, the land where the Saints in the early days of the Church suffered so much persecution. In several of the larger towns, through which we passed, the inhabitants acted hostile towards us and made several demonstrations in the shape of insults and threats. The telegraph had, of course, previous to our arrival, brought the news of a company of "Mormons" coming, and thus the rough element had time to gather at the railway stations to give us their attention as we arrived. Some of the worst men in the crowd gave the impression by their movements that they would have taken delight in treating us similar to the treatment that was given our co-religionists years ago. The conductor of our train appeared to be one of our bitter enemies. In starting the train and in quickening or lessening speed he treated us to such jerks and violent shocks as ordinarily are experienced only on freight trains. Fortunately none of us were seriously hurt, but some of our more delicate women were threatened with nervous breakdowns.

   The dawn of Friday, July 27th, found us traveling through the western part of Missouri, and after suffering more jerks and shakings during which the engineer broke parts of his engine, we arrived at St. Joseph, on the banks of the Missouri River, early in the afternoon. This terminated our railroad travel, which had lasted ten days and covered a distance of about 1,700 miles. On our arrival at St. Joseph we were given only one hour in which to procure provisions for a two days' trip up the Missouri River to Wyoming, Nebraska. We boarded the steamboat "Denver and left St. Joseph at 5:00 p.m. The following night was a sleepless one for most of us. In the first place the weather was too sultry for anybody to rest, but the worst trouble was that no place could be found on board for the passengers to make their beds. In addition to all this, the ship's officers and crew seemed to be regular demons and endeavored to annoy and vex us in every possible way. The next day, July 28th, the steamboat pulled slowly up the Missouri River. The day being extremely hot, we were not able to venture out from the coverings of the boat for fear of being sunstruck. [p.19]

   . . . On Sunday, July 29th, we arrived safe and well at the landing, below the village of Wyoming, Nebraska, which was the outfitting place for the saints crossing the plains that year.  At that village we could breathe the fresh air more freely than upon any previous occasion since we commenced our long journey.  Both on ship board, and in the railroad cars, we had been confined to narrow quarters, but here on the grassy hill of Wyoming we had plenty of room to spread out and inhale the fresh air and drink the pure water as it gushed froth from the hillside.  Here our Family also met some acquaintances from Vendsyssel, Denmark, who had spent a year at Wyoming.

   On Monday, July 30th, our baggage arrived at the Wyoming landing and was partly carried by hand and partly by teams to the camp ground on the top of the hill, where we were permitted to pitch our tents on any of the unoccupied land lying adjacent to the village.  Those of the emigrants who had no tents made themselves temporary shelter of brush and branches cut from trees in the neighboring woods.  While enjoying these conveniences we spent several days busily engaged in washing clothes and otherwise preparing for our journey across the plains.  Several of the Church trains sent from the "Valley this year after the poor were encamped near Wyoming, when we arrived, and had, waited for us several days.

   Between four hundred and five hundred wagons with three or four yoke of oxen to each wagon, were sent this year by the Church, to the Missouri "River after emigrants, most of whom, including our own family, came expecting to cross the plains with Church teams.  While stopping at Wyoming we could draw provisions from the church store house, which had been erected on the camp ground.

   On receiving our baggage at Wyoming we found that many of the boxes had been opened and robbed of their contents, and thus some of the emigrants lost all their clothes and traveling outfits.

   While the emigrant companies were encamped near Wyoming, that little village assumed an air of importance.  Regular camps of tents and family boweries were erected by the pilgrims.  Some of our company were taken sick with fever, a few very seriously.  Some of this sickness came upon the suffers through disobeying the counsel of the brethren in charge, who had advised the emigrants not to drink too freely of the ice cold water issuing from the springs, but rather use the river water after it had been filtered.  At least five of our company died before our family left Wyoming, namely, three from the Vendsyssel, one from the Aalborg and an old lady from the Copenhagen Conference.

   On Wednesday, August 1st, another company of Scandinavian emigrants, consisting of about three hundred souls, arrived at Wyoming.  This company had sailed from Hamburg, June 2nd on the sailing vessel "Humboldt, under the presidency of Elder George M. Brown.  Several companies of British saints preceded our company and were already on the plains when we arrived.  The total number of emigrating saints from Europe in 1866 was 3,327, of whom 1,213 were from the Scandinavian countries.  All the companies came by way of Wyoming and most of them crossed the plains with Church teams.

   Some of the emigrants who had crossed the ocean in the ship Kenilworth commenced their journey across the plains from Wyoming August 2nd, with Captain Joseph S. Rawlins’ train, and others left with Peter Nebeker’s Church train on August 4th.  Our family, having decided to go with Captain Andrew H. Scott’s train, moved our effects on August 5th to the place where that train was encamped near the Church store, and the next day we were assigned to our respective wagons, ten or twelve persons to each wagon.  Our train consisted of 46 wagons and the company comprised British [p.20], Norwegian and Danish emigrants.  George M. Brown, who had led the "Humboldt company from Hamburg to Wyoming, was appointed our spiritual leader in crossing the plains.

   It was the intention that our company should roll out of Wyoming on August 7th, but a terrible rain storm, accompanied by thunder and lightning, such as none of us from Scandinavia had ever experienced, visited the camp.  The rain poured down in torrents nearly all day and the following night.  The ground was thoroughly soaked by the downpour, and while the storm was at its worst the whole village seemed to be a perfect lake.  Such storms occurred frequently in this locality in July and August every year.  Wednesday, August 8, 1866, will always remain a red-letter day in my recollection.  At 10:00 o’clock in the forenoon, as passengers in Captain Andrew H. Scott’s ox train, we left Wyoming to cross the plains. . . .[p.21]

   . . . On Monday, October 8th, we traveled about four miles northward and arrived in Great Salt Lake City.  Our train immediately went into the Tithing Yard where everything was unloaded, and then the train started off again for the South with those of the emigrants who expected to locate in Utah County, were most of the teams in Captain Scott’s company belonged.  Our family, which had not decided where to make our permanent home, remained in the City fro the time being.  Hence we bade our fellow-travelers and affectionate farewell.  They scattered to different parts of the country, where they had friends or relatives, or where more settlers were wanted. . . . [p.26]


Biography of Niels P. L. Ezkildz
Lambert, George C. Comp., Treasures in Heaven (Salt Lake City: privately published, 1914) pp. 27-29. 

   The journey on the whole, though tiresome, was not otherwise unpleasant.  He enjoyed the society of his fellow emigrants, and felt that he had been blessed of the Lord beyond his most sanguine hopes; for notwithstanding his feeble condition when starting, he succeeded in walking more than three-fourths of the way across the plains.  He had also been cured of the asthma with which he had been so long afflicted - not suddenly, but so gradually that he hardly realized that he was outgrowing it.

   He had also been benefitted otherwise by the experience gained on the journey.  His views of life had become broadened by travel, and by the evidences of thrift and enterprise which he witnessed on his journey through the states, as well as by the possibilities of development he could foresee in the great and boundless west.  He felt like a bird released from a cage after a lengthy confinement therein.  He enjoyed his freedom and learned to commune with nature as he never had done before.  His knowledge of human nature had also been very materially added to since leaving his native land.  There are few conditions under which human nature can be studied to better advantage than while making such a journey over sea and land as that which he had passed through.  The crowding together of a large company in the hold of a ship for eight long weeks, with meager accommodations and food generally insufficient and frequently bad, is certain to develop selfishness, [p.27] impatience and irritability where these qualities exist even in latent form.  His fellow passengers were actuated by the noblest motives in migrating.  They had accepted the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ, some of them at the sacrifice of material comforts, and most of them at the cost of friends and prestige.  Some of them had been sneered at and persecuted in their native land, and had their former friends and relatives turn to be their bitter enemies, solely because of their accepting and of adhering to such an unpopular creed.  They had withstood all that, and, with faith still unshaken, were willing to brave other trials and face the hardships of this long voyage and journey, and the problems incident to life in a new and wild country, to gain religious freedom, and because they regarded it as a divine requirement.  But human nature, even though tempered by religious convictions, is apt to assert itself sometimes, and the helpless, dependent condition of Niels placed him in the position of a spectator, with ample opportunity to observe all that passed, and to study human nature during the voyage as he never had done before.

   Disputes occasionally arose among the passengers, which sometimes waxed warm and developed into angry quarrels, all of which Niels noticed but never took part in.  Possibly because he was always an observer of but never a participant in these affairs, he was several times appealed to as an arbitrator, to decide between the disputants and effect a reconciliation.  Without making any pretensions to judicial wisdom, he was, through strict impartiality, and tact in offering reproof without giving offense, and especially by appealing to the religious obligations of the parties to the strife, enable to do effective work as a peacemaker, and to gain respect therefore.  He couldn’t refrain from indulging in a little [p.28] mental philosophy on such occasions, and making note of the fact that the tongue is a dangerous member if allowed to wag too freely.

   Three times during the voyage the ship had taken fire, always at night, as a result of the cook’s carelessness, and a general panic among the passengers, if nothing worse, was narrowly averted.  Upon the first of these occasions the fire had gained sufficient headway before it was discovered for a rather large hole to be burned through the floor almost directly above where Niels had his bunk, and when the first alarm was sounded Niels looked upward and saw the fire and noticed the presence of smoke in the hold. He was able to "keep his head and helped in some measure in quelling the excitement of his fellows, many of whom became almost frantic when they learned that the ship was on fire, and that the hatches were fastened down, so that the passengers were shut up in the hold like rats in a trap.

   It occurred to Niels that the hatches had been closed by order of the ship’s officers to prevent a panic.  He saw the futility of rebelling against the measure, and counseled calmness and patience; and was so calm and self-possessed himself that some of the more excited ones listened to him, made a strong effort to control themselves, and seemed ashamed at having been overcome by alarm.

   The overland journey on the cars and the eight weeks’ trip by ox train in crossing the plains were not less fruitful in opportunities to study character under trying conditions, and for the personal display of those amenities that distinguish gentility from boorishness and Christian charity from heartless selfishness. . . . [p.29]

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Autobiography of Larsine Olsen Ottesen

Bottesen, Larsine Olsen, [Autobiography], Our Pioneer Heritage, Comp. by Kate B. Carter,  vol. 17 (Salt Lake City:  Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1974) pp. 167-168. 



   I, Larsine Olsen Ottesen was born in Hjöring, Denmark, October 11, 1859.  I was the third in a family of four children.  My parents were Soren Christian Olsen and Mary Martensen Olsen.  My two brothers, Peter and Lars and myself were born in Denmark.  Lars died when he was 3 years old.  My mother tended her house and family while Father made wooden shoes and sold them.  They belonged to the Lutheran Church, but heard the gospel message and were converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in their native Denmark.  The two elders converting them were Jens Jensen and Niels Anthon.  We sailed on the ship Kenilworth.  The captain of the ship was named Brown.  We left in April 1866, and out of the 684 souls aboard, 583 were from Denmark, 23 from Norway, 73 from Sweden and 5 from Germany.  Eleven or twelve persons died and were buried at sea.  My mother took very sick and as the food was scorched or poorly prepared at times she could not eat it and regain her strength.  My  brother Peter, who was 18 years old at the time, got a job helping the ship's cook.  He used to secretly carry extra food to her.  In time she got well, and always declared Peter saved her [p.167] life.  One day the cook went to sleep and the ship caught fire but it was extinguished by the men on board.  The winds were favorable for the first 3 weeks.  After that there were continuous head winds and fog which made the voyage both long and dreary.  There was one young fellow on board who did not want to come to America but his folks insisted .  When it was reported we were nearing land, he made a running jump overboard.  I remember a little boy was sitting on a seat at the edge of the deck, and as he jumped he grabbed the cap from the boy’s head.  A boat was launched in an effort to save his life but without success.

       The following night the ship was anchored off Staten Island and the immigrants went ashore.  We rode in box cars from New York to Omaha, Nebraska.  From there we walked across the plains to Salt Lake City.  We came in Captain Peter Nebeker’s company. . . .

   . . . When we arrived in Salt Lake City in October 1866. . . . [p.168]

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Diary of John Christian Poulsen
Poulsen, John Christian.  Diary (Ms 1700), pp. 43-45. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives




   . . . May the 7th.  I went with the emigrants to Aalborg, where I, until May the 16th made preparations in connection with the other emigrants, for the long journey ahead of us.

   May the 9th, 1866.  I was married to Lise Thomsen.  President [Peder] Christiansen married us.

   May the 16th.  We emigrating Saints had our things taken aboard the steamer and we sailed out from Aalborg at 5 o’clock in the afternoon, and had a fine sailing, and in the morning, at 7 o’clock the next day, May the 17th, we were in Copenhagen (Kjóbenhaven), where our things were taken aboard the steamship "Aurora, and that ship sailed out from Copenhagen at 1 o’clock in the afternoon.

   May the 17th, cont.  At 6:30 o’clock in the afternoon we sailed and passed the Danish Island Möen, with some fine forest grounds, and with the imposing "Móene Klint reaching out and up from the shore, 240 feet tall.  We arrived the following day, May 18th, in Kiel, Germany, from which city the company went by train to Altona.  From there the women and children continued in a small steamer to the near to Altona laying for big city of Hamburg, while the men walked to Altona. On their arrival in Hamburg, the emigrants were lodged for the night in a large emigrant building, where we were given meals.

   May 19th.  We went aboard the double-decked ship Kenilworth.  Many hundreds of ships were anchored in the harbor, and many steamships were crossing around forth and back in the harbor.

   May the 20th, 1866.  Our things were taken aboard the ship.

   Tuesday, May the 22nd.  More emigrants, who had left Copenhagen the preceding day, came to us, as arranged by the accompanying presiding brethren, Carl Widerborg, the present Scandinavian mission president, Samuel C. Sprague, the former president, that should take us to "Zion, and other prominent elders.  Elder Mortén Lund was appointed Sprague’s assistant.  Elder Fred R. E. Berthelsen [Bertelsen], his secretary, and Elder Ole H. Berg the guard for the emigrant company, that were divided into 42 messes.

   May the 23rd.  We were by two steam boats, dragged up the Elbe (or Elben) River to some certain point.  President Carl Widerborg had been aboard the ship Kenilworth and blessed it for its long voyage across the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

   May the 24th.  Brother [Jens] Rosenbreen’s [Rosengren] 5 year old boy died.  (Rosengreen’s [Rosengren] family were from the Copenhagen Conference.  It is not stated who were emigrating of that family.

   May the 25th.  The ship Kenilworth lifted anchor in the River Elbe at Hamburg, May 25th, 1866, with its precious cargo of 684 souls on board; of these 583 were from Denmark, 33 from Norway, 73 from Sweden, and 5 from Germany.  The route around the north of Scotland was chosen by the captain.

   May 26th.  Fine weather.  A sister from Copenhagen gave birth to a boy, May 27th.  Nice weather.  No wind and a gospel meeting was held on the deck.

   May 28th.  Somewhat stormy weather.  Many were seasick.  N. C. Kjargaards [Kibsgaard] wife gave birth to a son.

   May 29th.  Clear air.  Favorable wind.

   May 30th.  Some wind and some seasickness.

   May 31st.  Fine weather.

   June the 1st.  Good wind for sailing.  We sailed between the Shetlands and the Orkney islands.  A little girl 1 ½ years old died.  She was a daughter of the Petersen family from Randers [Denmark].

   June the 3rd.  Sunday.  Meeting held.  The wind still. [p.43]

   June the 4th.  But I felt sick and laid sick until the 10th of June, when we had a gospel meeting under the deck.  I could stand to go a little up on the deck.

   June the 11th, 1866.  Air foggy at that date, and the following days, we had the wind against us part of the time.

   June the 15th.  Friday.  Storm, with the wind against us.

   June the 16th.  Cold air.  A woman from Copenhagen Conference died.

   June 17th.  Sunday.  Very cold.  The meeting under the deck.

   June 18th.  Still wind.  Air warm.  A big mail-steamer from Europe passed us.

   June 19th.  Ole Borses [Berg’s] child died.  No good wind for our sailing the 20th, 21st and 22nd of June.

   June 23rd, Saturday.  Storm.  C. [Christen] Christensen’s wife from Kobbero [Denmark] died.

   June 24th Sunday.  Meeting.  Wind against us, also the next day.

   June 25th.  A younger man from Aarhus Conference died, (name not given.)

   June 26th and 27th.  Wind against us.

   June 28th, 29th and more or less until the 12th of July favorable.

   July the 12th.  The pilot came aboard to direct the ship into the harbor of New York, and to the place of quarantine at Castle Garden.

   July the 15th.  We could see land, and July 17th, we landed, at Castle Garden.  We had had a long and dreary voyage, but we had been treated in a kind manner by Captain Brown, and the ship’s crew.

   July 17th.  On the evening of the day, when we passengers of the Kenilworth were landed at Castle Garden, we proceeded forward in our journey on a large freight steamer to New Haven, Connecticut, where we arrived on the morning of July the 18th, and after staying there for a few hours, the journey northward by train was begun, passing through the States of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to Montreal, in Canada.  Here we had to accept passage in some very uncomfortable and dirty freight cars, in which we traveled through Canada, the route of travel being along the north bank of the St. Lawrence River, and the shores of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.

   July the 20th.  On the evening a part of the train jumped the track near Port Hope, but no one was hurt.

   July the 21st.  We came on other wagons.

   July 22nd.  We had lodging in a big house during the night.

   July the 23rd.  We came on another train, and we reached Chicago July the 24th in the night.  We were now taken to another train to Quincy, Illinois.  A steamer took us across the Mississippi River to the Missouri side of the river, where we found shelter from the burning sun in a nearby grove.  After a 4 hour rest we continued our disagreeable railroad ride until we came to St. Joseph, July 27th.

   July 27th, 1866, continued.  We were from this place given steamboat passage up the big Missouri River during two days time; and we had continually to suffer insults from a morally dirty and wicked crew.  Finally we reached to Wyoming, Nebraska, Sunday morning, July the 29th at 7 o’clock in the morning.  I and [Jens] Thomsen, with our wives, to our surprise met at the place we now had come to Brother C. Mikkelsen . . . .We waited at that place until the 13th of August (two weeks time) before we could be taken over the mountains to Utah.  The teams from Utah carried provisions with them to be given to the emigrants; that were in need of same; [p.44] and many were that.

   We had had a hard time of it during part of the time of our journey, as not less that 33 persons of our company had died from cholera or some other disease, before we had reached to the La Plata [the Platte] River.

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Journal of Samuel Lindsay Sprague

Sprague, Samuel Lindsay.  Diaries, vol. 2. pp.7-19
LDS Historical Department Archives


   . . . Went to the English hotel where we took a good supper.  The brethren spoke.  Brother Williamson and I went to the Commercial Hotel.

   Hamburg, 23.  Wednesday.  Went on board.  Brother Brown returned to Copenhagen.  Wiederborg [Widerborg], Williamson, and Christensen went ashore.  Went out of Hamburg Harbor about 10:00 a.m.  We were towed down the river with a little steamer.  The name of the vessel which we [will] sail with to America is the Kenilworth.  The captain's name, Brown.  Number of passengers, 689 souls.  The water being so low we could not get over the bar.  Anchored about 4 miles from Hamburg.  Brother Lund and myself set about to organize the people into messes.  Worked busy till evening.  Got supper.  All well.  Sleep in the cabin.  I have cabin passage.  A few sick.

   On board ship Kenilworth, May 24, 1866.  Thursday.  I seen that all the people got their food Brother Wiederborg [Widerborg] & Williamson came on board.  Brother W. organized us.  Put me in as president [p.7] the people.  M. [Morten] Lund as my counselor, he likewise dedicated the ship and everything pertaining thereto blessed the Saints then he left us as we supposed for good.  We saw our brethren go with sorrow.  Brother Lund and myself were busy all day working the people.

   On board Kenilworth, May 25th.  Friday 1866.  One of the brethren called me up from below.  On coming to my supper I saw Brothers Wiederborg [Widerborg], Williamson.  They had come to see us once more before we sailed.  I received several hundred dollars to give out to the people exchanging money.  In the afternoon weighed anchor.  The weather beautiful about 9 o’clock in the evening.  We were along side of [-].  This is the last bit of land we saw.  We had got all things organized very well on board 44 messes from 12 to 17 in a mess.  The different district presidents set in.  In the evening at 8 o’clock the horn blowed for prayers.  All had to go below at 9 o’clock.  The sound of the horn all hands go to bed. [p.8] One or two sick on board several others but slight.  I retired after the others had gone to rest.  Went all through the ship to see if all was well & the guard in their places.

   On board ship Kenilworth, May 26.  This day out to sea.  Begin our journey.  Some few sick of no consequence.  One girl sick.  One birth, a little boy.  I named him after the ship.  About 9 o’clock in the evening when all should go to bed there came a little heavier wind, began to cast up.  The first seasickness of any account.  We comforted the sick.  Went the rounds after all had gone to bed.  We had been favored with beautiful weather all day.  The captain came in on me a little about Mormonism.  I feel pretty well in spirits.

   May 27th.  Sunday.  Beautiful weather.  No wind.  All felt well.  In the afternoon held meeting on deck.  I addressed the people then Brother Lund.  The horn sounded at 9 o’clock.  The wind had risen some.  Begin to feel symptoms of seasickness.  I went the rounds with [p.9] Brother [O. Lole H.] Berg, the captain of the guard, after all had gone to bed.

   May 28th.  Monday.  On board ship.  Heavy sea, strong wind.  All hands sick on board.  I was busy all day administering to the sick.  Felt rather bad myself.  We had one crazy woman on board.  Heavy sea all day.

   May 29th.  Tuesday.  Brother [Fredrik R.E.] Bertelson [Bertelsen’s] oldest child died, 5 ½ years old.  I saw it breathe its last the breath.  Helped to lay it out, cast it overboard half an hour after its death.  Many suffering from seasickness.  Some few other cases.  Winds not fair.  Still in North Sea.  I felt rather poorly.  The sick got [-] [-] oatmeal supper, etc.

   May 30 On board Kenilworth.  North Sea.  Arose 7 a.m.  Captain Brown showed me the coast of Norway.  It was very cold.  We had nasty weather all day.  Squalls, heavy wind.

   May 31, 1866.  No wind, calm pretty much all day.  The sick got better.  I was busy administering to their wants. [p.10]  A fresh breeze sprung up towards evening.  Fair, all well on board.

   June 1st, 1866 On board ship Kenilworth.  Arose 7 a.m.  Fair wind.  Sailing 8 knots an hour, came in sight of Shetler [POSSIBLY: Shetland Islands].  About noon passed by them.  Had good winds all day out in Atlantic.

   June 2nd.  Got up.  Went down below. Child dead.  Soon got it ready to cast it overboard.  1 ½ year old.

   June 3rd Sunday 1866.  Beautiful weather.  Very little wind.  Held forenoon meeting up on deck.  Brothers Bertlesen, Lund & myself spoke.  Had a good meeting.  All felt well.  A few sick, not serious.

   June 4th  Monday, ship Kenilworth.  Fine weather, fair wind.

   June 5th  Tuesday.  Fair wind.  All well.  One old sister, 86 years old, sick.

   June 6th Wednesday. Fair wind all day, rainy & cold. We have had cold weather all the    [-] . [p.11]

   June 8th Arose after breakfast.  Went below & visited the sick there.  Got the people all up on deck.  The day was a beautiful one, the winds fair & strong.  Towards evening it changed.  Wind contrary.

   June 9th Saturday.  Opposite wind though not sufficient to hinder us from sailing.  All well on board.

   June 10th Sunday.  Strong head wind.  Held meeting down in the first deck.  Brothers [-], Thomsen & myself preached, had a good time.  I married Jens Petersen & Ansene Marie Larsen.

   Monday, 11th  Bad winds.

   Tuesday, 12th  Contrary winds.  Cold.  All well on board.

   June 13th  Wednesday On board Kenilworth.  I made it a business to keep among the Saints to see that all went well & healed them.  I done all I could for their comfort.  Got meals & from the captain [p.12] Brown.  He is a good kind man to us.  Also the mates.  Contrary winds.  Took in sails in the evening as it looked like a stormy sea.  A little rough.

   June 14th Thursday.  Rainy weather.  No wind.  1200 miles from New York.  I felt poorly today.  Union & peace prevailed amongst the Saints.  They are a good lot of people.  I love them much.  Rained hard all day.  The people were obliged to remain below which made it rather unpleasant.

   June 15th Friday.  Just three weeks since we came out to sea.  One old lady sick, 72 years old.  Contrary winds all day.  Blowed very hard.  After retiring to rest I was called up to go below.  The old lady had died 11 ½.   The sailors sewed her up in a sack & we committed her to the deep.  I had waited on the sick all day off & on.

   June 16th Saturday.  Contrary winds all day.  Very cold.  We could smell icebergs. [p.13]  Thick fog in the forenoon.  Attended to the sick.  Brother Lund assisted me.  He is a good brother.

   June 17th Sunday.  Held forenoon meeting down in the first deck.  I married twp couples.

   Several of the brethren spoke, Brother Lund, Berg, Larsen, and [Isaacsen] & myself.  Al felt well.  Not good winds.

   June 18th Monday.  Contrary winds.  Seen a large steamship from Liverpool.  They will report us.  On arrival we signal.  Seen other vessels.

   June 19th  Fair wind.  The day was a beautiful one.  All seemed cheerful.  About 1 ½    o'clock a small child died 1 ½ year old.  It was soon got ready to commit to the waters.  In the afternoon the wind dwindled away.  The weather warmer.

   June 20th Wednesday.  Wind dead ahead.  Warmer.  After breakfast I attended the sick and got medicine from the captain.  Got all the people up on deck.

   June 21st  Wind dead ahead all day. [p.14]

   June 22 Friday.  Calm most of the day.  A little fair wind.

   June 23 Saturday.  Head winds all day very strong.  A gale.  About 20 minutes to 1:00, Christensen's  wife died she was in a family way.  Stoppage of the breath half an hour afterwards she was committed the deep.

   June 24 Sunday.  Held forenoon meetings between decks.  Brother Hans Jorgensen, Bermen [Behram], Lund and myself preached.  Had a good meeting.  There was a good spirit amongst the Saints.

   June 25th Monday.  I administered to several of the Saints who were sick.  Bad winds.  Late in the afternoon a young man by the name of Niels Christian died disease unknown.  He was soon after cast overboard.

   June 26th  Head winds on the Newfoundland Banks.  About 8 ½  heavy squall of rain.

   June 27 Wednesday.  Northwesterly winds. [p.15]  A little infant died, the first child born on board.

   June 28th  Thursday.  Thick fog all day.  Northwest winds.  I felt a little [- - - -].

   June 29th  Friday.  Winds west northwest.  We should go west southwest.  Thick fog.

   June 30th  Saturday.  West northwesterly winds.  Very dense fog.

   July 1st, 1866.  Sunday.  Kenilworth.  The fog still continued.  We had run in close to Sable Island.  The captain turned around & put to sea again.  East southeasterly course.

   July 2nd  Monday.  Thick fog.  The decks wet all day.  Very unpleasant weather for the people.

   July 3  Thick fog all day.  Unhealthy for our people.  The captain had not taken the sun for several days.  A little infant died.  I had various things to arrange with some of the brethren.  Comfort those who were dispirited & take meals to those who were sick.

   July 4th  The captain treated the women folk to wine. [p.16]  The fog last disappeared about 11 o’clock  so that the captain took the latitude.  He told me we were about 575 miles from New York.  Wind fair.

   July 5th  Thursday.  Foggy, contrary winds.

   July 6th  Friday.  Today, 6 weeks ago, we sailed out to sea.  We have been 6 weeks out.

   July 7th  Saturday.  Nice warm weather.  Tolerable winds.

   July 8th  Sunday.  Held our forenoon meeting early in the morning between decks.  Brother Lund & myself preached.  The Saints feel well today.  The day is beautiful.  Head winds.  I married Nicoline Svendsen to Jens Thomsen.

   July, Monday 9th.  Opposite winds.

   July 10th  Tuesday.  Fair winds.  Weather warm.

   July 11th  Fair wind but not much of it. [p.17]

   July 12 Thursday.  The earlier part of the forenoon about 10 a.m. cleared up.  11 o’clock a.m. the pilot came on board.  He brought some newspapers which was a treat for me.  Today we have been out to sea 48 days.

   July 13th.  A child died.  Fair winds.

   July 14th.  Fair winds.  Wrote a letter to C. Wiederborg [Widerborg] in Denmark to publish in the "Stjerne."

   July 15th.  51 days out to sea.  Fair winds.  After dinner about 3 ½ could see the lighthouse.  At 5:01 o’clock land distantly.  A young man by the name of Jens Hansen jumped overboard and drowned.  He was foolish.  Sailed in & cast anchor off Stan-Island [STATEN ISLAND] about 1 o’clock at night.

   July 16th.  Sailed into the harbor just out of Governors Island.  Brother Taylor, the agent, came on board.  Brother Fulsom came [p.18] with him.  Taylor said he would advise the brethren to exchange their gold for greenbacks.  I collected some 3 thousand dollars gold.  The heat was intense, almost unendurable especially for us who had just came from the sea.

   July 17th.  I had the Saints get their things all in order ready to go ashore.  The commission officers came on board, also Brothers T. Taylor & Fulsom.  A small tugboat came alongside about 11 o’clock.  The sun had great force.  We reserved some of the able bodied men to help with the luggage.  The rest went on board the boat.  Brother Lund stopped to see to the luggage.  The officers passed it without examination.  Brother Taylor paid them.  On our way from the vessel to Castle Garden several fainted down under the heat, it being a over 100 degree.  3 or 4 died.  We came to the wharf. [p.19] [END OF DIARY]

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The Manhattan was a steamship

Manhattan

   

Autobiography of Bertha Marie Jensen Eccles

Eccles, Bertha Marie Jensen, [Autobiography], Utah Pioneer Biographies, vol. 9, pp. 24-26, 28. 



   . . . Early in June 1867 my parents, my little sister Mary, then about two years old and myself left Denmark for America.  From Liverpool we sailed on the steamship Manhattan.  This was the first time that a large party of Mormon emigrants had used a steamer to cross the Atlantic.

   My father was a well-to-do landowner in Denmark and he aided twenty one other persons to get to Utah.  Some he helped for the entire distance and some for a least a part of the journey.

   On the journey across the ocean we traveled in the steerage.  About 400 English emigrant converts joined us at Liverpool.  Unlike most of the early day emigrants who required many weeks on the ocean we had a rapid trip requiring only 13 days.  There were only about two days of rough sea, the rest of the time being very pleasant.  I recall that one stormy morning I awoke unable to find my clothing and shoes.  The pitching of the ship had tossed my apparel out of the bunks and down the aisles and I had to recover my belongings from a heap of clothing piled at one end of our quarters.

   We arrived in New York harbor on July 4, 1867.  The cannons were booming [p.24] and the usual celebration was in progress.  The following day after we had been examined and released from quarantine we went ashore at old Castle Garden.  There I tasted my first American pie.  It was cherry and full of seeds.  Like Edward Bok who has written on his early American experiences, my first impression was that there was more stones than fruit.

   Next we embarked on a river steamer and journeyed up the Hudson to Albany.  Our first ride in this new country was very enjoyable.  All day and as long as light lasted my father and I stood out on deck watching the beautiful scenery and marveling at the fine homes and gardens in the pleasant green valleys along the river.

   From Albany we traveled to Buffalo and there we ‘camped’ in a large warehouse.  The immensity of the building impressed me and I thought it was a queer way to camp, all the families in one big room.  There I suffered a great disappointment.  Most of the older persons went over to Niagara, a short distance away, to see the falls and being only 10 I had to go to bed early.  I cried, bitterly.  It was many, many years later, in 1893, when I was on a trip back to Europe with Mr. Eccles, at the time of the Chicago World’s Fair, that I had a chance to see Niagara Falls.

   Next we took a train to St. Joseph, Missouri and from there we went by river steamer up the Missouri to Council Bluffs.  There father bought his outfit and helped many others purchase theirs.  There were several returning missionaries in our party.

   The Union Pacific Railroad at that time had built as far west as North Platte, Nebraska and father learned that for $10 fare each we could ride from Omaha to the end of the line and wait there for the wagons to arrive.

   The railroad equipment was very poor at that time and I recall we sat on benches without backs.  The cars, having no springs, rattled and jolted us over the newly built roadway.  I got tired and wished to sleep so I stretched [p.25] out on the floor under the seats.  I remember the conductor kicking my feet that had sprawled out into the aisle.

   We had to wait three or four weeks at North Platte before the outfits arrived.  There were about 600 or 700 persons in the emigrant train, in charge of Captain Leonard G. Rice.  Our company was the first large independent company of converts to come to Utah.  Up to this time the church had always sent wagons and teams and other assistance to companies crossing the plains but not this year no aid was forthcoming. . . . [p.26]

   . . . We traveled up the Platte River, then up the Sweetwater and over South Pass, down to Fort Bridger and then through Echo Canyon, and over the mountain to Emigration Canyon and down to Salt Lake City, arriving there October 5, 1867, just at conference time. [p.28]

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Letter from N. H. Felt - July 3, 1867 Felt, N.H, [Letter] Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star 29:31, (August 3, 1867.) P. 494-495.


On board steamship Manhattan, July 3, 1867.

   Dear Brother Roberts,--Here we are all well under a brilliant sun, and sailing on as quiet a sea as could be possibly got up - everybody enjoying themselves.  We expect to get into New York somewhere about 8 o’clock, tomorrow morning.  We have had as fine a passage thus far, as could be wished for, excepting on Wednesday.  Wednesday night and part of Thursday, especially the night, it blew a hurricane for awhile, and tins, boxes, bundles, [and everything moveable, thrashed about the decks in a most fearful manner, but not a murmur nor an expression of fear was heard among the Saints; but among the other emigrants, in the forward part of the ship, there were screams, sobbing, and oaths that were said to be appalling.  There were five of the ship’s largest sails split in pieces, and a yard unshipped before they could be got in.

   There are about 450 of our people, and 700 other emigrants on board, making a total of 1,150 souls, besides some 16 cabin passengers, and about 100 ship hands.  We have been allowed every privilege on board that the Saints could desire, so much so, that the other emigrants feel very sore about it.  The captain, officers, and crew, to the last man, have treated us with the utmost respect, (Brother [A.N.] Hill and myself being in the saloon, have every opportunity of observing,) [p.494] and every expression made by the cabin passengers has shown that whatever prejudices they may have had before, they now, at least, respect this company of Saints.

   On Monday eve we had a grand concert on the upper deck; the captain not only supplied seats and lights, but requested the privilege for himself and cabin passengers to come and listen, and several of the passengers contributed by singing and dancing, &c., the captain sending out refreshments for the singers and musicians.  It passed off much to the gratification of the Saints, and highly so to the cabin passengers.  There has been strict discipline regarding the forward passengers mixing up with ours; they have not been permitted, as an usual thing, to come aft of the steam pipe, or midships.  This has prevented any difficulties arising between us, though they grumble a great deal about favoritism, &c.

   Last eve, after the pilot came on board, the captain got up a convivial party in the saloon, and requested Brother Hill and myself to invite Sister [Ann] Nunn to favor them with some of her sweet songs.  We did so, and the utmost deference was paid to her by the lady passengers and all, and they were very much pleased.  Sisters Nunn and Williams are sweet singers, and would do honor in that respect to some of the finest operas of the world.  I hope to hear them sing upon the stage at Salt Lake.

   There has been a large share of seasickness among the passengers, and two infants have died - one was Brother Raddon’s, and the other a Brother [Edward] Vaughan’s, of North Wales.  All are now quite well and cheerful.  Brother Hill and myself have had no sickness whatever, and were enabled to eat our rations every day.

   We have held meeting every evening below, excepting the evening of the storm and on the concert eve.  We meet together (English and Danes), sing, pray, and speak in both languages alternately each eve, closing with prayer in Danish and English, and before separating for the night, the evening prayer is offered up in English and then in Danish.  This mode gives satisfaction to both parties, and leaves no cause for jealousies or hard feelings of any kind; thus, up to this time, all has passed off in perfect harmony and mutual good feelings.

   July 4th. - Very hot weather.  I went on the tug to New York, and found Brother Watt at the office; afterwards Brothers Pratt and Warren came in; got a letter from home, all well; learned that a part of the missionaries from the Valley had arrived this morning.  Brothers Pratt, Warren, Watt, and myself, took a rowboat and went on board the Manhattan.  We will have to remain on board until tomorrow morning.  Brother Warren thinks it best to start off the passengers by the way of the Hudson River to Albany, and thence to the Missouri by the 6 o’clock p. m. train tomorrow.  The brethren returned to New York, and I stayed on board.  The captain wished the singers to meet on the quarter deck under the awning, and hold a concert.  The view of New York, with the fireworks to celebrate the 4th, was magnificent; heavy thunderclouds in the distance adding much to the effect, and the lightning far eclipsing the display below.

   July 5th. - 8 a.m.  Tug alongside.  All hurry, getting luggage aboard.  Met Brother Ford from Enfield, all well.

   Please give my kind love to all the Saints in London.  I shall ever remember them with pleasure, and may God bless them, and hasten the time when they can praise God in Zion.  I must hasten to a close; God bless you and all the Saints.  In haste, your brother in the covenant,
N. H. Felt. [p.495]

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Writings of Andrew Fillerup Fillerup, Andrew Peter [Writings] in Hutchings Family, Newsletters
(Special Collections & Manuscripts, Mss Sc 7758), vol.1, no.1, p. 5 (Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah)

   . . . On the 13th of June we left Copenhagen on the steamship "Waldermeir, and arrived in Hull, England on the 16th.  The next day we traveled to Liverpool by train .  There were 290 Scandinavians and 190 English which totaled 480.  We sailed together on the steamship Manhatten which was a freighter of 200 tons refurbished to carry 100 passengers.  On June 21 we sailed from Liverpool and arrived in New York on July 4.  On August 8 we began to travel across the states with oxen and arrived in Salt Lake City October 5.  The Salt Lake is 80 miles long 40 miles wide 70 feet deep and 4 large rivers flow in the [-] and for [-] the many small hills and mountains and lies 4218 above sea level and the Dead Sea lies 2500 feet below sea level.
Utah Lake is 4428 feet above sea level.
Utah lies between 37° and 42° N and 109° and 111° longitude.
We traveled 2095 miles at a cost of $2427.678. . . . [p.5]

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Letter from A. N. Hill - July 4, 1867

Hill, A. N., et. al. [Letter], Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star  29:30, (July 27, 1867) pp. 473-474. 
Steamship Manhattan New York Harbor, July 4, 1867.
President F. D. Richards

   Dear Brother,--We have great pleasure in stating that after a prosperous voyage of nearly 13 days, we have arrived at this point, and anticipate leaving tomorrow evening for Albany, en route for Omaha.

   During our voyage we had a most excellent time, with the exception of a little seasickness, the effects of a violent gale that occurred on the 27th ultimate.  The Saints universally feel well-satisfied with the vessel, and the accommodation thereon.  The captain [p.473] and officers have contributed to our comfort all that we could reasonably expect, and more, giving unusual privileges to our people.

   We have enjoyed ourselves very much in our meetings together, which have been held nearly every evening, the Spirit of the Lord being with us to comfort and cheer our hearts.  In fact, all the Saints feel the best kind.

   On the 1st instant, we had a grand instrumental and vocal concert, which was quite a success, the captain, officers, and saloon passengers being present, and expressed much satisfaction with the performance.

   We have to record five marriages, and the death of two children-viz., Joseph, son of Henry Raddon, aged 1 year, and Mary Ann, daughter of Edward Vaughan, aged 1 year and 10 months-both sickly previous to leaving.

   Today Elders Orson Pratt, G. D. Watt, and W. S. Warren, visited us on board, they were looking and feeling well.  A number of the missionaries from the Valley have just arrived.

   You must please excuse brevity, as we are very busy making the necessary preparations for the forwarding of the Saints to the frontiers.

   Ever praying for your welfare and success in your labors, we remain, as ever, your brethren in the gospel,

A. N. Hill, President
Niels Wilhelmsen, Counselor
James Ure, Counselor
Francies Platt, Counselor
R. R. Anderson, Clerk [p.474]

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Autobiography of Jens Iver Jensen
Jensen, Jens Iver, [Autobiography], Our Pioneer Heritage, comp. By Kate B. Carter, vol. 10 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1967) p. 74-75. 



   . . . We now made preparations to leave our native land with a company of emigrants led by a Utah elder.  We left Aalborg about June 10th for Copenhagen where we left June 12, and after three days on the steamboat Waldemar, arrived in Hull, England; crossing that land to Liverpool, where we remained a few days, preparatory to our voyage across the Atlantic.  We went on board the steamboat Manhattan and after 12 days arrived at New York, the 4th of July.  We were over 600 emigrants, nearly all Scandinavians, a few English and some from Holland, also a lot of Irish people not Mormons.  The leader of the Scandinavians was Niels Wilhemsen [Wilhelmsen], a man beloved and highly respected by all who knew him.  We sailed up the [p.74] Hudson to Albany, then went by rail to Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Detroit, and Chicago, then to St. Joseph, Missouri, from there by boat on the Missouri River to Omaha.  We were encamped there for two days when we took train on the Union Pacific Railroad to North Platte, the terminus 300 miles.  We camped three weeks, had some sickness and deaths among the emigrants.

   We were fitted out with oxen and new Schettler wagons for the 700 miles balance of the journey to Salt Lake City, also with provisions consisting of fat bacon and flour, etc.  Our oxen were in splendid condition - this is what is termed an independent train consisting of 60 teams with four oxen on each wagon.  The captain of the train was Elder Rice of Farmington, assisted by returning elders. . .This journey of 700 miles was on foot all the way from North Platte City, leaving the 11th of August and arriving at Salt Lake City, the 5th of October, 1867. . . . [p.75]

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Autobiography of Johanna Kirstine Larsen Winters
Winters, Johanna Kirstine Larsen [Autobiography],  Our Pioneer Heritage comp. by Kate B. Carter, vol.11 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1968) pp. 60-61, 64. 


   . . . In the year of 1867, on the 5th day of May, I left my native city Aalborg, on board a steamer to take us to Copenhagen, and there to meet with other emigrants from different parts of the country.  That little sea is always rough and I was the first to turn sick.  However, we landed the next day about noon and were met by a number of missionaries who took us around to see the city.  The same afternoon the emigrants from other parts had arrived, and we were ordered to board a large steamer to take us across the North Sea to England.

   So we, the Mormon emigrants, were loaded on one end of the deck with our belongings, and two hundred cows on the other end to be shipped to England - and the poor cows were just as sick as we were.  We landed at Hull, England, and went from there by railroad to Liverpool, where we had to wait about ten days while the steamer Manhattan was under repair.  This ship was to take us across the Atlantic Ocean.  When at last completed, we were taken on board and all were happy and thankful to get started.  At about midsea a heavy storm arose and for three days and nights it seemed as though the steamer might capsize any minute.  The captain told some of the missionaries that he never had met with bad luck yet when he had Mormons on board.  He said, "There is something peculiar about you Mormons, anyway.  The storm abated and we landed in the New York Harbor on July 4th, but were not allowed to go ashore until the 5th, when we marched up to Castle Gardens for official inspection; from there we traveled through the states partly on steamboat and on the railroad.  We crossed the Niagara River on the hanging bridge, which, of course was a great wonder.  I had read about it being completed, but never expected to see it; and about half a mile or so after crossing, all our belongings were dumped in the wilderness, there to await another train from the opposite direction to come and pick us up.  We wandered around for several hours looking at the falls and the barren waste.  As far as the eye could see, there was not a spear of grass or weeds or anything that showed signs of life. [p.60]

   At last we could see the train at a distance, it soon reached our camp and we began to load up as fast as possible.  Apparently it was an old work train, but we were glad to get aboard.   I was feeling somewhat ill before the train started.  I had evidently been exposed to something during our travels, and in a few minutes developed a high temperature and begged for water.  There was ice water in the car, but the brethren said not to give it to me and I said, "Mother, for your sake do give me a drink, I am dying.  She did not say a word but brought me a drink of ice water in a large tin cup.  I drank that and asked for another and she gave it to me.  I then went to sleep - I don’t know how long I slept - my mother woke me and told me I had had a long sleep.  She said that we would soon be at North Platte.  I was then completely covered with measles and very weak when the train stopped.  Our belongings were all dumped off as usual and everybody began finding their own.  My father put up the tent and Mother made a bed for me and it seemed such a relief to lie down on something besides a hard board seat.  I felt like "now I can die and be happy.  But, oh, such a disappointment.  Mother just came in and said, "Now, Father has gone to get some of the brethren to administer to you and you will soon feel better.  I turned my head to the wall of the tent and cried, for I was sure if they administered to me I would recover and equally sure if they didn’t I should die.  I felt that it was too hard to try to live again.

   The brethren came; they promised me health and strength, said I would be able to do my part while crossing the plains and reach Zion safely.  I had a good night’s rest and felt better although very weak.  There was little food in camp and nowhere we could buy any.  By this time all the younger children in the company were sick and it began to look as if we should all perish.  Means had been provided by the heads of every family to cover all expenses from the time we left our old homes until we should reach Salt Lake, as there would be no Church teams to meet the emigrants that year.  The money was forwarded and men sent from Salt Lake to make the purchases, one man to buy the provisions and another to buy the oxen and wagons and a few cows.  All there supposed to be at the Platte Station at the time of our arrival.  There was nothing, not even a message.

   Brigham Young, Jr. was with the company, returning from his mission to England; he was such a kind, fatherly man.  His brother, Joseph A. Young, and wife came to North Platte to meet him and with them our wonderful Captain Rice who was to lead us across the plains. . . . [p.61]

   . . . I do not remember how long it took us from there [Green River] to Salt Lake.  We traveled late and early.  We reached the old camping ground on October 5th at 11 o’clock at night.  But oh, how strange the next morning after the captain had gone!  Brigham Young Jr. had gone, and Joseph A. had gone - we all felt like a flock of sheep without a leader.  About 10 o’clock the next day Brigham Young Jr. and others came to camp to pay Brother Jensen the money which saved us all from perishing while crossing the plains. . . . [p.64]

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Reminiscences of Charles Keilgaard Hansen
Hansen, Charles Keilgaard.  Reminiscences (Ms 8891).  pp. 90-92, 94-96.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   . . . on the 12th of June the same year [1867] we bid goodbye to Aarhus with the rest of the emigrants to go to Zion.

   On the next day, the 13th, we left Copenhagen for England.  We experienced pretty rough weather in crossing the North Sea and my wife was very seasick, so much so, that the captain of the steamer on the first night after leaving the Danish Coast ordered some of the crew to pack her and some of the other sisters who had made their beds on the deck.  But in the night when the sea arose and washed over the decks so that all the beds was floating in water and the women helpless down in his cabin, where they remained till we arrived in Hull, England.  When I saw her again, I did not hardly recognize her, as her whole head was swelled fearfully.

   After a few days stop in England we left Liverpool in a new, remodeled steamship named Manhattan, manned by Captain Williams.  (This was the first company of Saints there has crossed the Atlantic Ocean in a steamship.)  Our journey lasted 13 days and we also here encountered pretty severe weather, especially part of one day and the whole night.  It blowed a hurricane and the emigrants suffered a great deal from seasickness.  We only had two deaths on that voyage and that was two small children.

   We landed in New York on the 4th of July, (the day of independence of the United States,) and what a grand sight that was to the emigrants to see such a grand city attired in it's festival in commemoration of the freedom of it's nation.  After we had been on the ocean for two weeks, seeing nothing but the sky [p.90] and water and occasionally a passing sail or steam vessel or an iceberg.  All the living things to be seen were the few sea birds, sharks, and the other fishes falling in the ship.  In the evening it looked like the whole city with the hundreds of vessels was on fire as the most grand fireworks that human eye ever looked upon was to be seen here.  The biggest portion of the emigrants were from the farming community and many perhaps had never saw a firework before.  They thought perhaps the whole nature had united in celebrating our arrival to the land of Joseph.

   The next morning we was brought ashore and quartered at Castle Garden and the same day went aboard a steamboat that took us up the Hudson River to Albany where we arrived the next day.  We then continued our journey westward on the railroads through Detroit, Quincy, Chicago, and many other places to St. Joseph.  From there we went by steamboat up the Missouri River to Omaha.  This was a very disagreeable voyage there lasted fully two days.  The water in that river is very roily and a very swift current.  The captain and officers cross and contrary and the crew was all darkies (Negroes) and not very sociable.  So, we poor emigrants did not hardly know what to do with ourselves for it appeared that wheresoever we was on the boat we was pushed around by these darkies.  And our females we had to guard and protect from being insulted by those Negroes.  We felt like we was lost but in the evening the weather was fine.  In it was moonlight and was pleasant and a great many of the cabin passengers had seated themselves outside their cabins on chairs enjoying nature as well as their wine and cigars.  So the leader of the emigrant company called some of the English Saints together who was beautiful singers and we also had some musical instruments among us.  We began to sing and play so it charmed the fine cabin passengers with the captain, officers and the crew and many of the gentlemen throwed money down among the singers and also treated them with cakes and good things.  It was kept up until a late hour and it had the effect that after that time we was treated very respectfully.

   Peter C. Johansen, whom my wife and I was assisting by the journey, had a little girl very sick here.  My wife was attending her as [p.91] shortly before we reached Omaha she breathed her last and was buried there.  I was one of four to pack the corpse over one mile to the graveyard as the man was stingy to hire a coach to haul her there.

   During our stay in Omaha which was about one and a half days we was visited by hundreds of the inhabitants who were pretty much all apostates.  Some had been in Utah and returned to Omaha and others had never been there, but all labored very energetically to persuade the emigrants not to go any further.  They took them with them home and showed them all the courtesy possible to make it appear the taking a great interest in their welfare and at the same time told the most horrible stories about Utah and the Mormons but I do not remember more than one family who remained there.  I believe it was on account of him not having money enough to take him any further.  He was a man from Copenhagen named Jensen.

   Well, after we had provided ourselves with provisions to last us till our regular supply arrived from Chicago, we boarded the Union Pacific train and went as far as the North Platte, where our cattle were feeding, which had been bought in Utah, and drove them from there to the Platte River that spring (Our company of emigrants was an independent company, we had no assistance from the church; but had sent our money from Denmark to the emigration agent to buy our provisions cattle and wagons etc. etc.) And had been [-] there for sometime, and was now in pretty good order for traveling, but a delay was caused some way or other, before our wagons and provisions arrived for about three weeks, in which time a great many of the emigrants died, so we made a whole graveyard while laying on the Platte, but finally the day for starting out tedious journey had come.  Our company was organized into five small companies, each with a captain who drove ahead of his company and the companies each in turns took the lead of all the companies one day at the time. . . . [p.92]

   . . . our company was moving slowly toward the west, under the direction of our Captain William G. Rice. . . . [p.94]

   . . . on the 5th of October about dusk a very rainy day.  The emigrant train wheeled in on the church farm three miles south of the city, where we were instructed to turn our teams on to feed, during conference time.  We had now reached our destination, and both man and beast of the whole company were pretty well worn out and we [-] to lift our hearts in thanks to God that we had been preserved on this long tedious journey, as many were now missing of those who were with us at the beginning of our journey.  Parents had lost their children, and children parents, men had been made widowers, widows and orphans, but all for the gospel sake and the Lord has promised a hundred fold in this life and life eternal [p.95] in the world to come, for all these sacrifices.

   The next morning October 6th 1867 after a very stormful and rainy night we got up early, and had a general cleaning up and put on our very finest attire.  The day was very windy but we started for the city, and I for one felt like I could kiss the very ground I was stepping on.  I was now in Zion, where the prophets and apostles of Christ dwell, and this was the first meeting which was held in the large tabernacle after its completion and the feeling that I had when I entered that building is undescribable.  I saw here these men that I had prayed for and bore testimony about, for years, in my native land, before me and recognized the most of them , after photographs I had previously seen.  My faith and hope was now a reality, I was now myself numbered among God’s people in this chosen land and all the trials, and hardships in coming here was now forgotten, it was now in the past, and all my anxiety was now for the future. . . . . [p.96]

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Journal of William Gibson
Gibson, William.  Journals (Ms 901), vol. 2, pp. 73-74. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archvies



   . . . I sailed from Liverpool with the Saints under the charge of Elder Archibald Hill David & I occupying the same berth, and Henrietta in a berth on the other side of the vessel among the sisters.  I may say here that in Liverpool Brother McMaster put an old lady or sister under my care.  She was, I can't say [-] but she was fat & more than forty & had a peevish discontented disposition.  She had no end of luggage & was a great annoyance to me all the time for [she] wanted to be continuously waited upon & in moving from one place to another on the journey her luggage made a vast devil of trouble.  Her very old chest or bandbox had to be carried as gingerly as if it filled with eggs, and in crossing the plains she wanted to ride all the time & I am sure she weighed over two hundred & her luggage more than that & it must be placed in the wagon where she could see it & get at it all the time no matter what became of the luggage of other people or their convenience.  I would not undertake such a job again for any amount of reward & with her it was all done for nothing, not even & thanks.  We had a very pleasant passage to New York.  Then went by steamer to Albany.  Then took the cars to the fitting out place which this year was North Platte Station, about two hundred miles farther on, and [-] Omaha.  Here we had to wait one month for teams & provisions. . . . [p.73]

   . . . I got into Salt Lake City Saturday night at 10 o’clock. . . . [p.74]

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The Monarch of the Sea carried 759 passengers from Scandinavia to America in 1864

   

   

Monarch of the Sea

   

1861

   


Journal of Alma Elizabeth Mineer Felt

Felt, Alma Elizabeth Mineer, Journal, An Enduring Legacy, vol. 7 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1984) pp. 196-198, 200. 

   In 1861, Father and Mother sold our lovely home and came to Utah.  Mother put some bedding, quilts, blankets and sheets, in a big sheet and tied the four corners into a knot.  We also had a wooden chest bound with metal bands to stand rough handling and with a lock.  This was about three feet high, three feet wide and four or five feet long.  In this Mother put our clothing, some dishes, knives, forks, spoons, frying pan and one cooking kettle, things that she thought we would need on our journey across the Plains.

   We embarked on a small boat from Copenhagen to Liverpool.  The North Sea is very rough and oh, how sick I was!  At Liverpool we embarked on The Monarch of the Sea, a very old and rickety ship and entirely unseaworthy.  The sea was so rough and stormy that the waves washed over the top of the deck.  When the people were frightened the captain said, "We’ll land in New York all right.  We’ve got Mormons on board and we always get through when we have Mormons.  On its return voyage The Monarch of the Sea, loaded with cargo, sank, but the captain and the crew were saved.

   We were on the ocean six weeks.  All of the Mormon families traveled in the steerage.  The voyage was very rough.  I can remember the chest sliding and banging from side to side across the wooden floor and all the other chests and trunks with it.  I can also remember my mother sitting and clasping her hands, praying that we would get to America in safety.  She was a very devout and courageous woman.  We slept in bunks on the sides of the boat.  In the center we children played during the daytime and ate our meals.  Our food consisted of hard tack and a little bacon and coffee.  We used our chests and trunks as tables when we ate our food.  Sometimes the captain would be kinder than usual and send down a little soup.

   There were a lot of sailors on the boat and they were so good to me.  A Negro cook who did the cooking for the sailors and captain and who had his kitchen on the upper deck was very kindhearted and generous.  He used to give me prunes, dried apples, raisins and sometimes cookies, and often a little bowl of soup.  I was on deck frequently and knew all the sailors and the cook.  Sometimes he used to sneak some [p.196] soup down to the emigrants in the steerage because he felt so sorry for them.  The captain caught him at this and he was put in jail.   The jail was on the upper deck and I can remember that I used to see his black fingers over the bars through the high opening of the door.  One day he died.  They told me that the captain had starved him to death.  The body of my friend, the Negro cook, was brought into the kitchen where it was sewed up in a sheet.  Then they put him on a long board, carried him to the side of the boat and slid him into the ocean.  I was the chief mourner because he had been so good to me.

   One day my sister was on deck and one of the sailors who was up in the mast dropped one of the iron spikes on my sister’s head and the blood was streaming onto the deck.  The poor boy did not mean to do it, but some of the officers started to beat him.  My mother came up on deck, elbowed her way through the crowd and said, "You leave him alone; he never meant to hurt my child!  Although she could not speak the English language, she made herself understood in Swedish by her actions.  They all let him alone and he was very grateful to my mother.

   The emigrants washed their clothes on the ship as best they could in the sea water and they had their lines for drying on the top deck.  I can remember seeing the shirts blowing in the wind with the shirt sleeves puffing out full in the breezes.

   We finally landed in New York, all safe and sound, and went to a place called Castle Garden, where all the emigrants landed, and where all the freight unloaded for the vessels was brought for storage temporarily.  Castle Garden was located at the Battery, just across from the Goddess of Liberty.  It was right on the waterfront.

   Castle Garden was the dumping ground for all kinds of cargo and it was also crowded with emigrants.  The floor was greasy and dirty.  Here we had to make our beds on the floor, as did all the other emigrants.  Mother spread out the quilts and bedding and we all lay down in a row, the children and Mother and Father.  There were sacks of brown sugar at our heads.  My little brother was sleeping next to me and in the night he awoke and whispered, "Alma, there is a hole in the corner of this sack and I am going to have some of the brown sugar.  We had not had any sugar or candy all the way over, so we got a spoon out of the box and had all the brown sugar we could eat.  In the morning we were so sick!  We got up, went to the bay and threw it all up and did not care for brown sugar after that. [p.197]

   From New York City, we traveled by boat up the Hudson and took the trains at Albany to travel to Omaha, the outfitting place for our trip across the Plains.  All of us were forced to travel on sheep cars so filthy with sheep beans on the floor that we could not sit down and had to stand al the way.  We traveled this distance without a change of cars.

   My sister and her husband, who was a butcher, had left Sweden the previous year and had stopped in Omaha to await our coming.  How happy we were to see them!  They had rented a house in Omaha and we stayed with them and rested until the teams came from Salt Lake City for us.  Then my sister, her husband and our family all traveled together across the Plains.

   The train which came to get us was made up of independent teams, under the direction of Captain Murdock.  We started on our long journey from Omaha with eighty wagons in our train. . . . [p.198]

   . . . After three and one-half months walking over a hot desert, up the rugged hills and down the hills and canyons, we finally came out of Emigration Canyon, dirty and ragged.  When I saw our mother looking over this valley with tears streaming down her pale cheeks, she made this remark, "Is this Zion, and are we at an end of this long weary journey?  Of course to me, as a child, this had been a delightful pleasure jaunt and I remember it only as fun.  We children would run along as happy as could be.  My older sisters used to make rag dolls as they walked along, for us little children to play with.  But to my mother, this long, hot journey with all of us ragged and footsore at the end, and the arrival in the valley of desert and sagebrush must have been a heartbreaking contrast to the beautiful home she had left in Sweden.  In the years that followed we were to love in forts, cellars and dugouts, among hostile Indians, so that we did not know wether we were ever safe.  But to me and to my mother, the gospel had been worth all it had cost.

   We came down into the village where there were only a very few little adobe and log houses and our entire train camped in the Eighth Ward Square.  It was a dirty old place.  There was a constant succession of emigrant trains camping there.  Some had come in front of us a day or two; other trains were two or three days behind.  While we camped with our wagons in the square, the oxen were taken into the tithing yard at South Temple and Main Street, where they were fed ad cared for in preparation for leaving for the east again to bring another company of emigrants. . . . [p.200]

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Minutes of the Monarch of the Sea

Harrison, E. L.T., "Minutes of the Monarch of the Sea Conference, [Letter], Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star 23:30 (July 27, 1861) pp. 475-76.

   On Thursday, May 16, Presidents Lyman, Rich, and Cannon convened a meeting of the Saints on board the Monarch of the Sea, in the River Mersey, Liverpool, and organized the company, consisting of 949 Saints, with Elder Jabez Woodard as President, and Elders H. O. Hansen and Niels Wilhelmsen as his counselors.

   A priesthood meeting of the English Saints was held the same afternoon.  Present—Elders Woodard, Harrison, W. H. Kelsey, S. Reid, Horace Pegg, Heber Pegg, John J. Wallis, William Carnie, and others.  Elder Woodard proposed E. L. T. Harrison as secretary of the ship’s company, W. H. Kelsey as president of the English portion of the Saints, and Thomas Morrell as Marshal.  Elder Woodard explained the duties of the Marshal—That he would have to see to the getting up of a nightly guard at the hatchways, see that no lights were left burning at night, and, in fine, preserve order and cleanliness throughout the ship:  also that all found articles were to be placed in his possession till the owner was found.  President Woodard then exhorted the English Saints to patience and kindness to the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish Saints.  He also gave some instruction as to the best food to be used at present.

   Resolved- "That no smoking be allowed between decks.  Meeting adjourned till ten o’clock next day.

   Married during the day, by Elder Niels Wilhelmsen, Lars Peter Christensen and Anne Marie Christiansen, Carl Wilhelm Julius Heker and Karen Marie Madsen, Johannes Hansen and Hansin Andrea Ibsen, Poul Christian Petersen and Marie Caroline Elizabetha Dorthea Nielsen; all of Denmark.

   Tuesday 15.-  (Before organization of company.)  Married by President J. Van Cott, in Liverpool, Carl Erick Lindholm and Johanne Nielson, Niels Oluf Vahlstrom and Eva Magdalene Nordblad, all of Sweden; Anders Frantzen and Maren Martenson, of Denmark; Samuel Gudmundsen and Ellen Marie Morck, of Norway.  A meeting was held this evening of the English priesthood, which was addressed by President Woodard.

   Friday, 17.  A priesthood meeting of the English division was held at ten o’clock.

   The following division into wards was made in the ship, and the following men appointed presidents--lst Ward, S. [Samuel] Gudmundsen; 2nd, Edward Reid; 3rd, P. Nielsen; 4th, John J. Wallis; 5th, G. Ohlson; 6th, G. A. Omonn; 7th, L. C. Giertsen; 8th, J. Fagerberg; 9th, Horace Pegg; 10th, R. Nielsen; 11th, Jynaz Willie.

   Married, this day, by Elder Niels Wilhelmsen, Soren Peter Rasmussen and Anne Mikkelsen, Poul Michael Poulsen and Cecilie Jorgensen.  President Woodard preached in the evening to a general meeting of the English wards.  Born, Christian Madsen, son of Christian Jacobsen.

   Died, Emma, daughter of Peter Petersen, of Sweden, 3-1/2 years old.

   Saturday, 18.- Elders Woodard and Harrison lectured on geography.

   Sunday, 19.- A general meeting of all the Saints, English, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, German, Welsh, &c., was held on deck, addressed by President Woodard and his Counselors.

   Monday, 20.- Robert Murdoch, Peter Hansen, and F. Lynberg called to be Assistant-Marshals [p.475].

   Married, by Elder N. Wilhelmsen, Rasmus Jorgensen and Jacobine Kirstine Morgensen, of Denmark.

   Tuesday, 21.- Died, Jane H. Montgomery, of England, aged 60: buried in latitude 52.26 north, longitude 23 west.

   Friday, 24.  Died, Caroline, daughter of Isaak Looser, of Switzerland, aged 9 weeks.

   Saturday, 25.  Memorandum.  Much stormy weather during the last few days, and good deal of seasickness.  Today weather fine, and general time of restoration among the sick.

   Council meeting of all the priesthood held this evening.  Resolved--"That the English have one fire at the cooking-galley to themselves, and the remaining three fires be kept for the Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, and Germans.

   President Woodard then addressed the meeting on the nature and extent of the priesthood.  Interpreted by Elder Wilhelmsen.

   Sunday, 26.  General meeting was held in the morning, addressed by Presidents Woodard and Wilhelmsen.  Afternoon, a German meeting was held, addressed by President Woodard & others.

   Memorandum.- Regular prayer meetings every morning and evening in each ward.

   Thursday, 30.- A general meeting of the English division held in the evening.  Elder Woodard preached.

   Saturday, June 1.-  Born, daughter of James and Alice Unsworth, of England: named Betsy.

   Sunday, 2.- General meeting held on deck, addressed by Elder S. Francis.  In the afternoon a meeting was held on the lower deck, addressed by Elder Harrison; after which President Woodard preached an "ox-team discourse.

   Monday, 3.- A sacramental meeting was held in Elder Reid’s ward: a very good feeling prevailed.  Resolved into a testimony meeting.  Several Danish brethren spoke.

   Tuesday, 4.  Sacramental meeting in Danish wards numbers 3 and 5, addressed by Elders Wilhelmsen, W. H. Kelsey, E. Reid, Thomas Morrell, and E. L. T. Harrison; interpreted by Elder Wilhelmsen.  A very strong feeling of union between the English and other divisions was manifested.

   Died, Karen Marie, daughter of Rasmus Peter Christensen, aged 6 months.

   Wednesday, 5.- A sacramental meeting of two other (numbers 3 and 7) Danish divisions was held.  Addressed by President Woodard.

   Thursday, 6.- A sacramental meeting was held in Elder Wallis’s ward.

   Friday, 7.- A Welsh testimony meeting was held.

   Saturday, 8.- Born, a daughter of Charlotte Kirby, late of England.

   Sunday, 9.- Being very rough weather, no general meetings were held.  In the afternoon, a sacramental meeting was held in the Young Men’s Ward, addressed by Elders Woodard and Hansen.

   Tuesday, 11.- Died, Amelia, daughter of brother Rokenbouch, of Switzerland, aged 14 months.

   Thursday, 13.- Born to Hennaig Oline Ungermann, a daughter, named Marie Josephine Atalanta.

   Friday, 14.- Died, Petrine, daughter of Christen Christensen, 2-1/2 years old.

   Saturday, 15.- Died, the daughter of Charlotte Kirby, born on the voyage.

   Sunday, 16.- As the weather was not very good, no general meeting was held; but, in the afternoon, an English meeting was held on the deck, addressed by Presidents Woodard and Wilhelmsen, E. L. T. Harrison, and W. H. Kelsey; after which a Danish meeting was held, addressed by President Wilhelmsen.

   Monday, 17.- The pilot came on board, and much delight was manifested by the Saints.  In the evening Elder Woodard preached on the news brought from America by the pilot, the fulfilment of Joseph’s prophecies, &c.  Resolved—"That a double guard be set as we are approaching New York, to be continued night and day, until we are landed.

   Died, William Cunningham, son of Robert Cunningham, of Scotland; also, Jens Christian Carl, daughter of Niels Jacobson, aged 6 months.

   Wednesday, 19.  Arrived at New York, after a prosperous voyage of 34 days, during which harmony and peace prevailed.

   E. L. T. Harrison, Secretary [p.476]

------------------------------


Letter of Elias L. T. Harrison - June 19, 1861
Harrison, Elias L. T., [Letter], Latter-day Saints’ Millennial Star  23:30 (July 27, 1861) pp. 478-79. 

Monarch of the Sea, New York, June 19, 1861.
President G. [George] Q. Cannon.

    Dear Brother,—I am glad to be able [p.478] to say that we have arrived safe in port today, after a pleasant voyage of 34 days.

   The generality of our company are enjoying good health.  All seem rejoiced at the termination of our sea voyage, and grateful to God for his mercies that have manifestly been over us.

   I do not think any company that ever crossed the ocean could have felt, on the whole , a happier or more united spirit, especially considering the diversity of nations represented, there being ten languages spoken on board.

   After the organization of this company in the Mersey, by Presidents [Amasa] Lyman Rich, and yourself, we sailed with a fair breeze and had a most successful passage through the Channel.  Since then, we had but little of anything but contrary or indirect winds; but the Monarch has behaved splendidly under all kinds of weather.

   Shortly after our departure from Liverpool, President Woodard and his Counsellors proceeded to complete still further the organization, by appointing E. L. T. Harrison, Secretary of the ship’s company; W. H. Kelsey, President of the English division; Thomas Morrell, Marshall; Jynaz Willie, President of the German Saints.  The Danish, Norwegian and Swedish Saints needed no other General President, as Elders Hansen and Wilhelmsen were of their number.  The whole company were then further divided into eleven wards, over each of which Presidents were appointed.  These officers have worked hard to preserve order and cleanliness in our midst.

   Nine deaths have occurred on board, chiefly young children.  There have also been four births and fourteen marriages on board, eleven of the latter being among the Danish divisions.

   Captain Gardner, with the first and other officers of the ship, have behaved in a kind and courteous manner to the company.  We presented the former with the following testimonial:--
To W. R. Gardner, Esq., Commander, Monarch of the Sea.

   As president and officers of 949 Latter-day Saints, passengers on board your vessel, we desire, before leaving, to express our entire satisfaction with the treatment ourselves and fellow- passengers have received, during our voyage from Liverpool to New York, from yourself, and also from the first and other officer acting under your command.

   Other scenes and circumstances are about to engage our attention, but we shall certainly ever remember with pleasure the gentlemanly treatment of ourselves and those under our charge on board the Monarch of the Sea.

   On behalf of the company;
Jabez Woodard,
H. O. Hansen,
N. Wilhelmsen,
Presidents of the Company.
E. L. T. Harrison, Secretary.
June 1861.

   President Woodard and his counselors have enjoyed tolerable good health.  They have behaved as fathers to us, and I am sure they enjoy the good feelings of every soul on board.

   Trusting the blessing of God may still continue with us in our further movements, with love to Presidents Lyman, Rich, and yourself, in which Elder Woodard and counselors join.

   Yours respectfully,
Elias L. T. Harrison.[p.479]

------------------------------
Diary of Carl Eric Lindholm
Lindhom, Carl Eric. [Diary], Our Pioneer Heritage comp. by Kate B. Carter, vol. 12 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1969) p. 478-479. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   . . . Jan. 5, 1861.  Wrote a letter to Johanna Nilsson, my sweetheart, in Copenhagen, Denmark.

   Jan. 11th.  Wrote a letter to my brother, father, and sweetheart.

   Feb. 2nd.  Received a letter from Johanna Nilsson with word that L. P. Edholm is coming to Sundsvall to collect some money before he emigrates to America.

   March 22nd.  L. P. Edholm returned today with information that I could journey to Zion. This was truly a great day for me.  I took out my journeyman’s book with the release of my mission.  I thanked the Saints for their loyalty and goodness to me and bade them farewell.  They in turn thanked me for counsel and instruction I had given them during the time I was conference president and bade me a very tender farewell.

   March 27th.  I commenced the journey to Copenhagen with L. P. Edholm.

   April 7th, 1861.  I arrived at Copenhagen.  Met my sweetheart Johanna who was happy that I came.  Called on President Van Cott and gave him my report.  He was satisfied with me and wished my sweetheart and I much happiness.

   May 9th.  We left Copenhagen and started on our journey to Zion, the promised land.

   May 14th.  Arrived in Liverpool, and went aboard the ship Monarch of the Sea.  It is an excellent vessel, large, roomy, new and clean.  Here are English, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Swiss, French, Welsh, Irish and Scotch Saints all together.

   May 15th.  Received tickets, cabins and provisions which consisted of cheese, bacon, meat, rice, tea, sugar, potatoes, [p.478] pepper, mustard and water.  This 15th day of May, 1861 Johanna Nilsson and Carl Eric Lindholm were married by President John Van Cott on the great ship Monarch of the Sea.  Many other couples were married.  Apostles A. [Amasa] Lyman, Charles Rich and George Q. Cannon were aboard ship.  They counseled everyone to be friendly, patient, peaceable, charitable, and tolerant to one another.  Apostle Cannon suggested that Elder Jabez Woodward be appointed president over the Saints aboard ship until our arrival at New York.  Elders Hansen and Wilhelmsen were chosen counselors.  At 11 o’clock the apostles left the ship.  They bade the Saints farewell after the Saints had sung many hymns for them.  A tug boat towed  us a long way through the channel.

   June 18th.  Sighted land today, the 34th day at sea.

   June 19th.  A steam tug towed the ship into the place of quarantine.  Physicians came aboard and examined us.  Arrived at New York.

   June 25th.  Arrived at Quincy at 2 p.m.

   June 26th.  Left Quincey and arrived at St. Joseph at 10 p.m.

   July 1st.  Arrived at Florence, Nebraska.

   July 4th, and July 5th.  Wagons were distributed.

   July 6th.  Oxen distributed.

   July 7th.  Moved a mile out and made camp.  Completed the trip from Florence, Nebraska  to Salt Lake City in ten weeks, in Captain Woolley’s train of covered wagons.  Arrived in Salt Lake City 2nd of September, 1861. . . . [p.479]

------------------------------
Autobiography of William Probert, Jr.

Probert, William, Jr., [Autobiography], In Biography of William Riley and Hussler Ann Probert Stevens, comp. and ed. by Orvilla Allred Stevens (privately printed, 1981) pp. 56- 57. 



   . . . We sailed on the ship Monarch of the Sea.  We sailed along alright for about 16 days, then there came up a very bad storm, and it lasted for 4 days.  There were one thousand Saints on board, and a crew of fifty sailors.  The sailors were afraid that the ship would go down, and they prepared all the long boats (there were 6 of them in all) and at the same time swearing that no Mormon should get in one of the boats.  They were a hard lot of men.  The way I came to see and hear them was I helped to give out the rations to the passengers and was allowed on deck.  The old ship was squeaking and groaning as though it could not stand it another minute, so President Woodard called out all the elders and went upon the deck.  The prayed and rebuked the wind and waves, and in a short time the storm abated and all were saved.  While we were being tossed about upon the waves, there were two other vessels on the south of us, laboring hard with the storm, but finally we lost sight of them, and they never got into port.

   We landed in Castle Garden on June 3, 1861 and the first thing I saw was the Military parading the streets of New York, and drumming up for volunteers to go and fight the south which had rebelled against the north.  All work was stopped to make men enlist, and as I had no money, it looked rather blue for me, but I had faith and hoped that I could get as far as St. Joseph, Missouri.  I had just spent my last and only cent for one suite of clothes and one blanket tied up in a large handkerchief. [p.56]

   After we left New York State, we were often stopped to see if we had any arms on board, or any rebels.  Sometimes in the night we were stopped and had to face a field battery until morning, and then to be inspected before we could move on.  Sometimes we were piled into cattle cars, or any way to get along.

   We reached St.  Joseph’s.  At that time the railway came no farther west, so we had to go on board a steam boat, on the Missouri River, and run up to Florence.  So I went on board without asking any question about it, but I was well pleased, as this was the same kind of boat that I had seen in my dream three years before, and then I knew that I would get through all right.

   When we arrived at Florence there were a great many people waiting for us, to see how to make up the trains for travelling across the plains.

   On my way through the States I had heard of good many hard stories about the Mormons, and a number had tried to get me to stop and not go any further west.  I thought if the Mormons in Utah were as bad as reported, I could go on to California, so I would not stop.  Well, at Florence, I began to think that there might be some truth in it, as I found that some of the teamsters would drink whiskey.  I had been taught that the Saints in Zion were perfect, and I should have to be the same, or I could not live with them.  Some of the immigrants got so badly disappointed in the Mountain Saints, that they turned back, but I went on, and found it badly mixed.

   Now this was something new, to emigrate, and it was not very pleasant, but the thought of going to Zion inspired us to do so, for they thought all was good there, and it would pay them to do anything to get there . . . .

   . . . We arrived in Salt Lake City on the 12th of September 1861 about noon.  The next day we began to divide up, and each mess or small party of teamsters went for their own homes, some for one town and some to others. . . . [p.57]

------------------------------


The Life of John and Barbara Staheli

Staheli, John.  The life of John and Barbara Staheli, (Ms 7832), pp. 1-3; Acc. #19761.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives




   I, John Staheli, was born in Amerswile, Canton Thurgau, Switzerland, May 28th, 1857, the sixth child of George and Sophia Barbara Staheli.

   I was just four years old when our family came to America, and have childhood memories of my home in Amerswile, and of the seven weeks voyage across the great Atlantic in the spring of 1861, making the journey on a sailing vessel.  There was a large company of Mormon emigrants on this voyage including converts from several foreign lands.

   In Amerswile, we lived just on the outskirts of the city where Father had built a small factory where he made cotton yarns.  The factory was operated by water power, and was still in use thirty-four years later when I revisited Switzerland.  The factory was really Father’s sideline, as his main occupation was teaching music.  He, with three companions, composed a quartet of players who traveled not only over Switzerland, but often crossed the border into Germany to play for dances, festivals and celebrations of all kinds.  After the family joined the Mormon Church Father sold the factory and rented a house until we embarked for America, in order to make the move more easily when others preparing to come were in readiness. The Father of Dixie’s benefactor, George Woodward, was one of the missionaries who often called at our home in Amerswile, and returned to Utah with the emigrants in 1861.

   The voyage was pleasant enough had it not been for the death of my year old baby sister, Sophia, who was buried in the sea just three days before the vessel reached the United States. Two other little ones had been buried in Switzerland.

   When the vessels reached the New York harbor all of the emigrants repaired to the old wharf house known as Castle Gardens.  I remember distinctly the picture of those many emigrants, the people from each country gathering in groups on the main floor of the building, with their [p.1] luggage heaped about them.  It was such a sight, and I was particularly impressed with Castle Gardens.  I went back to see it on my way to the Swiss Mission in 1887, and again in 1895 when I returned from a second Mission.  The building was still standing then and looked just like it did when we first landed.

   This band of some five or six hundred emigrants took train from New York to Florence, Nebraska, and this was a stirring part of the journey.  At that time, the Civil War being under way, the windows of the cars were shuttered as the train sped along the costal states where battles were in progress.  I remember how the trainmasters warned us to be very quiet going through those States, so we would not be attacked.  It was quite a problem to preserve quiet with so many little children on board.  However, that stretch of the journey was made in entire safety.

   At Florence we were met by ox teams and wagons.  Those were provided by the Church for which we were to pay after arriving in Utah.  This fee was known as the Immigration Fund and was to be paid in yearly installments.

   The company our family was in consisted of about fifty wagons with two families to a wagon.  The company was well organized for the trip.  A captain was appointed and everything was done in systematic order.  Father was the bugler and gave the signals for the various orders. . . . [p.2]

   When we arrived at Salt Lake City we were temporary located on the old Tithing Block near where the Hotel Utah now stands.  Here we camped for two or three weeks, and may of those who had become acquainted during the months of the voyage and journey from foreign lands, as well as others who had known each other in their home countries, were married in the old endowment house, before leaving for the various parts of the state, to which the leader Brigham Young had called them on special missions. . . . [p.3]

------------------------------


History of Barbara Sophia Haberli Staheli

Walker, Elizabeth Staheli.  History of Barbara Sophia Haberli Staheli. (Ms. 8691, reel 3), pp. 1-3; Acc. # 35501.
LDS Church Historical Department Archives



   In the spring of 1861, father and mother decided to come to Utah.  We left Switzerland when the cherry trees were in bloom.  We left our home and traveled on a train until we came to the ocean.  Liverpool was a smoky, dirty looking [p.1] place, not much like our beautiful home in Switzerland.

   We got on a ship, the Amersvile, the next [The Monarch of the Sea] the largest ship on the ocean at that time.

   It took us several weeks to cross the water. Mother was sick in bed all the time, and our baby sister Sophia, who was just passed a year old, took sick and died, and was buried in the ocean.  She was prepared for burial, wrapped in heavy canvas, a weight tied to the canvas, and then it was sunk in the water, Mother was very sad.

   We were all very thankful when we reached New York City. Mother and the younger children stayed at a hotel, father and the older ones stayed at Castle Garden, (the wharf).  We rested a few days then started for Florence, Nebraska.  It was during the Civil War, and we could hear the boom of canons and firing of guns as we rode along.  Shutters were up at the window and the people on the trains were asked to be very quiet.

   When we passed through Missouri the people were very bitter against the Mormons and set a bridge on fire to retard our progress.  When we got to Florence we stayed there a week.  Father bought a wagon and church teams were sent from Utah and the wagons were paced ready for travel.  There were six grown people and four children in our wagon, besides 2 stoves and the personal belongings and provisions.

   We had many experiences while crossing the plains, there was heavy rains, with thunder and lightning.  Indian warriors came to our wagons to trade and a big prairie fire swept over the land, so there was no feed for the oxen.  One day we met the soldiers returning to Washington who had come to Utah to kill the Mormons.

   On Sundays, meetings were held and, father, being a good musician and choir leader, would lead the songs.  A great many of the people were Swiss and we had a Swiss choir.  They were beautiful singers.  My [p.2] father was also the bugler, and would play his bugle at night and in the morning.

   After ten weeks of travel on the plains, we reached Salt Lake City the first part of Sept. 1861.  The peaches and watermelons were ripe, the first we had seen.  People brought them for the emigrants to eat. . . . [p.3]

------------------------------
Journal of Peter Nielsen
Nielsen, Peter.  Journal (Ms 8221), pp. 354-57. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   [Two pages missing]  [-] we arrived in Hull Sunday morning, May 12th, and we immediately went on board on their steamship which took us to Grimsby where we were to begin with those who had left Altona.  Brothers J.K. and William [-] received us together with an agent and they took us to a large frame house.  Some of us slept in a storehouse for the night on straw.  Most of our luggage had been left in Hull.

   May 13 - The saints who remained in Altona arrived.  They had had a good journey and our luggage also arrived from Hull and as it went shipped to Liverpool.

   May 14 - We left Grimsby at six o'clock in the morning by train.  We passed through several tunnels and so on.  Arrived in Liverpool about two o'clock.  Worked to get our luggage and belongings from the railroad to the steamship which was to take us to America.  It was a very big sailing ship called, "Monarch of the Sea".  G. Olsen and myself were appointed to receive the emigrants' goods and I worked with this till twelve o'clock after which I stood guard till three o'clock.  Then I laid down on a few sacks to get some rest.  I managed to get a berth for my family.

   May 15 - We were given our berths and received our provisions.

   May 16 - [-] sailed on the [-] Brothers Rich, Wyman, and Cannon from the Quorum of the Twelve and Woodworth and Bencott spoke and gave excellent counsel and advice.  They promised us a happy journey if we would but be obedient and they blessed us in the name of the Lord.  Brother Woodard was appointed to preside over all the saints on board and P. Nielsen(?) and N. Wilhelnson as his counselors.  Then the above-mentioned brethren left the ship having taken a cordial leave of us.  It was with peculiar feelings I saw them return to fight against darkness and that I together with so many other people was on my way to Zion.  They had done everything they had possibly could for us.  I especially wish to mention John Bencott.  He has worked diligently and untiringly for the saints from Scandinavia and it is my sincere wish and hope that the blessings of the Lord may rest upon him and all who do good.  At about eleven o'clock the ship raised it's anchor and it was taken through the canal by a steamship.

   May 17 - The saints were organized into twelve districts, eight from Scandinavia, three English, and one German.  I was appointed president of one of them.  Most of my district consisted of unmarried sisters and only a few families.  The husbands of these families, however, were good men.

   May 18 - Meeting was held on the under deck for Danes.

   Sunday, May 19 - A meeting was held on the upper deck and the preaching was done in several languages.  The weather has been rather quiet so far.

   May 20 - The ship started to roll and several of the passengers now became seasick.  It was not easy to get the food cooked.  The brethren worked to get this settled in the best possible way so that all could get one cooked meal a day.

   Sunday, May 26 - A meeting was held on the upper deck but I could not attend it as I was very seasick and had been for the last couple of days.

   May 28 - Felt better and was now able to fulfill my duties in my appointed place.  All is well on board, only a few are sick and only a little murmuring among the saints, mostly on account of the cooking as it is almost impossible for all to have one cooked meal a day.  I for my part think everything is alright.  All is done that can be done.

   Sunday, June 1 - The weather is excellent.  A meeting is held on the upper deck in English and Danish.  It was raining in the afternoon.

   June 3 - The weather is very fine.  Good spirit among the saints.  A meeting was held for the English converts.  I participated in this meeting and partook of the Sacrament and I felt very fine.

   June 4 - All is well on board our ship.  The weather is fine.  This afternoon a meeting was held for the third and fifth districts of the Scandinavian saints.  I presided over the third district and G. Oakes over the fifth.  Some of the English brethren were with us and together we partook of the Sacrament and the spirit of God was upon us [-].  Many spoke and I myself also spoke and I felt very happy and glad.  Great unity existed among the saints.

   June 5 - As the "fisker bank," it was raining.  Attended the meeting of the first and fifth districts.  Brother Raid spoke at length and gave excellent teachings.  Brother N. Wilhelnson interpreted for him.

   June 6 - The weather was fine.  In the afternoon I attended the German and English meeting.  A couple was married.  The preaching and singing were done in English, German, French, and Danish.  I felt very fine.

   June 7 - The sun is shining brightly and the weather is beautiful.  In the evening I attended the German meeting.

   June 8 - It is raining but the wind is fine and we are sailing apparently speedily.  Brother N. Wilhelnson was sick.

   Sunday, June 9 - It is raining.  We are sailing at a fast speed.  In the afternoon a meeting was held for my district.  Several of the brethren spoke.  I spoke for about one hour and felt that the Spirit of the Lord was poured out upon us in rich abundance and we were very much blessed.  In the evening we went to an English meeting after which I took care of the guards as Brother Wilhelnson was still sick.

   June 10 - Attended our Danish meeting.  Weather was fine.

   June 11 - It is foggy.  Received our food as usual every Tuesday.

   June 12 - It is very foggy and we are sailing against the wind.  President N. Wilhelnson is well again.  He put up the guards this evening which I had been doing during the time of his illness.  There has been some sickness among the saints, mostly diarrhea.

   June 13 - The weather is beautiful.  The sun is shining and is very quiet.  In the evening a meeting was held for all the saints from Scandinavia.  Excellent teachings and instructions were given by Brother Woodard.

   June 14 - Sun is shining and all well on board the ship.

   June 15 - A meeting was held in my district in the afternoon.

   Sunday, June 16 - English and Danish meeting on the deck.

   June 17 - The wind is fine.  A pilot came on board this afternoon.

   June 18 - The sun is shining and the wind is fine.  At noon we could see a lighthouse and land.  I feel very happy and so do most of the people.  Many of the sick have arisen and a new life is among the saints.  I enlisted from the saints in my district three dollars and five cents to be given to two mates for their kindness during the voyage.  A total of twelve dollars were collected from the Scandinavian saints.

   June 19 - At two o'clock in the afternoon we arrived in New York.  Erastus Snow of the Twelve spoke to us in the evening and it seemed to me that all were happy.

   June 20 - We left from here to New Jersey by boat.  We left by train from here at five thirty p.m.

   June 22 - Arrived in Duncer [sic] at ten a.m.  Changed train and left this place at four p.m.

   June 23 - At seven o'clock in the morning we arrived in Cleveland, changed train, and continued our journey at three thirty a.m.

   June 24 - Arrived in Le--- at three o'clock in the morning, had our lunch, and continued our journey to Chicago where we arrived at ten forty five a.m.  We changed trains and rode the whole night and arrived in Quincy on the 25th at noon.  Stayed here for the night.

   June 26 - Went on board the steamship, "Blackhawk", which was to take us to Hannibal where we arrived at eleven a.m.  Some of the saints were immediately taken into cars and left for St. Joseph and I and other brethren worked to get the luggage from the train onto the cars and so soon as this was done we immediately left by train for St. Joseph.  The ride was very bad as the cars were terrible.  My family and myself got first class seats towards evening for which I was very grateful as my wife could not stand to sit in the other cars.  It was raining and thundering during the night.

   June 27 - Arrived at our destination at ten forty five and here we stayed till five o'clock the next day as we had to wait for the steamship which was to take us up to Florence.  We sailed on the Missouri River for three days but everything was alright and we arrived in Florence on July [-] in the forenoon.  After we had got our luggage from the ship we got hold of the [-] and loaded our stuff into them.  I and several of the brethren rented rooms in the city for our families.

   July 2 - The saints who remained in St. Joseph arrived.

   July 3 - We drew lots about the cars.  I was sent out to find some cows which had gone astray, about thirty had, and we had found about ten of them.  A meeting was held in the afternoon and Brother Erastus Snow gave many fine teachings.  Elder S. Wooley was appointed captain of the whole company, N. Wilhelnson as chaplain, and O. Hansen as captain of the guards and counselor to S. Wooley.  Then the company was divided into ten and a captain appointed for every fourth.  G. Elson was appointed for the first, Finlayson(?) for the fourth, J [-] for the third.  Fixed various things.


1864 Voyage

Autobiography of J. C. L. Breinholt

Breinholt, J. C. L.  Autobiography (formerly in Msd 2050), p. 10,12. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   . . . On the fourth of April I said goodbye to my parents and brothers and sisters in Nebsager Mark.

   On the 6th of April, 1864 I bid adieu to my native land, Jutland.  I left the city of Horsens on that day in company with Elder Peder Jensen of Raodred per. Horsens. This young man now lives in Parowan, Iron County.  We were companions all the way from Horsen to Manti, San Pete, Utah.

   We traveled by wagon from Horsen to Aarhus where we took steamer for Korsoer.  We landed here in the afternoon and as we were wending our way from the harbor to the railroad station some urchins yelled at us calling us, "Mormon priests".  This we thought singular as neither of us had ever been on the island before (Sjaelland).  We arrived in Copenhagen late in the evening of the eighth and I think we stayed in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, one week.  We took the steamer from here to Altona; from there we traveled by rail to Hamburg where we stopped two or three days.  While here, I had a spell of sickness but not serious.  From Hamburg we went by steamer to Grimsby via Hull.  From Grimsby by rail to Liverpool where we again laid over about a week waiting for our ship to get ready to take us on board.  The ship that took us from Liverpool to New York was a large [p.9] sail ship and was called, Monarch of the Sea.  There was on board about 1,000 Latter-day Saints; so, notwithstanding the size of the vessel we found ourselves pretty well crowded.  Especially did we experience a great deal of inconvenience in the cooking department and it was chance work for many of us to get our meals cooked.  I, for my part, however, did not suffer any as I had good health all the way.  The trip across the Atlantic took us about 35 days.  Having lost my notes which I pencilled down while on my journey here, I am unable to give exact dates.  But I think we landed at Castle Garden, New York on the 1st or 2nd of June, where we stayed but a day and then continued our journey toward our destination by taking steamer up the Hudson River to the city of Albany, from which place we went by rail to St. Joseph in the State of Missouri.  From there we embarked on a steamer which landed us on the west banks of the Missouri River at a place called Wyoming, [Nebraska] where we laid in waiting about three weeks before the ox trains from Utah arrived which were to take us across the dreary plains.

   Instead of going with the Church teams, I and four other young men; namely, my partner and friend Peder Jensen, Niels L. Lund, Soren Thomsen and Charles Rovar, engaged ourselves as teamsters to a man from Manti by the name of Soren Christoffersen. . . . [p.10]

   . . . We entered the valleys of the mountains by the way of Provo Canyon about the twelfth or thirteenth of October.  We proceeded right on to Manti, the home of Soren Christoffersen, arriving there on the 10th of October, 1864. . . . [p.12]

------------------------------


Autobiography of Richard Daniels Brown Jr.
Brown, Richard Daniels, Jr., [Autobiography], In Brown, Archie Leon, 141 Years of Mormon Heritage: Rawsons, Browns, Angells - Pioneers (privately printed, 1973) pp. 81- 83.  




   . . . I went to work as usual until Wednesday the 27th and I went to a council meeting at Manchester, having previously been appointed clerk of the branch, and while in meeting a telegram came from President George Q. Cannon that I could have the privilege to work my way as a sailor if I so desired.  Word was sent that I would do so and the next morning found me at 12 o’clock noon in Liverpool on the ship Monarch of the Sea.  We set sail immediately after I arrived.  I was very sick for one week while working as a sailor.  I received such treatment as the sailors usually did, and in the early days this treatment was very cruel.  We had some very severe storms and landed in New York on the 3rd of June 1864.  There were about 1,000 passengers aboard besides the officers and sailors.

   I left England with only nine cents in my pocket but on landing a gentleman gave me twenty five cents (paper money) for carrying a trunk a short distance (I did not know how to count the American money).  I went to buy something to eat (5 cents worth) and on returning was told that they had given me 45 cents back in change.

   I was in New York without money or without fare paid any further, but stayed with the Saints who were emigrants and was not molested.  We traveled up the Missouri River when the steam boat ran in on a sand bank.  Being somewhat acquainted with a sailor’s life I took part with the sailors in helping to get it off.  The Captain noticed me and soon after came to me and inquires who I was, I told him the truth and he set me to work while I remained on the boat.

   We arrived in Florence or Wyoming and as I left the boat he came to me and offered me $35.00 per month and my board if I would stay with him, but I told him I was going to Zion [p.81] or die in the attempt.  He told me I would be sorry and if I ever came that way to call on him and he would find me work.  I thanked him and left.

   On arriving at the Frontier I hired out as a teamster to drive oxen, a new vocation for me, in what is called an Independent Train. I hired t a man, who had six teams, for $20.00 per month.  I was employed about three weeks herding then we started to cross the plains about the first of July 1864. . . .[p.82]

   . . . We arrived in Salt Lake City on the 19th day of September 1864, being met by my brother William and arriving one day ahead of the train, and we then made our abode with my sister Elizabeth. . . .[p.83]

------------------------------
George Finlinson Family
Finlinson, George, George Finlinson Family, 1835-1974, comp. by Angie F. Lyman (privately printed, 1974) pp. 14-19. 





   . . . The Trimbles had joined the Mormon Church in 1855 and had told George a great deal about their new religion.  He was taught the gospel by Edward Trimble and became converted.  He was baptized by Elder J. G. Graham and confirmed by Elder George Q. Cannon in April of 1864 in Liverpool, England.  His wife couldn’t see the truth of the gospel and became very bitter.  George tried in every way to convince her that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the true church but she couldn’t see it.  His uncle pleaded with him to stay in England.  All the property would be his and he would never want for money.  George know that the new religion was true and it meant more to him than earthly belongings.  He left immediately for America.  He migrated with the hopes that his wife would see the truth and come later.

   The following is a copy of the diary he kept while crossing the ocean and crossing the States:

   Saturday, 23. (April)--Went to Eastham in Cheshire the nicest place I ever saw 7 ½ miles across the water.  Went on board the Monarch of the Sea for New York.

   Sunday 24.--We had preaching on board and we were very busy getting new berths.  Got into a nice place at last.  Went to the meeting at night to [p.14] Liverpool.  Brother Cannon preached, Brother Romney and Brother Taylor, they gave us splendid lectures.  They appointed Brother Smith son of Hyrum Smith to be president of the vessel assisted by the elders of the church.

   Monday 25.--Started out of dock.  Sailed into the river and anchored there to get everything in order.  The sailors on board and such like and a great lot of brethren came out with us.  A women delivered a fine male child.  Both mother and child are doing well.  We went to bed about eleven o’clock at night.  Brother Cutler gave us prayers at night.

   Tuesday 26.--Still laying in the river.  Brother Cannon and the doctor came on board to pass us all.  We had all the decks to sweep clean and make all clean.  We all passed except two Danish families who had to go back home on account of them not being healthy.  The sailors came on board and they were very busy getting us ready for going.

   Wednesday 27.--We are already for going but we cannot on account of the want of seaman.  The mate turned a lot off on account of them not being good seaman.  The captain has been off all day trying to get more but has not got them yet.  We want about twenty men more.  There is a good deal of dancing tonight among the Saints.  We expect to get off tomorrow.

   Thursday 28.--The captain came on board this morning with some more sailors and we started to heave anchor, about ½ past 9 a.m.  We set sail about ½ past 10 o’clock.  The tug steamed us out and carried us a long way.  After we got out a bit there was a man jumped overboard and drowned himself.  He was a Cornish man and not belonging to the Saints.  We passed the Welsh Mountains about 8 o’clock p.m.  There has been 4 marriages on board.  [-] was near steam.  Tug left about 10 p.m.

   Friday 29.--A very calm morning.  Not much progress.  We have been very busy all day serving provisions.  I was serving out rice for about four hours.  It took about 8 hours to serve all out.  There has been some more marriages on board.  P. [Parley] P. Pratt sleeps next to us.  It has been very calm all day.  We have not gone above two or three knots.  I have a little touch of a cold but not bad.  There is one woman in the hospital, Danish.

   Saturday 30.--A very calm morning.  Again we made no progress almost stand still.  Just one knot an hour.  The wind started to rise about 9 o’clock p.m.  There was one marriage last night and one child dead and a good many sick in the hospital, all Danish.  There was seven on guard last night two middle and upper I had to mind them to keep them to their duty.

   Sunday-May 1.--We had a rather rough sea this morning and a good many commenced to be sick in the afternoon.  I did not feel so very well.  I went to bed about 5 o’clock and slept all night.

   Monday 2.--A very rough sea this morning and a good lot of sickness on board.  Hollsworth [Fred Ellis Holdsworth] and I laid in bed all day not so very sick but we could not stand the vessel rocked so much.  We eat nothing all day.  We slept a good part of it.  We were going about 8 or 9 knots an hour.

   Tuesday 3.--Still keeps stormy.  Laid in bed all day but a little in the morning, vomited a good deal through the day.  The passengers were nearly [p.15] all sick.  All together there has not been much eaten these last two or three days.  I do assure you I eat 2 herring myself during the day.

   Wednesday 4.--Very stormy again.  I was first rate this morning got up fit to eat anything.  It became very calm in the afternoon.  A deal of people very sick and had to be carried on deck to get fresh air.

   Thursday 5.--A very calm morning no wind.  We have been nearly at a standstill all day.  There was a child buried this morning.  It belonged to one of the Danes.  It had been poorly a long time.  There was a good many sick today just like corpses.  I have been busy cooking and washing dishes.

   Friday 6.--A nice wind this morning.  Going nicely along.  Been very busy getting weekly provisions in again this forenoon.  I changed my messing today to John Ashman close beside where I sleep in the afternoon.  The wind dropped and we made very little progress, hardly moving.  The hospital is full of sickly people.  There was some fun on deck with tight rope dancing.  There was a child buried 2 months old.

   Saturday 7.--A splendid wind struck up today.  All on board prayed to God last night for wind and we got it today.  He heard our prayers.  We are going about 8 knots an hour.  We had partridge for breakfast this morning.  I never enjoyed them better than I did this morning.  There is some people looks very sick yet.  There is a good deal of dancing on deck this evening.

   Sunday 8.--There was no wind this morning.  There was a boy buried this morning 7 years of age, of fever and there was a marriage of English people.  We had prayers on deck this afternoon.  There was good wind this afternoon, a little in the wrong direction giving us about 7 knots an hour.  The captain was rather frightened of the storm.

   Monday 9.--Fine wind this morning in the right direction.  A boy fell down the hatchway and was nearly killed.  A child died today.  The wind blew very strong all day.  I was on guard until twelve o’clock at night.  It rained all night through and the wind was very strong.  The sailors had to take some of the sails in it was so windy.  It was like dismasting the ship.

   Tuesday 10.--Very wet this morning.  There was a most dreadful squall this morning.  It was like to tumble the ship right over.  Boxes was tumbling and women and men tossed in all directions.  The water came over the ship sides and continued all day without ceasing but they made little progress.  There was no cooking, but breakfast.  The cook could not stand in the galleys.

   Wednesday 11.--A fine wind this morning commenced about 4 o’clock n the morning and continued all the day.  Blowing in the right direction.  We went about 8 knots an hour all day.  Rather a change from yesterday.  There has been a ship going along with us all day, just about the same speed as us.  If we continue on this speed the captain says fourteen days will carry us to New York.

   Thursday 12.--A strong wind this morning carried on all day.  It broke two jib beams during the day.  The sailors had a very long day repairing them.  The vessel went about 10 knots per hour, and in the afternoon they were [p.16] compelled to take in some of the sails it was that strong.  Had a game of cards this afternoon with Mr. Ashman.

   Friday 13.--Tremendous wet and stormy last night.  She went 12 knots an hour and in the morning it blew hard until afternoon.  The boy died that fell down the hatchway the other day and there was an old man died today that had been poorly for a few days.  They were both thrown over board immediately.  This evening the vessel heaved from one side to another.  There still keeps a good many sick.  A child died.

   Saturday 14.--A very strong wind this morning.  Very busy giving out provisions today.  In the afternoon a tremendous storm set in and continued all night.

   Sunday 15.--A very strong wind this morning.  It was that stormy and cold that there could be no prayers on deck.  I never saw anything so cold in my life.  It was as cold as the middle of winter.

   Monday 16.--Still keeps very stormy and wet.  There was another child thrown over board this forenoon.  It is most tremendous cold.  We are close to the banks of Newfoundland.  I have been very busy inspecting the cooking galley.  We are expecting to see some ice very soon.

   Tuesday 17.--The wind still keeps very high in the right position.  Two or three more children cast at sea today.  Still keeps very cold.  I have a little touch of cold on me now but is improving very fast.  There was a ship passed us this afternoon from New York being about 8 days sail to where we met her.

   Wednesday 18.--The wind changed this morning but a very fine morning.  Made very good progress.  Some more children thrown over board.  I cannot tell you how many have died exactly yet.  We have been very busy cleaning out the decks and sprinkling lime on to sweeten the berths out.

   Thursday 19.--A very calm morning, this making little progress this morning.  About 4 o’clock there were two ice bergs passed us, one about the size of this vessel and the other 60 feet high.  They would have smashed us if they had come near us.  Some more children died during the day.

   Friday 20.--A calm morning again very little wind.  Busy receiving provisions today.  Past two ice bergs this afternoon most bitterly cold when we passed them as cold as Christmas nearly.  One child thrown over board today.  Tom in bed poorly today.  A little toward evening very foggy.  We passed a vessel today.

   Saturday 21.--Very calm still.  We passed a good deal of ice and it was most dreadful cold.  Tom still poorly.  A good deal of the people on board bothered with looseness of the bowels, and some very sick.  Still very foggy.

   Sunday 22.--A fine wind this morning.  We passed a steam vessel this morning. She had sailed about three days from New York.  On guard from 3 o’clock until morning.  Preaching on deck this afternoon.  One child thrown over board, Danish.

   Monday 23.--It was a very stormy night last night to sail very much.  The wind continued strong until afternoon then it changed a little.  Two more children thrown over board today belonging to the Danes.  Very cold still, [p.17] yet.

   Tuesday 24.--Not much wind this morning.  Very still.  They are busy painting and cleaning preparing for New York as fast as they can.  Hollsworth [Holdsworth] very poorly in bed today.  Another Danish child thrown over board today.

   Wednesday 25.--A nice breeze this morning.  Hollsworth [Holdsworth] a little better this morning.  Three Danish children thrown over board today.  The wind was very much against us this afternoon and very thick and misty.

   Thursday 26.--A calm morning again scarcely moving.  Hollsworth [Holdsworth] a good deal better today.  The wind got a good deal stronger this afternoon.  Had a game of Whist in the cabin with Brother Pratt, the captain and I .

   Friday 27.--A fine wind this morning.  Provisions given out today.  This for the last time till we get to Wyoming.  The wind still continues good all day.  Had a game of Cribbage with the Captain in the evening then a game of Whist later.

   Saturday 28.--A calm wind she scarcely stirred at all.  Hollsworth [Holdworth] clean better now.  The wind rather freshened this afternoon.  Land in view this evening. Had a game of Cribbage with the captain at night.  The beautifulist evening I ever saw.

   Sunday 29.--In morning turned out very wet until afternoon and then the breeze freshened.  A little too wet for prayers on deck today.

   Monday 30.--Fine wind this morning.  We were delayed about an hour this morning with a fishing boat.  (We expected to have seen the pilot.  We got news of board.)  Had a game of cards at night.

   Tuesday 31.--Fine wind this morning continued all day, passed Blasts Island.  Hollsworth [Holdsworth] poorly again.  The wind blowed very strong.

   Wednesday-June 1.--The wind blew very strong.  Hollsworth [Holdsworth] very poorly this morning.  Had a game of cards with the captain until 12 o'clock and then the pilot came on board.  (There were 23 children and 1 man buried in the ocean of this group.)

   Thursday 2.--The wind this morning, calm.  (In sight of land kept in sight.)  There was a tug came about 10 o’clock and fastened to us.   It towed us up and we passed the most splendid scenery I ever beheld.  The doctor came on board and passed all passengers.  On watch at night.

   Friday 3.--The steam boat came to tow us up the river about 10 o’clock and commenced to get the baggage on it.  Arrived in New York about 2 o’clock went in the steamboat to Albany about 150 miles.  Started at 6 o’clock and sailed all night.  We had a ramble through New York it is a nice place and all along as we go it is beautiful to behold.

   Saturday 4.--Landed in Albany about 4 o’clock in the morning.  It is a beautiful place.  Lays on the River Hudson it’s length is about 160 miles long.  Started from there on the train there was about 22 cars on the train.  We passed some of the most splendid places I ever saw.  Pen cannot describe them.

   Sunday 5.--Landed at Rochester about 5 o’clock in the morning and stayed there awhile.  It is a very large place.  It lays on the Genesse River.  Landed [p.18] at Buffalo at 1 o’clock.  It lays on Lake Eire River about 100 miles across.  Changed carriages and crossed the river on a steam boat and landed in West Canada about 4 o’clock, landed at Brentford at 8 o’clock and got provisions went on Strattam arrived at 12 o’clock.

   Monday 6.--Landed at Port Edward at 6 o’clock and crossed the Detroit River, Lake Huron and started from there at 4 o’clock, changed cars, landed at 8 o’clock got provisions.

   Tuesday 7.--Passed Battle Creek about 10 o’clock passed Mishgill city at 4 o’clock a tremendous place for sand.  Passed Lake Michigan landed at Chicago at 8 o’clock.  It is the territory of Illinois.  Stayed there all night.

   Wednesday 8.--Started from Chicago at 10 o’clock passed Osweago.  Some water.

   Thursday 9.--Arrived at Quincey at 11 o’clock crossed the river at 7 o’clock.  Started fro Palmyra at 8 o’clock.

   Friday 10.--A very wet night last night, and we got badly on this morning, owing to the rail being slippery and the road so bad and us in cattle cars.  We arrived at Brooksfield at 11 o’clock landed at St. Joseph at 8 o’clock slept in a shed all night.

   Saturday 11.--Started from St. Joseph at 4 o’clock slept on board all night.  Rather cold but dry.

   Sunday 12.--A very fine morning.  We saw 4 Indians this morning the first we have seen.

   Monday 13.--Came to Nebraska City about 10 o’clock.  Landed at [-] Wyoming at 5 o’clock got off and camped on the Platte.  Slept all night the camp very comfortable it was.

   Tuesday 14.--Busy preparing to go west and hired for 20 dollars per month to go with 8 oxen across the plains.

   Wednesday 15.--Went to Mr. Harris’ camp to start work.  Came on very wet and did not move.

   Thursday 16.--Busy getting the oxen into yokes and yoking them.  We had an accident.  There was a man broke his wagon pole off and delayed us about an hour and half, traveled till 9 o’clock at night and camped again.

   Friday 17.--Mr.. Harris had to go to Nebraska today so we did not move camp today.
George did not write more in his diary but he went on to Salt Lake and then on to Fillmore. . . .[p.19]


Autobiography of Nils C. Flygare

Flygare, Nils Christian, Autobiography.  In Papers (Special Collections & Manuscripts, MSS 1496, bx. 1, fd. 3, pp. 51-57).  (Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah)


   . . . My Trip to Utah

   I left Copenhagen, Denmark on the 12th of April 1864 in company with a large company of emigrants, amongst them was Julia Welterlines my betrothed.  We went by steamer to Lubeck, Germany, then by rail to Hamburg, then by steamer again to Hull, England where we arrived on the 14th of April.  We had a very rough voyage over the North sea and nearly all were seasick.  We had to lay amongst cattle and sheep and had no comfort.  This was not a very good beginning on our long journey of over 7000 miles.  We were laid up at Grimsby [p.51] several days waiting for the large vessel to get ready.  We went to Liverpool on the 21st April and went right on board the large packet ship Monarch of the Sea.  We were 953 emigrants on board and were organized on the 24 into companies for the convenience of travel.  Patriarch John Smith was appointed our captain with 3 counselors.  The company was then divided into 8 districts with a president for each.  I was one of these presidents and done all in my power to help those under my charge.  We lifted anchor on the 28th of April and a little steamer towed us out of the Mersey out into open water.  We were now for waves and wind to be wafted across the mighty Atlantic to the new world.  We had much sickness on board especially among the children of whom about 35 died, and were buried in the sea.  I enjoyed very good health, but Julia got the measles we were sick for a few days in mid ocean.  We had very fair sailing and casted anchor in New York Harbor on the 2nd day of June, having made the voyage in 36 days.  We passed the quarantine examination all right and were landed in the Castle Garden on the 3rd of June 1864.  I put foot on this continent at 11 a.m. on that day. [p.52] The great vessel there as buoyantly had brought us over the great deep was lost the next season with one thousand Irish emigrants on board.

   We left New York the same day we landed and on the steamer St. John went up the Hudson River to Albany, a beautiful trip.  It looked as though we had come to the promised land indeed, but this was not to be kept up, for we had yet to pass through the great American desert.  From Albany we went by rail via Rochester, Buffalo, Detroit, Chicago, and Quincey to St. Joseph on the Missouri River.  We took steamer at St. Joseph for Wyoming, Nebraska where we arrived on the 13th of June.

   While steaming up the Missouri river on a beautiful clear June day my Julia wrote in my daybook the following stanza,

   [6 LINES STANZA FOLLOWS, WHICH IS WRITTEN IN DANISH.]

   Missouri [--] due 11/6, 1864.

   Wyoming was a new outfitting place for our people, heretofore Florence north of Omaha had been the place, but now we were about 40 miles south of Omaha in a wilderness. [p.53] Here we were introduced to western civilization, such as cowboys, bullwackers, prane schooners, lassos, and many other western accomplishments.  The Utah boys who had come down to the river with teams, to bring up the emigrants, did not impress us with much favor as favorable.  They had of course laid for months on the plains were dust, rain and sunshine had taken the shine off them pretty well so they looked rough and ready.  But on nearer acquaintance we found that beneath the torn and tattered apparel beat a kind and willing heart.  Immediately on our arrival at Wyoming we received provisions from the church agent, consisting of flour, pork, dried apples, rice, sugar and also, soap for washing.  We had now to learn the art of cooking in the wilderness, without stove or fireplace and I am satisfied from my own experience that most of us never did learn it, while traveling across the plains.  We laid in camp until the 4th of July waiting for our outfit of oxen and wagons to bring us to Salt Lake City.  While laying here waiting a young girl from Gothenburge got drowned in the Missouri River and another young girl died from injuries received on the railroad. [p.54] Our company consisted of 58 wagons with 4 yoke of cattle to each wagon.  W. [William] B. Preston was captain of the company.  It was a very weary and long journey. . . . [p.55]

   . . . Our company arrived in Salt Lake City on the 15th of September a very sorry looking lot after such a long and weary journey of over one thousand miles.  Still we felt thankful to God that he had [p.56] been with us and preserved us from harm on such a long journey over water and land and had brought us safely through to the end of our journey. . . . [p.57]

------------------------------


History of Caroline Martine Anderson

History of Caroline Martine Anderson, first wife of Charles Keilgaard Hansen [letter, Caroline Martine Hansen to Charles K. Hansen, June 17, 1864, Wyoming, Nebraska] (Ms 8889). pp.1-2
LDS Church Historical Department Archives


   Dear Husband:--Now that I have the opportunity to write to you.  I will try to tell you more about my journey and how I have been.  I am well and happy.  I am thankful to my Heavenly Father and lucky for being able to come this far on our journey.  On April 28, 1864 we left Grimsby by train.  It is a beautiful country and very prosperous.  Part of the time we rode underground.  It was dark, we went through tunnels nine times, the 6th and 9th times were the longest.  We went over many mountains, there were trains passing us in the opposite direction many times.  We arrived at Liverpool at 2:9 p.m. the same day we went aboard ship.  We were assigned to our quarters and we also received our rations which consisted of bacon, meat, peas, potatoes, flour, cereal, pepper, mustard, sugar, and vinegar.

   There were over a thousand emigrants aboard the ship, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and English.  We were in Liverpool eight days before we sailed.

   Many good talks were given us by Brothers Smith and Johansen [Johanssen] from Norway, Brother Cannon and Brother Taylor.  We were given many instructions.  There was peace and happiness with us.  There were many times we sang, played and danced.  We had prayer both morning and evening.

   We sailed aboard the large ship thirty-one days.  I was only sick eight days.  It wasn’t seasickness, but it was climate fever.  I was very sick, and missed you.  I needed you here to take care of me.  Some of the brothers did the best they could for me.  They waited on us as if we were small children.

   The worst is past and I must not grumble against the Lord, he has given me much and I must be thankful for the many blessings I have, but I can’t hold my feelings back and I am homesick for you.  I can say with truthfulness that the Lord has heard all my prayers and he has blessed me with many blessings, that has been for my own good therefore dear husband, I will live the best I can for my Heavenly Father, so that the best blessings will be for me, that I will be faithful in every task that is asked of me.  I hope that I will be among the worthy to reach the mountains.

   My heart is filled with pain when I think of those that are left in Babylon, and also that there are my relatives, I will stop with them.  And now I will tell you about my journey.

   We were five weeks on the water and we landed in New York the third of June.  It was a big event that we have all been waiting for.  To see the trees and all the beautiful things, the tallest building on earth.  Dear husband, what great happiness there is to set foot upon the beautiful American land.  Not alone that it is a beautiful place, but the fact that Joseph blessed this land to be set aside for someday to be for all the Lord’s people.  To each person who will worship God and love his neighbor as his self.  Dear husband be faithful so that each of us will be able to receive the blessings our Heavenly Father has for us that we are in need of.  I don’t mean to preach to you, but I have learned so many things since I have started my journey.  There are many weaknesses, therefore be patient it is a good trait to develop and if we have it we will be able to pass through many trying things.  The Lord’s hand will follow us and his blessings will follow us.

   When we arrived at New York, there were several people we knew. I was most welcomed by Brother Mortensen, Brother Christensen of Grenaa.  Haurback Knudsen, Staffer and Frederiksen.  There were also many whose name I do not remember.  They had all had a good trip.  I will tell you how many ships we have been on, there were quite a few because the Saints hadn’t gone the way they had planned to go.  Because of trouble with the ships.

   We rode on the train for eight meters a day and there was stoves and restrooms on each car.  We have arrived here in Wyoming the 13, June, 1864.  When we shall travel from here I didn’t know, but don’t think it will be too long before we shall start on our journey again.  I can let you know that I am not with Krones anymore.  I am with Christensen and Sister Hold and also Frederiksen.  Brother Niels Jorgensen hasn’t arrived and Jensine hasn’t heard from him.  I hope he will soon come, if not now next year.  But he will probably come before we will leave here.  We have it comfortable here in our little leaf hut that Brother Christensen and Frederiksen has built for us.  There are about 11 hundred here in Leiren with the English.  We have a flag on our house so that we can see where to come back to whenever we go visiting.  At this time we haven’t made any plans all we have done is eat, drink and we have gone into the woods to pick grapes and strawberries.  We have music and song and everything to entertain us.  We have the best food here at the church wagon that [p.1] anyone could wish for.  Pork and the finest four to bake bread with, the best sugar that we were never able to buy in Denmark.  We have delicious dried apples for sweet soup and many other things, so we enjoy eating.

   We have it good here, we live in a leaf hut it is named the Bag Bystedt.  I can’t remember the street where we live at.  I can tell you my dear husband, that here are many things that would interest you.  There is a man here that came with the church wagon that is going to Denmark.  He has promised to take my letter with him.  He has hundreds of letters to take with him.  I have to hurry and get this finished so he can have it, or I would tell you more about the trip.  You don’t know their names.  When I come home to Zion I will write you more.  It is time-I almost forgot to tell you how many have gotten married on the trip.  You don’t know their names so I won’t tell you who they are.  There has been 40 children and 4 adults die so far on the journey.  I guess that isn’t too many among so many of us.

   Dear husband I have heard here in America that there is a war in Denmark, that all of Europe is unrest, but that is not new for as God’s children know that God’s prophets have said in the last days, there should be wars and rumors of wars and that all the earth shall profess that God lives and that he has the only true church.  You can believe dear husband it hurts me that we drove against our dear Brother Joseph Fodely and it reminds me of what he has done for his religion and that he does his Father’s will.  Dear husband even though we don’t know too much about the gospel, let us learn and make a practice to learn more about it each day.

   We have come through America where the Saints have been driven from.  It is a beautiful and fruitful country.  Here are masses of Negroes.  They are a good and friendly people.  There is talk around that we shall start to travel Thursday.  But it isn’t definite now.  If it is so we will start our journey from Wyoming [Nebraska] the 30th of June.  Remember and celebrate my birthday on the 1st of July.  Dear husband if only you were with me, it probably will be a long time for me to wait.  Be sure that you do all for to come over here.  I fear that they will take you in the army.  Be sure and do all you can to be free from being called in the army.  It would be awful if you should leave me for such a case.  Be sure that you do all for your self and for me.  I will try and earn some money over here.  If you can’t come over here it would be the greatest test for me.  Anything else I could take.  Dear husband the happiest days we have lived together, if only these days would come again so we can be together in Zion.  I pray to our Heavenly Father that the way will be opened.  Dear husband I won’t forget to pray to my Heavenly Father to help you and give you health and strength to save money for your trip.  Dear husband I miss you so much, if only I could hear from you and find out how things are with you.  What you have done with our home and furnishings.  Who lives in our apartment and all about what has happened.  How is my family and the old folks at Asentoft?  I have wished a thousand times that I could of said goodbye to all of them.  Be sure and tell my brother and wife hello from me.  Be sure and tell your mother and the family hello from he too.  Be sure and get as much of my genealogy with you as you can when you come, you know how important that is.  Tell Sister Outzen and her husband hello for me.  I think and talk about them a lot.  Tell the children that I will have apples and cake for them when they come to Zion, if they are good children.  Tell Petersen from Arvoy, Sister Fruls, Sister Tegen and he children that I will see Brikke when I come home.  Tell Michael, Hans Hansen, Boberg, Christen Mikkelsen, Soren Thomsen, Jens Peter Nielsen, Peter Laursen, it is my plan to visit their daughter when I come home.  Tell them all hello.  Greet Brother Jensen in Aalborg if you write to him.  I talked to him in Copenhagen.  Greet shoemaker Morch & his wife for me.  I pray that the Lord will bless them so that they will understand the gospel and accept it.  Thank them for all the things they have done for both of us.  Be sure and tell Madam Henriksen and her husband and children that I miss them , but I hope that some day they will visit with us Zion.

   Dear husband I miss you very much.  I will say now live well, live well dear husband we will soon meet again.  May God bless you, that you will have everything necessary so that you will soon come to Zion.  I am sending you all my love.
Caroline Martine Hansen.

These letters were translated from Danish language to the English by Edith Melgaard Cox of Fairview, Utah. [p.2]

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Letter of Caroline Martine Hansen - April 18, 1864
Hansen, Caroline Mortine. [Letter] Our Pioneer Heritage comp. by Kate B. Carter, vol. 16 (Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1973), pp. 460-61. 



Grimsby, England April 18, 1864

   Dear husband: We sailed from Copenhagen on Wednesday as planned on the 13th.  I did not receive your letter, there was an awful storm, the waves washed over our decks all the time, you can believe me I was very sick.  Most everyone was, till we reached land here in Grimsby.  We sailed on a very nice ship and were comfortable, which we needed since we were so sick.  Several hundred Saints, Swedish and Norwegians, welcomed us.  I am glad and lucky that I am among those that shall travel to the mountains but would be much happier if you could be with us but I am lucky that I have a testimony in my heart that I am among God’s people.  This fills my heart and gladdens my soul.  What there will be for me and everyone that is humble and patient in the Lord’s hand he will make them glad for here is love among these people.  The brethren treat us as if we were foster children.  They are always trying to do something for us.  The sailors aboard the ship were also good to us. [p.460]

   I have been out to social with Sister [Trine Marie] Hold and Sister Christensen and some of the other Saints.  It is very beautiful here in England, the mountains are beautiful, the trees are green and in leaf, the flowers are in bloom and are so fresh.  There are many things I could write about but don’t have enough paper.  Here is nature’s beauty but people just take it for granted.  Let us be near God our Father and be thankful that our eyes and hearts opened to the truth.  Let us thank him in both words and deeds.  Let us be sincere and loving with each other that we will always follow the right path, so that we will receive our blessings that God has in store for us.  Dear husband, be faithful in what you do and be sincere and understanding with all, and the Lord will bless you.  I will not forget to pray for you and you pray for me.

   Dear husband, just think I will prepare for you a lovely home in Zion, if the Lord will give me strength to earn a little and he will.  That I know.  I have that feeling.  He has always given me the things I have asked for and he will always hear my prayers that I ask of him with a sincere and righteous heart.  I could tell you many things but here it isn’t very peaceful.  There are many small children crying and disturbing us, so we can’t think clearly.  But when we get home to Zion I will write you some good letters.  I send you greetings from the Saints and I visit with all of them.  We don’t have much room, we can touch each other when we lay in our beds.  Give my love and greetings to the Saints there, and say to Madam Hendriksen, study for yourself the teachings of the gospel and then teach it to your husband and children and you will have peace and joy in your heart.  I may not get to write to you until I get to Zion.  Now to the end, Dear husband, I will hope that God’s blessings will be with you and that you will do the Lord’s will to the end.  I hope that both your days and mine will be long upon the earth.  Here in this room I can hear beautiful music, and I think of you.  Live well and I will think of you as we sail across the water.
Caroline Mortine Hansen.[p.461]

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Diary of Christian Hansen [Jensen]
Hansen, Christen [Jensen].  Diary (Ms 1795), pp. 12-13. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

   . . . Thursday the 17th - I visited some Saints for the last time.  I stayed overnight with M. A. Jorgenson.

   Saturday the 19th - I traveled to Hjorring.  From there I walked to Aalborg, a distance of 10 miles (4 English miles to 1 Danish mile).  I was tired of the trip.  I came to Aalborg at 5 o’clock.

   Sunday the 20th - I went by steamer to Korsor.  I came to Korsor at 6 o’clock.  At 7 o’clock I went to the railroad and came to Copenhagen at 12 o’clock.  We had a fortunate journey.  I stayed overnight in Copenhagen.  I lodged with Pedersen.

   Tuesday, the 22nd, March - At 12 o’clock I went by steamer to Lubeck.  Arrived there Wednesday morning at 6 o’clock.  At seven-thirty I went by railroad to Hamburg and arrived there at 12 noon.  It was Wednesday the 23rd.  I lodged with S. Kreutzfeldt in Hamburg at Street Brauerkuegzgaben, No 8 I gave 9 marks a week.  That was 4.03 mark Danish.

   Friday the 12th, April - In the evening at 8 o’clock I went on the steamer "Zebra" from Hamburg in company with the Swedish emigrants.  We came to Hull at 5 ½ o’clock.  Left the same evening for Grimsby.  Arrived there at 9 o’clock on the 14 April.

   Saturday the 16th - The Danish emigrants arrived at Grimsby.  We stayed here until Thursday morning at 5 ½ on the 21 April when we went by railroad to Liverpool.  Arrived there at 2 o’clock the same day.  We went the same day upon the sailship, Monarch of the Sea.

   Monday the 25th, April - We were towed out of the harbor at 12 ½.

   On the 28th April we sailed from Liverpool.  When we came out in the Irish Sea two sailors sank into the sea.

   The 31 [May] and 1 June we saw 2 islands whose name was Long Island.  At night on the 1st and 2nd we received the pilot on board.

   June 2 - A steamer came and towed us into the harbor where we cast anchor.

   Friday, June 3 - We went ashore and were quartered in Castle Garden.  Forty-two children died at sea from scurvy.  One grown man who was an Englishman also died.  The same day that we went ashore we went aboard a steamer that sailed 150 miles to a city named Albany.  We arrived [p.12] there Saturday, the 4 June.  The same day we went on a train.  Sunday morning we came to a city named Rochester.  Here we stopped for a little while.  We went further and came to a little town named Buffalo where we crossed a little stream.  We sailed over it, both people and wagons.  We next came to a little town named Stratford and then to Detroit.  We then crossed a stream which came in from the English (Canadian) side to the American.

   Monday, evening of the 6th of June - There was a fire in one of the cars on the train.  A good deal of clothes burned.  We stopped at [-].  We went through Michigan and came towards evening to Chicago.  There were many Scandinavians.  We traveled from there Wednesday, the 8 June, and on Thursday the 9th we came to Quincy.  Here we sailed over a stream and into the land of Missouri.  We went from here to St. Joseph.  Here we got on a steamship and sailed up the Missouri River to Wyoming [Nebraska] . . . . [p.13] [ABRUPT END OF ACCOUNT.  NO ARRIVAL DATE INTO SALT LAKE CITY.]

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Autobiography of Nels August Nelson
Nelson, Nels August.  Autobiography (formerly in Msd 2050),pp. 1. 
LDS Church Historical Department Archives

   . . . I left Sweden on April 6th, 1864.  We were a family of seven, Father, Mother, three girls and two boys.  We arrived at Florence the beginning of June.  While here we buried the third girl.  It was here also that we met fifty wagons with food and other necessities to care for us and carry us to Utah in three and one half months.

   It was a glorious day September 15th when we entered Zion.  We left for Logan that evening.

   We soon learned what the perpetual emigration fund was and how provided.  I worked along with father repaying it.  We thanked God for President Brigham Young and the pioneers. . . . [p.1]

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Journal of Ove Christian Oveson
Oveson, Ove Christian.  Journal (Ms 6221), pp. 22-23, 25. 
LDS Church Archives



   . . . April 1864.  Left Aaborg on the 5 on Steamer "Dania," 200 persons.  On the 6 to Copenhagen to Kalkbalien Selle Kanike Street.  No went to Mlamo Sweden on the 9 on account of the police had my name there as well as a number of others to fine us to have us go to be soldier.  I went around in Copenhagen and got acquainted.  Visit President Hogstead and others.  Come to Malmo the same day and left there on the 10 of April 64 with the Sweden emigrants to Hamburg on Ship "Zebra" and come to Grimsby on the 14 April 1864.  A pleasant trip on the North Sea.  We stayed there till the 21 April 1864 then come to Liverpool on Railroad (Grimsby are a very nice town and fine people).  We come over 26 Shefield & Manchester and thru 7 tunnel to Liverpool same day, and on a big sailing vessel Monarch of the Sea, Patriarch [p.22] John Smith was our president  on ship where we got over bets no and provision which was each morning 3 potter water to 1 person, on each Thursday–marine bread meth [UNCLEAR], pork, flour, Dutch meal, potato, mustard, vinegar. We sat in the harbor to 28 of April 1864.  There was 973 emigrants on board and had plenty rum.  We was pulled out of the harbor by a steamer into the open sea.  There was 2 man that jumped overboard, and was drown.  Rummer said they was robbers.  There was search for outlaws on the ship.  There was 44 children & 1 grown person that died.  One day dead 5 children, on the sea 14 couple was married, there was fire on the ship three times, and one night we was drove 300 miles back in a terrible wind ellers we had a pleasant trip (I got fat).  Come to New York June 3 1864, come on a steamboat "St. Joseph" (we went to Castle Garden where our name was taken) and that took us to Albany New York the 4 of June to Buffalo, changed cars and then was taken over a river imellen [UNCLEAR] Lake Ontario and Erie.  Come to Detroit the 6.  Was fire in a baggage car and burned lot of our baggage.  Not much 7, come to Chicago, laid there in a puchus [UNCLEAR] till the 8 then to Quincy.  Got over the Mississippi River to an grove of trees and laid there to the 11 of June 64.  (All the cars was in the South with the soldiers) Then to Palmyra, we saw 1000 of soldier.  They tore the track.  Then to St. Joseph on the 12 low.  There till the 14 of June 64 (there come Joseph Sharp and Patriarch John Smith and I.  And 21 more of Danish emigrants was hired to drive oxen for 25 dollar a month. . . . [p.23]

   . . .Over 200 oxen died and on South Pass. Laid we for 3 days without food, then come 50 yoke from Salt Lake and flour so we could move wagon to Salt Lake City the 6 of October 1864. . . . [p.25]

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Reminiscences of Martha Olson Sprague
Sprague, Martha Olson, [Reminiscences], "Utah Pioneer Biographies,"  vol. 27,  pp.51- 52. 

   . . . My father was Gustav Olson and my mother was Johanna Anderson Olson.  I was born March 16, 1854 in Sventorp, Sweden,  My father was a farmer there.  My parents were converted to the Latter-day Saint church about 1860.   Father served as president of that part of the mission field until 1864.  Mobs persecuted us and finally we decided to leave.

   On April 4, 1864, we left Sventorp.  Then we went to Akovee, next to Gottenberg, then Copenhagen.  From there we sailed across the Baltic to Subeck, Germany.  Then we took the train to Hamburg, Germany and sailed there to England.  Crossing the North Sea, many passengers were sick.  We landed at Grimsby and stayed there eight days.

   On April 21 we arrived in Liverpool and on April 28, we embarked on the Ship Monarch [of the Sea] with 973 Latter-day Saint converts under the direction of Patriarch John Smith.

   On May 10 a terrible storm arose and my father tied me to a timber with a rope to keep me from being hurled about by  the pitching of the ship.  An old uncle of mine had a big kettle of peas which he had cooked.  He sat down to enjoy the dish.  The next thing I saw was the old man sliding back and forth under his berth in these peas. [p.51]

   We reached New York safely June 3.  We took the train out to the little town of Wyoming, Nebraska about 7 miles north of Nebraska City.  There we outfitted, meanwhile camping in the brush for three weeks in hot weather waiting for the church teams to come and meet us.

   The ground was so hot it burned our feet.  About 170 teams were sent from Utah that year to the Missouri River for the immigrants.  We started our trip across the plains July 1. . . .

   . . . We arrived in Salt Lake September 5, 1864, being five months and eleven days on the journey. . . . [p.52]

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Reminiscences of H. N. Hansen
An Account of a Mormon Family’s Conversion"
Hansen, H. N., "An Account of a Mormon Family’s Conversion to the Religion of the Latter-day Saints and their Trip from Denmark to Utah,"  Annals of Iowa 41:1 (Summer 1971) pp 712-26.

   . . . A short time after father was baptized I was baptized also and likewise my sister.  Father sold the home which consisted in a house on about three acres of land of a poor quality preparatory to our emigration. I was happy in what I considered the prospects before me, not only in the thoughts which my religion and hope in God now inspired, but the privilege of going to other parts on the world to see countries and people of whom I had read in school studies I considered a great treat.  I had then never seen a railroad train and the prospect of soon having many and long rides with the iron horse was to me something grand, especially did I think that a voyage across the Atlantic would be very enjoyable. I was looking on the bright side of all these things not considering as I then could not conceive of the hardships and trials encountered upon a journey of over six thousand miles in those days, and especially with the accommodations furnished the Mormon emigration.  I remember when the last [p.712] of the household goods was sold at auction a day or two before starting on our long journey to a land of which we knew nothing only as it had been represented to us by the Mormon elders, and the very day of starting was anxiously waited for by me. Let me here say that I believe that although the mission work in that land was by the Utah church under the presidency of Brigham Young that the gospel principle as preached was the truth and was confirmed by God’s Spirit to the satisfaction of upright men and women.  Polygamy at that time was not denied but was not mentioned by the elders unless brought up by others when they had to try to defend it.  When any claimed they could not believe, they were told: do not trouble yourself about it, it is a holy principle if you can not see into it now wait till you get to Zion, and all will come out right.  In this hope thousands have left all dear to them in this life only to meet with disappointment and regret after the sacrifice has been made, many to become so discouraged as to five up all hope to God and religion to plod along in darkness and infidelity with nothing in which to place confidence.  It was on the 10 day of April 1864 that we left what had been our home for the long and tedious journey not expecting to see relatives and friends again.  Though we left but few friends, our religion had made us contemptible and degraded in their eyes, this of course made the parting all the easier.  We had become strangers among our own people, and we were going now to gather with those who were one with us in faith and in spirit, and we cared not for the hatred of the world, nor even for those more merciful who looked upon us with pity.  We were carried by team from Storehedinge to Copenhagen from where we wailed in a few days by